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[Yehoshua 9 Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)]

1 And it came to pass, when all the kings [kol hamelachim] which were on this side Jordan [beyond the Yarden], in the hills [har], and in the valleys [Shefelah], and in all the coasts of the great sea [Yam Hagadol (the Mediterranean)] over against Lebanon [Levanon], the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, [ Chitti, and HaEmori, the Kena'ani, the Perizzi, the Chivi, and the Yevusi] heard thereof;

2 That they gathered themselves together, to fight with Joshua [Yehoshua] and with Israel [Yisroel], with one accord [with one peh (mouth, i.e., one accord).

The Canaanites Prepare for War (Vv.1-2)

A confrontation between the Israelites and the inhabitants on the west of Jordan was imminent. Having driven a wedge deep into the land towards the west, two further major military campaigns were before the Israelites: first, they would neutralise the power of the

peoples in the southern region, then they would march to meet the Canaanites in the north.

Israel's invasion of the land had been a whirlwind affair, from the time they had crossed Jordan. It is not difficult to imagine the fear and political chaos which would have been created "from Dan to Beersheba".

During this brief but hectic interlude "all the kings'' of the southern region had not been inactive. They had been feverishly conniving to make mutual alliances in preparation for warfare with the Israelites.

Those who dwelt "in the hills" and in the "lowlands" (J.B.) became confederated in a defence pact. There was no avoiding the inevitable: the Israelites had to be faced and fought. Hence these Canaanites "formed an alliance to fight together against Joshua and Israel" (J.B.).

Their union caused them to come together with "one mouth" (see marg.). This does not mean that they spoke the same language, but that they were united against a common enemy, and spoke the same things against Israel. This is, and always has been, a basis for unity among Gentiles: a mutual hatred of Israel.

Constantly throughout the book of Joshua the Canaanitish nations typify the Gentile powers which will arraign themselves against the Greater Joshua, when he comes to lead his disciples and his nation into their inheritance (cp. Ps. 2, etc.). *

Bro John Ullman - Joshua His Life and Times