1 And I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold [ hinei], there came 4 chariots [arbah merkavot] out from between 2 mountains [harim]; and the [harim] were [harim ] of brass [nechoshet].

Here is an amplification of the vision of the Two Olive Branches, or Anointed Ones that stand by the Ruler of all the earth. The reader will perceive that the Two Branches and the Four Chariots and their Horses, all relate to the same agents by comparing Zech. 4:14 with ch. 6:5.

In these places they are all said to "stand by the Ruler of all the earth." In both these chapters they are represented as symbols of Yahweh's Spirit. "These" the chariots and horses, said the angel,

"are the Four Spirits of the Heavens going forth from standing by the Ruler of all the earth."

In the first passage they are in the standing position; in the last, they are in motion from thence, on their appointed mission.

These four chariots are the cherubim of glory, which constitute the chariot of Yahweh. In speaking of the four-faced figures with wings outstretched over the Mercy Seat of the Ark in the most Holy Place, David styles them in 1 Chron. 33:18, "the Chariot of the cherubim."

The Spirit of Yahweh rested in the form of a cloud between and upon their wings, from the dedication of Solomon's temple until the Glory took its departure in the days of Ezekiel, and shortly before its destruction by the Chaldeans.

Alluding to this cherubic incumbency of the Spirit, David says in Ps. 80:1,

"O Shepherd of Israel inhabiting the cherubim shine forth. Before Ephraim and Benjamin and Manasseh arouse thy might, and come for salvation to us. O mighty Ones (Elohim) turn us, and cause to shine thy Faces, and we shall be saved."

The cherubim were the typical throne of Yahweh, before which the High Priest presented himself on the occasion of the annual covering of the sins of the nation.

In the first and tenth chapters of this prophecy, Ezekiel shows what they typify or represent. Let the reader peruse these chapters in connection with Apoc. 4: and 5., and he will find that the cherubim are representative of the Spirit corporealized and manifested in the Saints the Elohim of Israel-the One Eternal Spirit in multitudinous manifestation

"whithersoever the Spirit was to go they went;" "they ran and returned as a flash of flightning:" "and the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, as the voice of Mighty Ones in their going, the voice of speech, as the noise of a camp."

Zechariah's Four Chariots are identical with these. They represent the resurrected saints in the execution of the judgment written-Ps. 149.

There are "four" of them because there were four faces to the typical golden cherubim of the Ark of the covenant in the temple; and "four living creatures" in Ezekiel's vision; and "four living creatures" in the Apocalypse; and the reason why there are four and not three or five, is because of the military organization of Israel, the twelve tribes were set off into four camps; the Camp of Judah, the Camp of Reuben, the Camp of Ephraim, and the Camp of Dan.

The standard of Judah's camp or host, was a Lion; that of Reuben, a Man; that of Ephraim, an Ox; and that of Dan, an Eagle; and the faces of these four were united in the two Cherubim of the most Holy Place; and became the Elohim-Faces of the Eternal Spirit, self named Yahweh, which stood by the Ruler of all the earth, while he dwelt in them anterior to the Babylonian captivity.

Now as the Saints, without regard to the accident of their fleshly descent, are all Israelites by adoption through Christ, their organization is based on that of the twelve tribes; so that they came thereby to be represented by the Standard's of Israel's Camps.

In vision, the four camps of the Saints, constituting nevertheless one encampment, occupy the position of the four camps of Israel in the wilderness-Judah on the east side; Reuben on the south; Ephraim on the west; and Dan on the north. For this reason, Zechariah's Four Chariots are termed "the Four Winds" or Spirits "of the Heavens;" and in their New Jerusalem symbolization the Saints' city is said to be "four square."

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Oct 1858

Zechariah saw the four cherubic chariots going forth from between Two Mountains of Brass. This metal connects these mountains, or dominions, with the brazen part of Nebuchadnezzar's Image, the Body and Thighs, and with the "Claws of Brass" pertaining to the Fourth Beast; and the "Band of Iron and Brass" around the Stump of the Babylonian Tree.

