1st. That when God in time past selected for himself a people, appointed the form of their government, and ordained their worship, he specially designed and caused to be constructed, first a tent, and then a Temple in connection with His people: the former to be used during their sojourn in the wilderness, and the latter when they were settled in the land of promise in peace.

2nd. That he designed and specified all the details of both structures : He provided the materials for their construction, and endowed those with wisdom who were to fashion the buildings to the pattern given.

3rd. That God has still a purpose with this people, viz., with the Israelitish nation, whom he watches and esteems as " the apple of his eye' He will restore them to the land of their fathers ; regenerate the land ; rebuild the city; re-organise the people as a nation, and make them the foremost people on the face of the earth. He will restore their worship : give them peace, and bestow blessing upon them far exceeding those received in the most palmy days of their existence.

4th. That all the nations of the earth will, concurrently with Israel, participate in the blessings of the age. All will rejoice in the glory of the new order of things, and every inhabitant of the earth, both Jew and Gentile, will obey the " law which goes forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

5th. That the law which goes forth from Zion, among other enactments, will require all the families of the earth to go up, from year to year, to worship the Lord of Hosts in Jerusalem. The logical deductions from these premises are as follows:-

a. That as God so minutely and so particularly specified the nature and construction of the Temple and Tabernacle in the day of small things, He would be sure to precisely and carefully specify the constructive character of the Temple of His glory.

b. That inasmuch as the Temple of God's people in the past was ordained for the use of a comparatively small number, and inasmuch as all the peoples of the earth are to worship at Jerusalem, we may expect to find in any prophecy exhibiting the future building, specifications of a vast structure equal to the necessities of the case.

c. Prima facie, then, we may reasonably expect that the hitherto obscure prophecy of Ezekiel does describe such a building ; and that it is a vast structure, with constructional features so minutely and clearly delineated by the prophet as to be capable of being reduced to paper, for the instruction and enlightenment of all whom it may concern.

These conclusions appear so obvious to the writer that he deems it unnecessary, and a waste of time, paper and ink, to discuss the suggestions made by some that Ezekiel only depicts a building 500 cubits square.

The Temple of the future age is to be " a house of prayer for all people."

Let the reader then open his mind to the bearing of the testimonies already laid before him. Let him be prepared to realize the stupendous character of the structure set forth in the Ezekiel measurements, and the abundant provision for universal worship foreshadowed by them.

1 Afterward he brought me to the temple [Heikhal], and measured the posts [jambs], six cubits broad on the one side, and six cubits broad on the other side, the breadth of the tabernacle [Ohel].

The word translated " tabernacle" is ohel. The revised version gives tent in this passage, and in every place (some 330 times) where the word occurs, with two exceptions. The word is derived from a verb meaning round, or ring shaped. Thus a circular ring of buildings forming the inner Temple surrounding the hill in the centre of the inner court may be said to mark or bound the breadth of the tent, i.e., the posts of a structure encircling a hill form the limit or boundary of that part of the house called the TENT.

Commentators have always been puzzled by the occurrence of the word ohel in this verse; but the difficulty disappears when we discover that the " Temple is one thing, and the " Tent " another, and that the temple posts touch up to and limit the extent of the tent.

The base of the tent would be the space circumscribed by a circle formed by the innermost posts of the Temple buildings. As to how such a large area could be called a tent must be left for detailed explanation when we come to consider other salient features of the " Most Holy". This feature is just mentioned here in order to give an indication of that all important element in the specification which is indicated by the word ohel.

Bro Sulley

on the one side, and on the other side

The most obvious interpretation of the specification is that there are posts of six cubits on each side of the Temple, one on this side and a similar post on the other side, i.e., the Temple itself comprises a building surrounding the central hill, having a double range of posts with intervening spaces filled by the structural arrangements specified further on in the chapter.

Letters M-M and N-N, Plate II. show the structure in block, Letters D-D1 on Plate IX. show posts "on this side and posts on that side " of the Temple structure.

This application of the phrase " on this side and that side " to each side of the Temple buildings is confirmed by the measurements of the porch, which are given in dual form, thus

The length of the porch is twenty cubits, and the breadth eleven cubits ; and by the steps whereby they went up to it: and pillars by the posts, one on this side, and another on that side. (ch 40: 49.)

In this verse after specifying the size of the porch on the inner side of the Temple, Ezekiel adds, " and by the steps whereby they went up to it," as much as to say,

" He measured the porch twenty cubits by eleven cubits, and also the porch where are the steps twenty cubits by eleven cubits"

Moreover, the statement " and by the steps " must refer to the other side of the building, because there is not any approach from the inner circle to the Temple by steps (see sub-Section VI., page 47).

Certain details of the inner house still further confirm this application of the terms of the specification. Ezekiel speaks of a " door " and " a place left " on each side (Chapter XLI. I I ) " one door towards the north and one door towards the south."

Now since there are doors on each side of the Temple, there must also be a porch on each side.

Bro Sulley

...The word " porch " is to be understood in its plural sense, specifying a continuous series of porches in juxtaposition and surrounding the house on every side, i.e., on both sides of the Temple all round the circle.

A A --Posts in the porches, supporting cherubim

BB and B1 B1-Posts of the porches "on this side" and "on that side".

CC - Gate.

DD and Dl. Dl- Posts of the Temple,

E E - Door of the Temple six cubits,

E1 E1- Door of the Temple seven cubits

ff and f1 f1 Posts of the door.

GG - Opening between the posts of the Temple.

H H --Temple or Great Hall,

gg ~Ribs of the Temple,

I I - Foundations for the ribs.

J J -Outside wall to the ribs.

K - Wall of the House.

P - Porch of the House on the inner side.

L L- Place left.

2 And the breadth of the door [ width of the Petach (Entrance)] was 10 cubits [20ft]; and the sides [ketefot (shoulders, sidewalls)]of the door were 5 cubits [10ft] on the one side, and 5 cubits [10ft] on the other side: and he measured the length [height] thereof, 40 cubits [80ft]: and the breadth, 20 cubits [40ft].

A porch must be roofed over and have containing structures of some kind. We have seen that the length of the porch is stated to be twenty cubits (Chapter XL. 48).

This measure coincides with the breadth of " the sides " to the porch.

...Since the length of the porch measured inwards from its outside face is twenty cubits, and the breadth of the sides (measured outward) is also twenty cubits, the length of the sides must be their altitude or height.

These " sides," whatever be their construction, appear to be the flanks of each porch, forming a division between one porch and the next all round the house. These containing

structures rising on either side of the entrances, five cubits or ten feet thick at their foundations; twenty cubits or forty feet wide and forty cubits or eighty feet high, would form an imposing buttress to the inner Temple buildings.