The two mountains of brass and the two thighs of brass are identical; and represent the Greek Element of the "Great Mountain" that is to become a Plain before Zerubbabel, before the Two Anointed Ones, before the Four Chariots, and their horses, before Israel and the Saints.

In the days of Maccabees the two mountains were the Greek Kingdom of Egypt, and the Greek Kingdom of Syria, including Assyria and other adjacent countries; the former styled in Dan. 11., the King of the South; and the latter, the King of the North.

Now, though these countries are and will be in other hands than those of people purely and simply Greeks, they are nevertheless regarded in prophecy as the countries of the Brass Dominion; and so designated, as in the place before us.

At the epoch of the Four Chariots; that is, just before they are seen going forth, we learn from Daniel and Ezekiel, that there will be two antagonist dominions, the one occupying Egypt and the other Syria and the adjacent countries. The latter is the King of the North, existing on the political map in the time of the End; and called Gog by Ezekiel; the other the Kingdom of Egypt.

These two mountains of brass will be in a state of war before the going forth of the cherubic chariots; and as Daniel tells us the Egyptian province of the South Mountain of Brass will "not escape" subjection to the brass dominion of the North-"the land of Egypt shall not escape," 11:42.

This will be the relative position of the two mountains, with the Holy Land between them; the battle ground and bone of contention between the two powers, at the going forth of the chariots.

But we may remark here, that though the rulers of the two mountains, or the dominant race, will not be racially Greek, still the North Mountain of Brass will be Greek in its superstition, or state ecclesiasticism; and the South Mountain also Greek in the possession of the Greek islands of the Mediterranean and Egean Seas: being therefore, Hellenistic ecclesiastically or geographically, or both, they are dominions of brass, occupying, in relation to the Holy Land, the same political status as the two Kingdoms of the Ptolemies and Seleucidæ in the days of the Maccabees, or Era of the Asmoneans, 358 years after Zechariah saw the vision of the Chariots; and 167 years before the birth of Jesus Christ.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Oct 1858

2 In the first chariot were red horses; and in the second chariot black horses;

Zechariah's four chariots and horses,

...then, are the hosts or armies of Yahweh, from which in relation to mundane affairs, he derives to himself the the title "Yahweh of Hosts." There are four divisions of his chariot, according to the standards of the encampment, and answering to the wheels.

In "the war of the Great Day," the two Mountains of Brass will demand primary attention. The black horses are therefore sent forth into the north, and the white horses after them. The result of this invasion is the conquest of the north-of Assyria, and Persia, and Togarmah of the north quarters, and so forth.

And while this is going on, the spotted horses go forth to the invasion of Egypt, or the south country, as seen also by Habakkuk. When these horses have done their work in the north and in the south, the Two Mountains of Brass will have disappeared; and the prophecy of Isaiah in chap. 19:23-25, and of Mic. 5:5, 6, will be fulfilled.

The land of Israel will have been wrested from the Gentiles; and Assyria and Egypt, conquered and annexed to the New Kingdom of Israel; and their populations enlightened, healed and blessed in Abraham and his Seed, according to the gospel.

But besides the levelling of these two mountains, there will be much other work to be accomplished. Therefore the fleet horses sought permission to go forth wherever the enemy was in arms. They received authority to go.

Zechariah records, that they ran to and fro in the earth, but he does not tell us, against what powers they contended. His silence upon the point is interrupted by Jesus Christ, who revealed to John that they would march with Him against the Kingdoms of the West, Styled apocalyptically, "the Beast and the False Prophet," and "the Ten Horns."

Speaking of them he says in Apoc. 17:14,

"These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall conquer them; because he is Lord of lords, and King of kings; and they that are with him are called, and chosen and faithful."

When this war is finished, the kingdoms of the west will have been taken possession of by the Saints, as Daniel has foreshown, and then the apocalyptic acclamation will proclaim an existing situation of affairs; for "the Kingdoms of this World" will "have become Yahweh's and his Christ's"-ch. 11:15.

These "goings forth" of the horses will be terrible to the nations. The prophetic colours are indicative of this. The first of these four chariots of men is horsed with red. Red horses show that the period in which the chariots are manifested is a period of war. The red horses are not represented as going forth to any country.

The black, white, spotted, and strong or fleet, termed "bay" in the C. V., are seen by the prophet going forth; but not the red. The earth, or nations, are in the red condition at the time of the chariots issuing from between the Mountains of Brass. Peace has been taken from the earth, and men are earnestly engaged in killing one another immediately preceding the appearance of the chariots. This is expressed in Apoc. 11:18, by the phrase,

"the nations were enraged, and thy wrath came."

Hence there is no need of a special going forth to take away the peace of the world-If the world of nations were in a state of peace at Messiah's appearing, the prophet would have probably seen red horses going forth upon a special mission; but being in a state of war as the result of the operation of the policy of the Frog Power, the first horses seen to issue forth are the black.

This preadventual condition of the world is represented by "a man riding upon a red horse" in Zech. 1:8. Behind or after him, are the red [misprint - should read black], spotted, and white, "in the bottom," or between the two mountains, which go forth when the chariots appear. When all these have done their work, all the earth sitteth still, and is at rest"-the reign of peace begins.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Oct 1858


The appropriateness of "red" to represent an ensanguined condition of the nations will be seen from the following testimonies. In Psal. 68:23, the Spirit says,

"I will bring from Bashan, I will bring from the depths of the sea; so that thou shalt plunge thy foot in blood of enemies; the tongue of thy dogs (shall lap) from it."

And in Ps. 75:8,

"Elohim is Judge; he will throw down this, and he will exalt that: for there is a cup in the hand of Yahweh; and the wine is red; it is full of mixture; and he will pour out from it: all the wicked of the earth shall surely drink and wring out the dregs of it. But I will announce it at the Olahm; I will sing praise because of the Elohim of Jacob: and I will cut off all the horns of the wicked: the Horns of the Righteous One shall be exalted."

The Dialogue, also, between the prophet and the Messiah in Isai. 63., is intensely "red" in the color of the scene. The testimony may be presented in the following form:

Prophet. "Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Botsrah? This that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength?"

Messiah. "I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save."

Prophet. "Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winepress?"

Messiah. "I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled on my garments, and I will stain all my raiment: FOR the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.

And I looked and there was none to help; and I was amazed; and there was none to uphold; therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me: and my fury it upheld me. And I will tread down the peoples in my anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth."

But the most demonstrative testimony to this prophetic signification of "red" is found in Apoc. 6:4. It is there written,

"and there went forth another horse fiery-red; and to him who sat upon him it was given to take the peace from the earth, even that they might slay one another; and there was given unto him a great sword."

Here is represented a period of war in which much blood would be poured out. A red horse, a great red dragon, and a scarlet-coloured beast, all indicate that they belong to an ensanguined page of human history.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Oct 1858


The horses of the second chariot of Elohim were black. These go forth into the north country. To be the subject of injury, astonishment, and famine, from whatever cause, is represented in prophecy by black. This appears from Jer. 8:20, 21, as,

"The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved. For the hurt of the daughter of my people (Zion) am I hurt; I am black; astonishment hath taken hold of me."

And in ch. 14:1, as,

"The word of Yahweh that came to Jeremiah concerning the dearth. Judah mourneth, and the gates thereof languish; they are black unto the ground; and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up. And their nobles have sent their little ones to the waters; they came to the pits and found no water; they returned with their vessels empty; they were ashamed and confounded, and covered their heads. Because the ground was chapt, for there was no rain on the earth. The ploughmen were ashamed, they covered their heads. Yea, the hind also calved in the field, and forsook it, because there was no grass."

And in Lam. 5:10, he says,

"Our skin was black like an oven because of the terrible famine."

In Apoc. 6:5., a period of famine is symbolized by "a black horse" and a rider holding a pair of balances to weigh out at a high price wheat, barley, and wine.