These buttresses seem not to be solid wings, because other features are specified for the

porch, viz., pillars and arabesques. Thus we read :

There are pillars by (or upon) the posts, one on this side, and another on that side. (Chap. XL. verse 49.) And there are narrow windows and palm trees on the one side and on the other side, on the sides of the porch, and upon the side chambers of the house. (Chap. XLI. 26.)

We met with the term " narrow windows " (hallonot atumot) in the first chapter, a constructional feature indicating some sort of arabesque or pierced work (see pp. 24-27, ante).

All these features, viz., pillars, palm trees, and arabesques, form part of the structure of the porches. Since the size of these pillars and arabesque work is not elsewhere given, they must be of suitable size so as to fit upon the foundation formed by the lower part of the sides, and the arabesques must be at least one cubit thick, probably much more than a cubit.

The " pillars " may be placed at either end of the foundation, i.e., one on the outside face and one on the inside face of the porch, and the space between filled with arabesques of considerable thickness. These ornamental sides, or buttresses, forming the wings of the porches, all round the house will give scope for exhibiting much beauty, variety and excellence in design beyond anything hitherto produced.

Bro Sulley

...the way into the Temple must be between these posts...

This measurement must not be confounded with the dimensions of the sides of the entrance mentioned in the same verse, which are shown to coincide with the sides

of the porch. The way in which this verse is punctuated is liable to confuse the sense. A comma should take the place of the full stop, and the capital A altered to suit makes all the difference to its meaning.

The sentence commencing with the words " The sides," etc., contains the statement that the measurer went inward after giving the dimensions of the sides. This statement indicates that he must have returned to the porch, in order to give the measure of its sides, before moving inward to give the size of the temple doors and their posts.

Moreover, verse 26 shows that the sides appertain to the porch, and not to the posts of the temple.

An interesting confirmation of this explanation appears when the dimension of the porch entrances and the Temple entrances are compared. This shows that the intercolumniation of the " sides " of the porches and the Temple posts are approximately the same ; that is

to say, we have the same distance from centre to centre of the posts of the Temple and from centre to centre of the flanks or sides of the porches :


1. Two half posts " TEMPLE " .. .. 6

Width of opening .. .. .. .. 10

Total .. 16

a. Two half posts "PORCH" 5

Width of porch 11

Total .. .. .. .. 16 cubits.

Thus the posts of the Temple and the pillars of the porch range with each other, and a line drawn through the axis of the one would pass through the centre of the other.

Bro Sulley

The temple visitors shown below entering and exiting the inner temple porches give scale - a magnificent structure wonderful and humbling to man, who in turn willingly and thankfully ascribes glory to Yahweh's name. 

3 Then went he inward [Penimah (the Innermost [Holy of Holies])], and measured the post of the door [jamb of the Petach], 2 cubits; and the door [Petach], 6 cubits; and the breadth of the door [Petach], 7 [sheva] cubits.

A door or doorway ten cubits [20 ft] wide with its posts of two cubits equals the larger measure of ten cubits given for the entrance between the posts of the Temple (vv. 1 and 2), thus :


Two posts of two cubits each .. .. 4

Door .. .. .. .. .. .. 6

Total .. .. .. .. .. 10 cubits.

The posts of the entrance, which must be distinguished from the posts of the temple, are shown adjoining the inner face of the posts of the Temple at f.f. Plate IX.: the doorway is marked E.E.

It will be seen that the dimensions of the doors, six cubits, with their posts and the posts of the Temple also coincide with the dimensions given for the porches, thus :


1. Two half pillars of the " TEMPLE " .. 6

Two posts of the opening, each two cubits ....4

The opening .. .. .. .. 6

16 cubits.

a. Two half pillars of the " PORCH 5

Two gates, each 3 cubits .. 6

Division between gates 5

16 cubits.

The relation of the porches of the temple, its entrances and its posts, will be the more readily perceived if Chapter XL. vv. 48 and 49, Chapter XLI. VV. 1-4, with slight emendations, and with reference letters corresponding with those upon Plate ix., are quoted in extenso :

He brought me to the porch of the house (P.P.), and measured the posts of the porch, five cubits on this side and five cubits on that side (B.B.), and the breadth of the gate three cubits on this side and three cubits on that side (C.C.) (Verse 48.)

The length of the porch is twenty cubits and the breadth eleven cubits (see dimensions 20 and 11 near to P.) and by the steps whereby they went up to it—and pillars by, or upon the posts, one on this side and another on that side. (B.B.) (Verse 49.)

Afterward he brought me to the Temple (H.H ), i.e., across the place left, and measured the posts, six cubits broad on the one side (O.D.) and six cubits broad on the other side (D.D.)— the breadth oj the tent. (Chap. XLI. verse 1.)

And the breadth of the entrance (R.v.) ten cubits (G.G.) and the sides of the entrance five cubits on this side (B.B.) and five cubits on that side (B.1B.1); and he measured the

length thereof forty cubits, and the breadth thereof twenty cubits (verse 2). See dimensions of 20 same width as the porch. The 40 cubits is applied vertically.

Then went he inward (or inside) and measured the post of the door two cubits (f.f), and the door (E.E.) six cubits, and the breadth of the door (E1.E1 ) seven cubits (verse 3).

So he measured the length thereof, twenty cubits, and the breadth twenty cubits, before the Temple ; and he said unto me,

" This is the Most Holy." (Verse 4.)

4 So he measured the length thereof, twenty cubits [40 ft]; and the breadth, twenty cubits, before the temple [Heikhal]: and he said unto me, This is the most holy place [Kodesh HaKodashim].

5 After he measured the wall [qir] of the house [Beis [HaMikdash]], six cubits [12 ft]; and the breadth of [every tzela] <Rib>, four cubits [8 ft], round about the house [Beis [HaMikdash] on every side.


The word here translated wall is qir. This word is employed to designate that which forms a side—the wall of a house—the side of a town wall. Qir is a word of doubtful origin. Fiirst derives it from qoor, to dig, cleave asunder, make deep. Thus in Ezekiel we read :

Behold a hole in the qir. . . . Son of man, dig now in the qir ; . . . . in the qir behold a door. (Chap. 8:. 7, 8.)

In Joshua II. 15, it occurs thus :

"Then she let them down by a cord through the window ; for her house was b'qir ha-ho-nta) on the side {qir) or depth of the wall".

This testimony shows that qir signifies a distinct feature in the wall, something different from an ordinary wall, feature which explains why the house of Rahab did not suffer destruction when the walls of Jericho fell. If the house was built upon a natural escarpment, aside or rampart, up to which the surrounding walls joined, the house would not be injured by the fall of the walls on either side thereof.

Sharp renders " Wall of the rampart " in the passage in Ezekiel which we are considering. A translation quite in harmony with the above citations, and with the position of the word qir in the text.

The height of this wall, six cubits, is mentioned (verse 5), but its thickness is not stated. This also may indicate that the wall referred to is a rampart, or raised foundation floor of the Temple. This wall, or rampart, is mentioned again in verse 20 as having upon it cherubim, a feature to be more fully considered presently. Thus we read :

Cherubims and palm trees are made on the wall qir of the Temple. (Verse 20.)

The suggested rampart, six cubits high, as indicated by the specification, would form a suitable foundation for the cherubim and palm trees superimposed thereon. Further, in the midst of an indictment of the House of Israel, a significant reference is made to a wall.Parenthetically this wall is said to form a division between Israel and Yahweh. Thus we read :

Son of man, the place of my Throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I shall abide in the midst of the Sons of Israel for the Age ; and no more shall the house of Israel defile my Holy Name, neither they nor their kings, by their whoredoms, and by the carcases of their kings in their death. (See mar. R.v.)

In their putting their thresholds with my threshold, and their door post by my door post, and there is a wall qir between me and them ; they have even defiled my Holy Name by their abominations that they have done, and I consumed them in mine anger. (Chap, XLIII. 7-8.)

The law pronounced in this verse enables us to fix the position of the wall referred to, and to show its identity with the qir or rampart specified for the inner house. A rampart twelve feet deep or high would form an impassable barrier between the circumference of the Most Holy in the centre of the Sanctuary and the inner Temple, which, as already indicated, is a range of buildings surrounding it.

It is necessary to distinguish carefully between this wall or rampart and another wall mentioned in connection with the arched vaulting of the Temple buildings, viz., the wall for the ribs.


The word hekal, translated Temple, involves the idea of capacity, and its general signification is any great and splendid edifice, palace, nave, or hall.

The " twenty cubits of breadth, and twenty cubits of length," which Ezekiel saw measured immediately after the doors of the Temple (verse 4) does not convey this idea, unless other features which imply a building of great extent are taken into consideration. These features are specified in verses 5, 6, 7 and 10 .

In these verses it will be. observed that the word rib is substituted for " side chamber." The primary meaning of the wordy tzelaa, translated "side chamber" in the A.V., is rib. Thus we read in Genesis 11. 22,

"And Yahweh Elohim formed the rib et-hatzelaa—Adam's rib—which he took out of the man, into a woman."

The word also stands for inanimate things which have some structural similarity to the sides or ribs of an animal. Thus we read,

" And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood, five for the boards of one side {tzelang) of the tabernacle," etc. (Exod. xxvi. 26-27.)

Now, the word may be applied to any rib-like structure, and by usage, to a recess or side chamber. Thus in 1 Kings VI. verses 15-16, the word in its plural form is translated boards, and in 1 Kings vi. 5, by the word chambers.

These illustrations serve to shew that " side chamber" is a derived, not a root meaning, therefore rib may be selected as the better rendering. The translation " side chamber " does not fit in with the context, or at least with any conceivable explanation of it. At every step, the translations of the A.V. involve difficulties.

We, therefore, cast aside a rendering which, to say the best of it, is but a secondary meaning, and adopt the primary meaning of the word, substituting the word rib in every case where the word " side chamber " appears in the A.V.

Exeter cathedral - example vaulting, possibly similar to the ribbed arabesques

6 And the Ribs were 3, one over another, and 30 in order; and they entered into the wall which was of the house for the Ribs round about, that they might have hold, but they had not hold in the wall of the house.

Immediately after giving the measure of the entrance doors of the Temple (verse 4), Ezekiel saw measured twenty cubits " of length and twenty cubits of breadth " before the Temple.

Since the ribs are in three ranks the measure of twenty cubits is repeated three times, from the posts of the temple—all round the house, i.e., arched ribs of twenty cubits span, or breadth, and twenty cubits of length, or height, resting upon their six cubit foundations, are repeated three times within (or rib to rib three. Verse 6.)

This measure of twenty cubits together with the thickness of the ribs fills up the internal space of the Temple between its outer posts (see Plate IX. g.g.g.) just as the nave and aisles form the main breadth of a cathedral. The dotted lines on plan indicate three ranges of arched ribs overhead extending inward from the entrances all round the house.

Now this twenty cubits from rib support to rib support is a transverse measure in relation to the range of buildings which surround the hill. That is to say, the measuring reed would be laid from the porch inward, in the same direction as the length of the porch for the " breadth " of twenty cubits, but the distance between the rib supports laterally all round the house is much less than twenty cubits, because the entrance to the ribs is from the place left [LL] Thus we read :

And the openings (doors) of the ribs are towards the place left, one opening towards the north and another opening towards the south, and the breadth of the place left (is) five cubits round about. (Verse 11.)

Bro Sulley


The place left and the "house" (baith) or place of the ribs are intimately related to each other, for the place left appears to unite the rib-work, or vaulted part, of the Temple with the porches on either side thereof (verse 6 and verses 9-11.)

It thus forms a part of the rib-work within the Temple, the outermost arches of the vaulting resting upon the posts of the Temple on either side of the building. Again, when the measure of the twenty cubit divisions and their five cubit containing walls is marked off from the circle, the remainder of the circle of building becomes " the place of the ribs within the Temple."

After describing the posts, entrances, and spaces between the ribs, the measuring angel observes, "This is the most holy place," and immediately afterwards gives the dimensions of the " wall of the house." This wall, then, is particularly related to the Most Holy.

The ribs are said to finish into " a five cubit wall without," and to be " holden of it."

...The thickness of the wall, which is for the ribs without, is five cubits [aprox 10'] ; and that which is left is the place of the ribs which are within. (Verse 9.) This wall into which the ribs enter, or " take hold," cannot run on either side of the Temple, because that is encircled by the '' place left," the posts thereof, and the " entrances." If a wall were built there, it would bar all access into the " place left."

It cannot be the wall of the house already referred to, and it must have specific relation to the rib-work, or vaulting. We learn from verse 6 that the Temple is divided into thirty sections or orders, and from verse 10 that " between the cellae " {Lish'kah) is a wideness of twenty cubits round about the house on every side. Thus we read :

And the ribs were in three (ranks) and thirty in order. (Verse 6.)

And between the cellae {Lish-kah) a breadth of twenty cubits round about the house on every side. Ά wall five cubits thick at the end of each section would form a suitable termination and support for the ribs of the house into which they would finish, or " take hold," and if the terminal walls of the cella were separated the one from the other by a space of twenty cubits they would be " without," or on the outside of the place of the ribs of the Temple.