Such are the calamities indicated by black, the symbol of mourning and woe to this day. Pestilence follows in the wake of famine. Hence the going forth of the black horses into the north country indicates the visitation of that ensanguined region with famine and pestilence, which will have their influence in bringing the peoples of that region to a right understanding of the Power they contend against.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Oct 1858

3 And in the third chariot white horses [merkavah hashlishit susim levanim]; and in the fourth chariot grisled and bay horses [merkavah harevi'it speckled, powerful susim].

Compare the horses of the Apocalypse. The White Horse (First Seal period) introduced a period of peace and prosperity with the reign of Nerva.


The black horses are followed by the chariot with white horses. This indicates the complete subjugation of all the Russias, Assyria, Togarmah, Persia, and so forth; for Zechariah was informed that the chariots that went forth northward

"had caused Yahweh's Spirit to rest in the north country."

Hence white indicates conquest ending in purity and peace-

"Blessed be Assyria the work of my hands."

This blessedness results from the combined operation of the black and white horses. The famine and pestilence are followed up by military campaigns in which the Saints ride forth conquering and to conquer. This career of a power is symbolized in Apoc. 6:2, as,

"I saw and behold a white horse, and he that is sitting upon him having a bow; and there was given to him a wreath of victory, and he went forth conquering, even that he might conquer."

Added to this, is the idea of purity, as the consequence of overcoming. This signification of white is very frequent in the Apocalypse. In the nineteenth chapter, Jesus and his Brethren are seen clothed in white, and sitting upon white horses, by which they are connected with the white horsed-chariot of Zechariah that goes forth to the conquest of the north.

"To him that overcometh I will give a white stone, and on the stone a new name engraved, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it-Apoc. 2:17, &c.; "they who have not defiled their garments, shall walk with me in white; for they are worthy. He that overcomes the same shall be clothed in white raiment," 3:4, 5; 6:11; 7:9, 13, 14.-"These are they which came out of great tribulation and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb."

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Oct 1858


The spotted horses of the fourth chariot go forth to Egypt, Arabia, and other districts of the south to work out the conquest and consequent blessedness of that region. The colour of these horses is a combination of the black and the white, being "grisled," or spotted.

What has been said, therefore, of the black and the white horses separately, may be said of these as a combination of the two. They effect in the south what the white and the black accomplish in the north; so that when their mission is complete, it will be said,

"Blessed be Egypt my people"-Isaiah 19:25.

The highway out of Egypt to Assyria will be perfected; and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians.

In the English version, the fourth chariot is to be horsed with "bay horses," as well as with spotted. But the original word does not indicate colour. It is mλξμα àmutzim, and signifies, active, fleet, or vigorous. This plural occurs in no other scripture than the two texts of Zechariah, where the C. V. has "bay." This is not then, a prophetic colour.

The horses of the fourth chariot were spotted and fleet. The two mountains of brass being levelled, the fourth chariot as "a flying eagle" (Apoc. 4:7) rushes forth upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west;" and spoils them, as they will then also spoil the children of the east-Isai. 11:14. They career to and fro through the earth; which, as the result of their labours, "sitteth still, and is at rest." Zech. 1:11.

Thus Yahweh having

"come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury and his rebuke with flames of fire: for by fire and by his sword will Yahweh plead with all flesh; and the slain of Yahweh shall be many"-Isai. 66:15, 16:

-this having come to pass according to the testimony of all the prophets, the Four Horns of the Gentiles will have been frayed by the Four Carpenters; and the Great Mountain, comprehensive of the Harlot of the Ephah and her house in the land of Shinar, and the two Mountains of Brass, will have become a plain before Zerubbabel and his chariot-hosts.

As the result of this terrible and glorious work of the Saints, Yahweh will be a wall of fire round about, and the glory in the midst of Jerusalem; and many nations shall be joined to the Lord, and shall be his people; and he shall inherit Judah his portion in the Holy Land, whose iniquity shall be entirely removed: the Head Stone shall be brought forth with acclamations; and, as The Branch grown up to David, he shall sit upon his throne and execute judgment and righteousness in the land; he shall build the temple of Yahweh: and he shall bear the glory, and sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne, after the order of Melchizedec-Zech. 1:21; 2:5, 11, 12; 3:9; 4:7; 6:12, 15; Jer. 33:15-18; Ps. 110:4.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Oct 1858

8 Then cried He upon me, and spake unto me, saying, Behold, these that go toward the north country [eretz tzafon] have quieted My spirit in the north country [ Ruach [HaKodesh] in the eretz tzafon].

One of the spirit-chariots was harnessed with black horses, and another of them with white. Their mission was "into the north country" -- north from Jerusalem. That country was to be plagued, therefore the black horses were sent thither first. While they were doing their work, the Lord's Spirit was in a state of unrest, actively inflicting judgment upon the workers of iniquity in the north country. But when they had been sufficiently plagued, the white horses were sent into the country after them -- "the white go forth after the black."

As the white drove through the land the black would retire; and the vision of the north country would be a spirit-chariot with white horses. What then would be the condition of that country so symbolized? The answer is, peace, prosperity, and plenty would be its condition; in other words, the Lord's Spirit having conquered, would be in a state of rest; his wrath against the people would have passed away, and public tranquility be restored



Heldai, Tobijah, Jedaiah

These names signify: "lasting, or durable," "Yah is good," and Yah knoweth."

...In the Septuagint Version, they have been incorporated into the text as common words,


'Take the things of the captivity from the chief men, and from the useful men of it and from them that have understood it: and thou shalt enter in that day into the house of Josias, the son of Sophomas, that came out of Babylon . . .

In this translation, Heldai is rendered as "chief men" Tobijah appears as "useful men" and Jedaiah as "understanding men". These names express the character of true Israelites. They are men taken out of the Gentiles, men who are useful in their labours for Yahweh, men who delight in His Word.

From such Zechariah accepted the gifts they had to offer.

The Christadelphian Expositor

12 And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh Yahweh [Tzva'os], saying, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of Yahweh:

12 And speak unto him, saying, Thus saith [Yahweh] Tzva'os: Hinei Ish, TZEMACH Shmo ; [Yehoshua is said to be the namesake of the coming Moshiach Ben Dovid; see Ezra 3:8 for the Aramaic translation of Yehoshua's name, Yeshua; see Jer 23:5; 30:9; 33:15; Ezra 3:8; Zech 3:8; Mt 2:23; Isa 4:2; 9:2-7; 11:1-12; 53:2, 11; Moshiach the new "Joshua" Isa 49:8].]; and out of his place yitzmach (he [Moshiach] shall sprout up, Yeshayah 53:2), and he shall build the Heikhal [Yahweh].

Here we have the name of the Temple builder. He is styled the Branch. But who among the posterity of Adam bears such a name ? Do we know ? Neither in Christendom nor Jewry is one who answers all the requirements of Him who is here styled " The Branch."

The Jews, while having hope in a future re-builder of Zion; while expecting great things from one who is to set up an ensign for the nations and assemble the outcasts of Israel,gathering together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth (Isa. xi. 2,3, 5, 12) ; while believing that a righteous ruler will come, and that in His day Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely (Jer. xxiii. 5-6), deny the Nazarene and forget that the accomplishment of these things must be by one who is first of all a sufferer and a sacrifice for sin.

" Christians," on the other hand, fail to recognise in the Lamb of God the Lion of the tribe of Judah-the King and Priest who shall reign over all the kingdoms of the earth, whereof

God has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead (Acts XVII. 31).

Oh, that there were with us a tongue of wisdom, to appeal with awakening power to the sons of men who see not the light shining from the prophetic page !

Bro Sulley

The Temple

While the foundations only of a temple existed in Jerusalem, Yahweh sent Zechariah to Joshua the son of Josedeck, the high priest, to say to him, that

"the man whose name is The Branch,"

which he had said should grow up unto David,

"should build the temple of Yahweh."