The ribs would not " take hold" of the wall (rampart) of the Temple because they would be lifted up above the foundation platform resting upon the end walls and pillars above described. The extent of these terminal walls of the ribs is given in verse 12, thus :

And the building that was before the separate place at the end toward the west was seventy cubits broad ; and the wall of the building was five cubits thick round about, and the length thereof ninety cubits.

The range of building surrounding the inner circle in general terms is described as the chambers {lishkoth) of the Singers, and is divided into two sections for administrative purposes , this measure may apply to either section of the western side of the circle, or the end toward the west Since also seventy cubits is not sufficient to enclose the inner temple with its rib-like vaulting, the seventy cubits of breadth may define its height and the ninety cubits its length. A comparison of the dimensions of the inner Temple supports this way of applying the measurements, thus :


Width of place left (5 cubits) on each side of the Temple 10

Width of Temple post (6 cubits) on each side.. .. 12

Two pillars to carry central ribs, each 4 cubits .. 8

Three spaces, each 20 cubits, for the expanse of the ribs 60

Total 90

Since the terminal wall of the cella range of buildings, or half-circle, at its western end is ninety cubits, that must also be the length of the wall at the eastern end, and every intervening section (cellae) of this larger cella must have terminal walls of the same length.

These walls dividing the circular range of buildings into thirty sections, fifteen comprising the north cella and fifteen the south cella, are shown at L.L on Plate II.,and J.J on Plate IX.

7 And there was an enlarging, and a winding about still upward to the [tzela'ot] <Ribs>: for the winding about of the house went still upward round about the house [Beis [HaMikdash]: therefore the breadth of the house [Beis] was still upward, and so increased from the lowest chamber to the highest by the midst.

The RIBS of the specification appear to define a feature of great beauty, well-known in modern architecture. These ribs are said to have an enlarging and a winding about still upward, for the winding about of the house went still upwards round about the house ; therefore, the breadth of the house (baith or place of the ribs) is upward, and so increased from the lowest to the highest by the midst. (Verse 7.)

...Since these ribs are to be furnished with foliage the specification implies, not a groined vault but pierced bracketed ribs in the form of arabesques, as indicated on Plate X.

Transverse section of inner temple

8 I saw also the height of the house round about: the foundations of the Ribs, a full reed of six great cubits [12'] <to the juncture, (R.V. alternative leading, To the pining.) Presumably bracketed ribs, or cantilevers are intended because, according to verse 26, they are formed with arabesques.>

...Since these ribs are to be furnished with foliage the specification implies, not a groined vault but pierced bracketed ribs in the form of arabesques, as indicated on Plate X.

The ribs surrounding the house are said to have "foundations".

And I looked at the height of the house round about; the foundations of the ribs, a full reed of six cubits

Commenting on this verse Professor Evans says:—

"The word translated juncture, in the eighth verse, atz-tzila. The A.V. makes this noun qualify ammoth cubits, thereby darkening the sense. Atzila is a constructional term here. The noun is atz-tzil. The la at the end is what Hebraists call " locale." With the addition of this letter, the word becomes atz-tzi-la, "toward the juncture." In other words, to the juncture.

The rendering " to the juncture" may imply a series of six cubit pillars or posts, rising from the ground to the springing line, or juncture with the ribs and floors, thus forming a suitable foundation for the ribs.

Six cubit pillars would be sufficiently large to carry any intermediate floors and to support the ribs, which would form cross arches and groins.

Bro Sulley

11 And the doors of the side chambers were toward the place that was left [ left open in the precincts of the Temple ] [a space approx 10 ft between the porch and the Temple all round the house], one door toward the north, and another door toward the south: and the breadth of the place that was left was 5 cubits [10ft] round about.

THE PLACE LEFT [plate 9 L].

After receiving the measure of the porch (Chapter XL.verse 49) and before the posts of the Temple are measured, Ezekiel is conducted to the Temple :

He brought me to the Temple. (Chap. XLI. I.)

This statement indicates that although the porch is an adjunct of the Temple there is a space between it and the Temple. In the accompanying plan (Plate IX.) a space divides the porches from the inner Temple, called " the place left." The place left is mentioned three times in Chapter XLI. at verses 9, 10 and 11. The position of " the place left " is defined by verse 11 thus :

The doors of the " side chambers " are toward the place that is left, one door toward the north, and another door toward the south : and the breadth of the place left is five cubits round about.

Since the porches give access to the doors of the Temple, and to the entrances of its " side chambers," and these doors are toward " the place left," the place left must be between the porches and the posts of the Temple.

The measure of the place left is five cubits round about, i.e., all round the house. The expression " the place left " is peculiar, and may imply that a space of five cubits is left open in the precincts of the Temple and must be included in order to make up the full measure of the house.

This implication will become more apparent when the measurements of the Temple are considered later.

Bro Sulley

The word petah translated door in this verse does not necessarily imply anything more than an opening giving entrance into a building, as already noted.

As no measure is given for this opening, and the opening is from the place left, as also are the entrances into the Temple, we may infer that this opening to the ribs is the same measure as the entrances between the posts of the Temple. One passing into the Temple between those posts would pass under the arched ribwork overhead.

Since also the entrance to the Temple and the entrance to the ribs are both from the place left, the distance from centre to centre of the ribs must be the same as the inter columni alt on of the posts of the Temple, i.e., sixteen cubits all round the house, so the lines of the vaulting on plan aie shown as parallelograms, 22 cubits by 16 cubits on the inner side, expanding to 17 cubits on the outer side in correspondence with the axis of the posts of the Temple, representing the distances approximately from centre to centre of the rib supports.

In this delineation of the structure of the Temple the twenty cubits of breadth (verse 4) is taken to specify the span or breadth of the rib-work, and the twenty cubit measure of length before the Temple is applied to the elevation of the ribs, or to the height of the apex of the arched rib from the juncture of the ribs with their supports. (See Plate X.).

These pillars and ribs in three ranks (and probably in three or four storeys, see transverse section Plate X) must be a magnificent feature in the building, for the house appears to be one hundred cubits [approx 200 ft] high (verse 14).

12 Now the building [edifice] that was before the separate place at the end toward the west was 70 cubits broad [high]; and the wall of the building was 5 cubits thick round about, and the length thereof 90 cubits.

the building In this instance refers to the end-walls into which the ribs are attached (plate 9, "J" See vv. 6, 9.

"before the separate place" — The word "separate place" is the Heb. gizrah, "a figure as if cut out; an enclosure separated;" i.e., to be cut off. This refers to the portion of the inner court cut off by the circle when placed within the square.

The nations assemble in these areas to view the ceremony, and sacrifices upon the altar (plate 2, BBB)-

"toward the west" inner temple comprises two semicircles. Ezekiel is now describing the western side of the northern semicircle.

"wall of the building" — "building" is again the Hebrew binyan, an edifice. This edifice is referring to the cellae, which have a wall 5 cubits thick, the same end wall to which the ribs are attached.

Bro Stan Snow

13 So He [the angel] measured the house [Beis [HaMikdash], 100 cubits long; and the separate place [Gizrah] [an open area, comprising four triangular spaces, one in each corner of the inner court, cut off from the Most Holy in the centre] and the building [Binyan], with the walls thereof, 100 cubits long;

After describing the wall at the western end of the cella (verse 12), the dimension of the " house " and " separate place " is given in the next verse :

These dimensions immediately following the measurement of the wall on the west appear to relate to the western end of the cella (See letter I, Plates II. and III.), and the measurement repeated in verse 14 to the eastern end of the cella (See letter Η, Plates II. and III.), thus we read :

And the breadth of the face of the house, and of the separate place towards the east, an hundred cubits.

The height of these buildings appears to be one hundred cubits (or 200 feet) as indicated in verse 15, thus :

He measured the length of the building over against the separate place which is behind it, and the galleries on this side and that side, an hundred cubits.

The height of the "wall for the ribs " (verse 12) which divides the cellae into sections appears to fit this measure of one hundred cubits, thus : Cubits.

Platform 6

Wall into which the ribs finish . . . . 70

Rise of ribs .. .. . . . . . . 20

Thickness of ditto . . . . . . .. 4

100 cubits

The great height ot these buildings, two hundred feet, almost suggests that they contain more than one story. In the description of other features which follows,

verses 15 to 17, " galleries in three stories round about " are incidentally mentioned.

These galleries have already been referred to when describing the twenty cellae which are constructed between the separate place and the outer court. In this general description of galleried structures both in the outer and within the inner court a distinctive feature is

mentioned which can only apply to the suggested circular range of buildings surrounding the hill in the inner court, because their construction differs so much from the building in the outer court.

15 And he measured the length of the building over against the separate place which was behind it, and the galleries thereof on the one side and on the other side, an hundred cubits, with the inner temple, and the porches of the court;

Such covered walks may be described as THE PORCHES OF THE COURT (Chap. XLI. verse 15).

These deductions are summarised thus :

1. Each of the buildings which flank the two sides of the outer court is divided into "upper" and "lower" sections (verse 5).

2. The lower section of each cella is at least one storey high-probably two. (See verses 3 and 5.)

3. The upper section of the cella may contain a gallery in three tiers, and each platform receding from the one below. These " galleries " would face each other on either side of the outer court.

4. Before the cellae on each side of the outer court is a walk ten cubits inward, or broad-a way of one cubit, viz., a walk ten feet wide, and raised one cubit above the level of the court. This platform would extend the entire length of the court from end to end in front of thecellae, except where divided by the gates.

It should be noted that the " walk " is exactly the same width as the porch of the gate inside the court. This walk would be a continuation of the porches of the gate, and with them would form a continuous covered way on either side of the court.

This continuous portico would also form part of the lower cella, otherwise that cella could not be fifty cubits wide. (See Plate III.; letters ρ·ρ.ρ indicate the position of the walk, or the porches of the court; and letters N.O on Plate V. and letter Q Plate VII. indicate the position of the walk or terrace in front of the galleries.)

As we have seen, the outer court gates are shown " over against " each other, or vis-a-vis as we say, so are the cellae. The following figures show that this arrangement " fits " into the general plan, thus :

The gates measure fifty cubits from the entrance to the face of the porch within the outer court (ch. XL. 15) .. .. 50 cubits.

The porch and its posts equal ten cubits (verse 9) . . . . . . .. .. 10 "

Deducting this ten cubit measure we ascertain the length or width of the main building. . 40

Add width of outer court . . . . . . 100 "

Add width of inner range of buildings, the same as for the outer range . . .. 40 ,,

Total .. 180 cubits.


16 The door posts, and the narrow windows [chalonim][opening - lattice screens], and the galleries round about on their three stories [atikim balconies around on their three stories], over against the door [opposite the saf (threshold)], cieled with wood round about [paneled with etz all around], and from the ground up to the windows [chalonot][[opening], and the windows [chalonot][[opening] were covered [kasah] meaning to cover, to clothe.


The division of the inner Temple cellae into sections by twenty cubit openings described in verse 10 appears to be also parenthetically referred to at the end of verse 16. The sentence " the windows were covered " (literally, " the covered openings ") appears to refer to some other feature than those mentioned in the rest of the verse and in the verse which follows.

According to some translators the words are a parenthesis. The word translated " window" hallon) according to the context may be defined to mean " an opening."

Further, it may be noted that the word translated " covered" comes from a verb (kasah) meaning to cover, to clothe, and may be used to define a covering over a space, or expanse.

Now, the only openings besides the entrances and doorways to the central buildings which result from the measures given, are those spaces of twenty cubits which divide the two Temple cella into thirty sections all round the house, marked L.L.L. on the ground plan,

Plates II. and III.

The thirty cella of the circle building (fifteen of which, with their respective divisional walls and openings, form one cella), are marked M.M.M. and N.N.N. on the general ground plan (Plate II.).

The fifteen facing the north are bracketed together (M.M.M.) ; likewise the fifteen facing the south N.N.N.

Since the porches of the inner Temple buildings are to be clothed with luxurious foliage of some kind (see Chap. V. Section I.) it may be inferred that the openings dividing the Temple cellae will provide the necessary space for the production of this feature of the Temple.

The area enclosed within the circle building because of its use, is not suitable for such a purpose, neither does it appear probable that the area in the separate place will be available, because of the vast congregations which assemble there for worship (Chapter XLVI. 2, 3).

Further, we may infer that these spaces of 20 cubits will be utilized for a variety of purposes in connection with the Temple service even if they are not utilized to provide that glorious floral beauty mentioned by the prophet Isaiah :

The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place of my sanctuary; and I will make the place of my feet glorious. [Isaiah LX. 13.)

Narrow windows Heb. atam challown, perforated windows, i.e., lattice screens (cp. ch. 40:16, referring to the outer square temple). Here they are lattice screens, arabesque work, on the circular inner temple.

"ceiled" — The word "ceiled" is the Heb. shachiyph, from a root "to peel," i.e., a thin covering is implied.