He emphasized this message, saying, "Even He shall build the temple of the Lord." He also gave him to know, that the sons of strangers from afar should come and assist in its erection; when the glory of Lebanon, the fir-tree, the pine-tree, and the box, together should be brought" to Jerusalem to beautify the place of the temple.—Zech. 6:12–15; Isai. 60:10, 13.—when the flocks of Kedar, and the rams of Nebaioth should also come up with acceptance on its altar, and the temple itself should be glorified with his glory.

When this should come to pass, Zechariah likewise testified that "The Branch" should bear the glory, and should sit and rule upon his throne; and be a priest upon his throne. Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah under the Persians, was at that time rebuilding the temple and finished it in the sixth year of Darius. But Zerubbabel, though a type of Messiah, who was then, so to speak, in his loins, was not named "The Branch;" nor did he ever sit and rule upon a throne, as king or priest; therefore the temple he finished was not the temple referred to.

The temple built by Zerubbabel was finally destroyed by the Romans; since which no temple has existed in Jerusalem. The Lord Jesus is admitted on all hands to be "the man whose name is the Branch;" but as yet he hath built no temple to the Lord. It is true, Christ's mystical body, the ecclesia, is styled

"a holy temple in the Lord, for a habitation of God through the Spirit."

He also called his natural body "the temple" which he would rebuild in three days; and in the Revelation, it is said, that

"the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of the New Jerusalem."

This is all admitted. But what is that temple, and who is the builder of it, even that which Ezekiel describes in his fortieth, forty-first, and forty-second chapters? No such temple, mystical or architectural, has ever existed in Jerusalem, or elsewhere, since men have dwelt upon the earth.

The building, in its Courts, and internal compartments, with its furniture, and ordinances, are different from the Tabernacle, and temple built by Solomon and Zerubbabel. It is a structure, then, hereafter to be erected in Jerusalem Restored, not in Jerusalem the New; and the builder of it is the Lord; for, he saith,

 "I will set my temple in the midst of Israel for evermore"

—He will set it there by "The Branch," whom he hath appointed to build it.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Sept 1851

13 Even He shall build the temple [Heikhal] of Yahweh; and he shall bear the glory [carry hod (majesty)], and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest [kohen [Tehillim 110:4] upon his throne [prince and priest]: and the counsel of peace [ atzat shalom] shall be between them both.

This is important to note. Peace will come by the combined exercise of kingly and priestly functions. The iron rule of Christ and his saints (Ps. 2:9; Rev. 2:26, 27), unless tempered by mercy, would bring destruction in the form of craven submission, neither of practical benefit to mankind nor honouring to God. Such servitude we see wherever Roman Catholicism, with the grinding superstition, reigns. The earth needs delivery from such oppression as this.

Truly nothing but an inflexible iron despotism will suffice to give deliverance and to keep in subjection the evil passions of mankind, but it must be inflexibility combined with kindness and love. There will be full scope for the manifestation of all this in the provision which Deity has made in the priesthood of the age to come.

The realisation of God's purpose in this particular begins with Jesus, concerning whom it is written, "thou art a priest for ever after the order (or pattern) of Melchizedek;" also, "There is one God and one Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus" (1 Tim. 2:5). So long, therefore, as sin exists upon the earth in any form there will be a mediator, and that mediator is Christ. No change can take place in the High Priest—the priesthood is His by divine decree (Heb. 7:21; Ps. 110:4).

Of Melchizedek we do not know much. The chief attributes of such a priest appear to be—

1st. Righteousness and peace (Heb. 7:2–11).

2nd. Eternal life (Heb. 7:16; 2:25).

These are pre-eminently the attributes of Jesus. He is called "Yahweh our righteousness" (Jer. 23:6); "The Prince of Peace" (Is. 9:6); and "The Word of Life" (1 John 1:1). Even Melchizedek is said to have been made "like the Son of God" (Heb. 7:3).

A High priest involves priests of a second degree, and if the attributes of the Melchizedekian (of whom Jesus is the high priest) are continuance, righteousness, and and peace, there will be many others besides he possessed of those attributes - Rev. 5: 9.

Bro Sulley

The Christadelphian, Jan 1889