"Wood" is the Heb. ets, "a tree." What we have here are thin trees or vines covering the lattice screens, with the emphasis upon "thin." It contrasts with the thick tree coverage in ch. 41:25 over the porch entrances. Brother Sulley's translation of ch. 41:16, 17, will assist:

"The inner temple, the porches of the court, the entrance spaces and the arabesques, the

galleries all round to the three of them before the entrance spaces are creepers all round about, and from the ground to the openings, even the covered openings, above that which is above the entrance, and to the inner house, and without and to the way all round about within and without, the full extent (is this) foliage."

"the windows were covered" — This describes the "covered openings" with foliage

all over them. Note here it is not atam challown, the perforated openings, but

challown, the openings that are covered with foliage.

These are the twenty Cubit spaces between the cellaeof the circular temple, dividing it into thirty segments (plate 2, LLL, also see plate 9). These openings provide the space for the trees and vines that grow up to adorn the circular temple.

Grape vines will abound, providing the wine described in Isa. 25:6, for

"in this mountain shall Yahweh of hosts make unto all people a feast of fat things... a feast of wines on the lees... of wines on the lees well refined."

Cedar, fir, pine and box trees will provide beauty and shade to glorify Yahweh's House (Isa. 60:13), the day when the earth yields her increase and all mankind will respond to the divine goodness (Psa. 67:4, 6).

Bro Stan Snow

Inner Temple: Thin tree foilage

The meaning of the specification is not far to seek when we consider the use and signification of the root words from which the term sh'ehiph 'ets is derived. The word sh'ehiph is derived from sh'haph, a verb not occurring in the Hebrew Bible, meaning to be thin, or to become thin. Taken in connection with 'ets which may be rendered either " wood " or " tree," according to the context, we get thin wood or thin trees, the latter being its primary meaning.

The word occurs here in the singular number, but taken as a noun of multitude may represent many trees. It is also a question whether sh'ehiph may not be considered an abstract noun expressive of the accomplishment of the affirmation contained in the verb root, which is to make thin, i.e., creepers, or a growth of thin trees.The words thus understood give a tangible idea of a covering to the house suitable for its different features, and for the purposes for which the building is to be used.

Seeing that the arabesques form so important a part of the building for which this sh'ehiph 'ets is specified—viz., to the porches, to the cellae and to the ribs of the house—creepers, or a thin growth of trees, will furnish beautiful shelter or covering for which the arabesques are pre-eminently suitable to carry aloft trees (living wood rather than cut timber or dead wood).

According to the kind of tree, and according to the density of the growth, would be the protection given. A roof absolutely impervious to rain might be so formed, or a delightful shady bower, in which the occupants would not be injured by hurtful gusts of wind, nor poisoned by vitiated air, nor overwhelmed with excessive heat from an eastern mid-day sun.

It will be shown further on that some parts of the house will be furnished with very thick or dense foliage.

Bro Henry Sulley

17 To that above [that which is above the entrance and above] to the inner house, and without, and [to ] the wall [all] round about within and without, by measure [the full extent (is this) foliage].

Here it should be noted that the words " by measures " occurring at the end of verse 17 do not correctly represent the original. There is no word for " by" in the text. The word middot

...seems to be that the whole extent of the house is covered by these growing trees, i.e., to its full measure. The word as thus understood gives point and meaning to the preceding verses, which may read thus :

The Inner Temple, the porches of the court, the entrance spaces, and the arabesques, the galleries, all round to the three of them, before the entrance spaces are creepers (i.e., thin tree foilage) all round about, and from the ground to the openings—even the covered openings— above that which is above the entrance and to the inner house, and without, and to the wall all round about, within and without, the full extent (is this) foliage.

That is to say, this thin foliage is to the full extent or the measure of the house. In support of this explanation we have the word used in a similar sense in Jeremiah, Chapter xxii. 14 :

" I will build me a wide house i.e., a house of " measures" or of wide extent. 

Now, extension is the root idea of the verb " to measure "—a measure being the " extent " of a thing. This idea conveyed to a plural noun becomes expressive of largeness and fulness, or the full extent.

That such is the idea of the Hebrew idiom under consideration is also shown by another instance in Numbers xiii. 32, where giants (see verse 33) are spoken of as " men of a great stature " or, literally, men of measures.

Bro Henry Sulley

18 And it [the Templewas made with cherubim and palm trees [keruvim and timorim], so that a palm tree was between a cherub and a cherub; and every cherub had two faces;

19 So that the face of a man [is] toward the palm tree on the one side, and the face of a young lion toward the palm tree on the other side: it was made through all the house round about.

20 From the ground unto above the door [Petach] were cherubim and palm trees made [ keruvim and timorim were carved], and on the wall of the temple [Heikhal].


These form an important feature in the inner Temple.  

From the ground unto above the entrance are cherubims and palm trees made, and (on) the wall of the Temple. The " palm trees," or columns, are marked Β on Plate IX. They stand in front of the main building to which, with their accompanying arabesques, they appear to form that delightful and necessary shelter mentioned in verse 26,.Chap. XLI.

The cherubim are shewn between the pillars of the entrances. A rampant or recumbent figure the full length of the porch, or proportionately spaced on a block of stone five cubits wide, dividing the steps of the entrances from each other, and similar figures between the porches on the other side, resting upon the wall, answers the terms of the specification exactly.

The head of each cherub would be near to the outside of the building on either side, and their hinder parts disposed inward as may be convenient. Each cherub having two faces—one would " face the palm tree on one side," and the other would face the palm tree also on the other side. Thus they are "upon the wall," and " to the entrances."

Cherubim ten feet wide and some twenty-four feet high, each having two faces, and upwards of eight hundred in number, planted in the porches all round the three mile circuit of the Temple, in combination with " the pillars by the posts," form an architectural display of imposing beauty. Whether we consider their size and number, or their physico-theological peculiarity, we are impressed with wonder at their place in the design—a place, in view of the premises, quite appropriate, and withal unique.

The spiritual significance of these figures may be anticipated. The lion face on the one side speaks of " the Lion of the tribe of Judah " ; and " the face of a young man " points to none other than to Him who is worthy to bear the title. The one who is

" The man of Yahweh's right hand" (Ps. LXXX. 17). "He is the branch springing out of Jesse's roots " (Isa. XI. 1), the " tree planted by rivers of water " (Ps. 1. 3 ; Jer. XVII. 7-8).

As the head of the spiritual house which He has builded (Heb. in. 3-6), He is fittingly honoured by representative imagery in the central portion of that house which is also built by Him. Every son of Adam " going up between the cherubim " would see on either hand a memorial of this exalted one ; now no longer rejected and despised of His people, but ruling in the midst of His enemies in power and great glory. (Ps. ex.; Matt. xxvi. 64.)

These figures would represent the triumph of God in the earth, and testify to the existence of a power who " beareth not the sword in vain "—" a terror to evil doers," but a blessing to those who do well (Romans 13. 1-4.)

To one pointing at those curious figures, and asking what they mean, the answer comes : They represent " the Lion of the tribe of Judah," the resurrected, wise, immortal King of Peace, through whom the Father shews to the nations the light of life, and who representatively and by descent is " the father " of the new and fruitful age now opening upon mankind (Isa. ix. 6.)

Bro Henry Sulley

21 The posts of the temple were squared, and the face of the sanctuary; the appearance of the one as the appearance of the other.

The fourth or western side of the sanctuary appears to be sufficiently specified in Chap. XLI. verse 21 :

The post of the Temple (is) square. The face of the sanctuary, the appearance of the one as the appearance ofthe other.

The latter part of this verse does not appear to be connected with the first part, although punctuated in the A.v. to give that appearance. To say the sanctuary looked like a square post would be meaningless and absurd !

To say the four sides of the sanctuary are alike gives a brief and sufficient description of the fourth or western side in a sentence. This appears to be the simple and obvious meaning of the description :

The face of the sanctuary ; the appearance of the one as the appearance of the other.

It must be remembered that " sanctuary " is one of those general terms used to describe the whole of the building seen by Ezekiel (see Chapters XLII. 20 ; XLIV. 5 ; XLV. 4, etc.).

The western side, then, appears to be like the others-with its cellae, its courts, its arches and its gates ; and fitly completes the square with its four angle towers. This western side is shown on Plate 2. G.G.

Bro Sulley 3.3.9.

22 The altar of wood was three cubits high, and the length thereof two cubits; and the corners thereof, and the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were of wood: and he said unto me, This is the table that is before Yahweh.

The altar of wood (is) three cubits high, and the length thereof two cubits ; from the turning thereof, and the length thereof (or base thereof) and the walls thereof (are) of wood. And he said unto me, This is the table that is before Yahweh 

"The altar of wood... This is the table that is before Yahweh" — The description of the table is given between the posts of verse 21, and the turning doors of verse 23. This would suggest that the table was seen nearby, in the "place left," on the inner side of the temple floor (see plate 9). Only two dimensions are given for this "table," corresponding to height and width.

The length of the table must therefore correspond to the circumference of the circle. Being described as a "table before Yahweh," defines its position in the presence of the most holy.

Only the "Sons of Zadok" class, the immortals, can approach this table (ch.44:16). "the corners" — Heb. maqtsoa, is translated "turning" in 2Chr. 26:9; Neh. 3:19, 20, 24, 25. This table must turn around the Most Holy, from the turning point from which the sacrifices ascend to the altar. The table may well be a moving conveyance, transporting the fat and blood (Eze. 44:15) around the circle to the altar steps or ascent, possibly driven by the waters from the altar.

— Stan Snow (to be continued).

This verse has been a great puzzle both to ancient and modern translators —and no wonder in view of the fact that only two measurements are given for the altar.

The absence of a third measure implies that its third dimension may be gathered from other points of the specification, and that in some way the two dimensions given will sufficiently define the position and use of this table, because a table requires three measurements for its delineation.

Then it should be noted that the table is said to be before the Lord, a relation which may enable us to define its position and use. A significant item in the specification is that the description of this table is sandwiched between the description of the cherubim and palm trees on the wall and doors of the sanctuary. This may imply that the table is either in the porch of the Temple or in " the place left".

This suggestion is confirmed by the statement that the altar table is " before the Lord". If constructed in " the place left" or in any convenient position in the inner porches of the

sanctuary, the table would be before, or in the presence of the Most Holy, and if before the Most Holy it must of necessity be before the Lord, because the LORD is to be manifested in the Most Holy.

The word translated "corners" is miktzoa) which in 2nd Chron. xxvi. 9, and Neh. in. 19, 20,

24, 25, is translated the turning, and might have been so rendered here had the translators been able to see in what way the table specified could be formed round the most Holy from the turning point.

The above premises lead to the suggestion that the altar of wood is a wooden structure extending from a turning point round the Most Holy. Since a " table " may be constructed three cubits high and two cubits wide all round the circle, its full extent will be the length

of the circle which is nowhere stated, but the measurement will be ascertainable from the diameter of the circle when the exact size of the cubit is made known. This will furnish a third dimension for its construction.

This altar table may carry or convey the sacrifices from the inner porches of the Temple to the turning point from which they ascend to the altar. The height of the structure is probably three ordinary cubits (not the cubit of a cubit and a hand breadth), that is, about

four feet six inches high and three feet wide.

If its base and its walls (or sides and base) are of wood, it may form a timber enclosure containing a floating conveyer round the circle of the Most Holy, or that part of it so required. It could be fitted with metal floats, probably of gold, suitable for holding the blood and the fat which is to be offered upon the altar.

From the place of ascent, i.e., from the turning point, on the eastern side of the circle a similar conveyer may transmit the offering to the altar, there to be consumed under the direction of the higher order of priests.

Truly this table is a very different structure from that which is usually called a table, but " walls " are not ordinarily associated with tables. This feature in the specification indicates an enclosed structure formed with sides for bearing or holding the articles put upon it and may be described as a table.

The fact that the structure may also be used as a means of conveying that which is placed upon it is not necessarily out of harmony with the use of the term.

The great cost of the arrangement will not militate against its adoption, for we are told that :

The wealth of the nations shall come to Jerusalem . .her gates also shall be open continually . . . that men may bring unto her the wealth of the nations. (Isa. LX. 5, 11.)

Again it is written that when the glory of the Lord is risen upon Israel :

For brass he will bring gold, and for iron he will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron, (ibid v. 17.)

And yet again it is written that :

When the nations go up from year to year to Jerusalem, to worship the King, the Lord of Hosts, the wealth of the nations shall be gathered together, gold and silver, in great abundance. . . . And in that day the pots in the Lord's house shall be like the bowls before the altar. Yea, every pot in Jerusalem shall be holy, and all that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein. (Zech. xiv.14, 16, 20-21.)

Since the sacrificial bowls in the Tabernacle and the Temple were of gold, those in the Temple of the future are sure to be formed of the same precious metal.

Bro Henry Sulley

25 And there were made on them, on the doors of the temple, cherubim and palm trees, [And to the doors of the Temple are made cherubim and palm trees] like as [ are ] made upon the walls; and there were thick planks [arboreal shade (is) ] upon the face of the porch without.

Arboreal Shade

The difficulty partly arises from giving the secondary meaning to the word ets in verse 25, instead of its primary meaning "tree." Reading thick trees, instead of thick planks or beams, we approach an explanation in harmony with the demonstrated character of the house already laid before the reader.

A thick growth of tree (i.e., a thick covering of creepers up the sides of the porch, and on

its face, would be quite in harmony with that thinner growth which is specified to the rest of the house. Still, one cannot avoid the thought, that the difference of density of foliage in different parts of the house is not sufficient explanation of the specification. Something

else appears to underlie the testimony.

This deeper meaning must be connected with the words ab and 'abbim which are used with the word ets or tree.

... ...it seems that ab(singular) and abbim (plural) mean darkness, chiefly of clouds ; and the words may be taken to express the attributes which clouds possess, as rendered by such words as " covert " or " shade " illustrated in Exodus, where it is said that Deity was veiled by a dark cloud. Thus we read :

I will come unto thee in a thick cloud

literally, in the thickness of a cloud. (Exod. XIX: 9.) See also Isaiah XLIV. 22, etc. From these testimonies it appears that ab is used to define an effect or attribute produced by the concentration of vapour. The object in the case of Moses was the providing of a protecting shade-cover from the angel of Yahweh's presence. But a similar effect may be produced by other than atmospheric elements.

Further, the idea of a thick protecting shade, or shadow, expressed by the word ab may be

qualified by a noun, sometimes called an abstract noun, which is capable of being expressed in plural form. In this way the word abbim may be understood to convey, in the plural number, the idea or attribute expressed by the other two words, ab "covert"

or " shade" and ets, " tree," thus defining a similar condition produced by the foliage of trees which obtained when the angel of Yahweh's presence was veiled in

the thickness of a cloud.

A cognate idea is conveyed by our English words " thicket " or " covert," but neither

of these words are suitable for a translation here. The former is associated with jungle, and the latter with kindred expressions conveying the idea of impenetrable shelters for game.

In this case it is an arboreous shield and shade furnished by luxurious and intertwining foliage sprea ling over the buildings. It must be the dual attribute—shading and protecting by a growth of trees—that is to be understood by the word abbim , an idea well expressed by the term beshades, or arboreal shades.

Freely translating we may say, the building is to be furnished with coverts of foliage., i.e., shades—arboreal shades—are provided to the sides of the porch, its face, and to the arches of the house.

... we have the idea " covering of trees to the face of the porch," or, as expressed in good English, " foliage covered the face of the porch and the ribs of the house, etc."

...second we have the idea of " darkness " or " shade " which also conveys the idea of protection. Literally, the words translated " thick planks " should be thickness of trees, but the one would be almost as incongruous as the other—in a porch or on its face.

The attribute of a dark shadow produced by growing trees or foliage appears to be the correct idea to be gathered from the text.

By this provision a perfect protection is afforded from the heat of an eastern mid-day sun, or from the dangerous effects of unveiled glory. Such a protecting foliage would excel in beauty and utility any more solid material—in fact, such a bower would be an

enchanting palace of repose, and a shelter eminently fitted for the purposes in view.

Verses 25 and 26, therefore, should read :

And to the doors of the Temple are made cherubim and palm trees, like as are made upon the walls, and arboreal shade (is) upon the face ot the porch without. And to the arabesques and palm trees, on the one side and the other side, on the sides of the porch, and to the ribs (or arches) of the house are beshades.

Bro Henry Sulley

26 And there were narrow windows [hallonot alumot] and palm trees on the one side and on the other side, on the sides of the porch, and upon the Ribs of the house, and thick planks.


As for the outer sanctuary so for the inner sanctuary " narrow windows" (hallonot alurnot) are specified in verse 16, i.e., arabesques, or fretted tracery...

The position of the arabesques is defined in verse 26...

There were " narrow windows " {) and palm trees on the one side and on the other side, on the sides of the porch, and upon the side chambers of the house, and thick planks.

These arabesques, or fretted tracery, connect the palm trees on the one side, and on the other side, to the sides of the porch and the ribs of the house. Plates III., IX.,and X. show two columns on each side of each porch and between the columns the arabesques.

Similar tracery in the form of diagonal and cross arched brackets appear to connect the ribs of the house together, thus forming a suitable framework for the roof covering and supports for the intervening floors, or the arched ribs may be filled in with arabesques after the form of " Fan Vaulting."

— Heb. atam challown, "perforated lattice." These are the arabesque screens which support the foliage over the circular temple building. The arabesque screens are also found in the outer square building — see note ch. 40:16.

"palm trees" — the palm-like pillars at the entrances to the circular temple,

similar to the pillars in the outer square building (ch. 40:16).

"the side chambers"— The circular temple rib work. See 41: 5, 7.

"thick planks" — This is a different Hebrew word from that in v. 25. Here the word is abbym, the plural form of ab found in v. 25. Ab means "shade," whereas abbym indicates heavy shade, which in the case of the circular temple, is found over the entrance porches in particular.

Bro Stan Snow

it is remarkable that well nigh 2 500 years have elapsed since this vision was given ; and yet none-no, not one-of the numerous students of the prophecy appear to have presented a clear exposition of it. The writer believes that this vision has been wrapped in mystery till " the time of the end " (Dan. xi. 40) and that now the time for the explanation of its mystery has come.

For in the time of the end, THE vision shall speak (Hab. 11.3). In presenting for consideration what may appear at first sight an impossible interpretation because of its vastness, he does so with a confidence springing from the feeling that as the promises concerning the Israelitish race and the return of Jesus the Christ are more generally

understood, this vision and its peculiar features will be more carefully studied, with the result that surprise will give way before the testimony, and conviction succeed doubt.

And if any difficulty in the vision be not now satisfactorily explained, sufficient will have been said to make the general bearing of the prophecy clear, and to lead up to a perfect understanding of it.

Bro Sulley 3.3.9.


The central building is massive in contraction, vast in extent, wonderful in design, and will give scope for beautiful and artistic workmanship. Architectural skill could not devise a more magnificent facade. Let the reader mentally visualize the structure, of which an attempt has been made on Plate XI to give a natural perspective.

Let him contemplate its pillars, colonnades, cherubim, and galleries—in total height two hundred jeet and adorned with sculptured figures, varied in aspect and expression, around the three mile circle. Even from a mental picture he may faintly realize why the Spirit should invite His backsliding people to inspect the pattern of the house, saying :

Son of man, show the house to the house of Israel, that they may be ashamed of their iniquities; and LET THEM MEASURE THE PATTERN. (Ezekiel XLIII. 10.)

Bro Sulley