The plagues of the vials exhibited in this chapter are separated by the thief-like advent of Christ. "Last plagues" imply others that are not the last. The former plagues precede the advent; and all developed after it are "the seven last plagues."

What extraordinary blindness to affirm that none of the vials are poured out till after Christ comes, while his coming is predicted under the sixth! This sixth-vial prophecy is subversive of the notion. The position it occupies as a speaking hieroglyphic shows, that five of the vials, and a considerable part of the sixth, were to be poured out before the advent. It is impossible therefore for the outpouring of all the vials to be delayed till that event.

When it takes place, then in giving judgment to the saints recently raised, judged, and chosen, as signified by the "golden girdles" and "pure and white linen," the golden vials are given to them; and they consummate in their seventh vial mission the work of the whole seven vials, which without their intervention would never ultimate in victory over the beast, his image, his mark, and the number of his name.

The Seventh Trumpet, or Third Woe, comprehending the Seven Vials, or Last Plagues, in which is filled up the wrath of the Deity.

Apoc. 11:14; 8:13; 16; 18; 19; 20:1,3.


The whole habitable of Daniel's four beasts

The events of this sixteenth chapter are participants with those of the thirteenth verse of chapter eleven. The woeful calamity last noted there is the Reign of Terror in which

"the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the Deity of the heaven".

The terror was preceded by the abolition of all titles of distinction; and by the conversion of the tenth kingdom of Babylon into the FRENCH DEMOCRATIC AND SOCIAL REPUBLIC. This was the "great earthquake," or political revolution, which made the earth to tremble 1260 years after the giving of the Saints into the hand of the ecclesiastical element of the Little Horn (Dan. 7:25), and the shocks and vibrations of which continued to be felt from A.D. 1790 to 1820, an "hour" of thirty years...

The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars - Rev 16 vials 1-5

To Napoleon, as the man of the earth and sword of the democracy, it was given to carry on the vengeance upon Daniel's fourth beast. He appears pre-eminent in the pouring out of the third vial upon

"the rivers and fountains of waters,"

which, under his hand, "became blood." His celebrated campaigns in the Alpine regions and plains of Italy, abounding in springs, lakes, and rivers, strikingly illustrate this vial of wrath.

The Austro-papal, or little horn, was the principal in the war with whom he had to contend. The "Italian fields" were the arena of the dreadful massacres of the witnesses by the "holy Roman" power, whose mercenaries on the same aceldama received blood to drink at Napoleon's hand. This righteous retribution is the subject of angelic celebration, saying,

"Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus. For they have shed the blood of saints, and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy."

To this, a voice is represented as issuing forth from the symbolical altar, responding in these words,

"Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments" (Rev. 16:5-7).

This vial began in 1796 with the war against Piedmont, and ended with the destruction of the little horn, or two-horned beast's, dominion over Italy; and with the establishment of the sovereignty of the military democracy of France.

But the vengeance of the "earth" upon the little horn did not stop here. They next proceeded to pour out God's wrath upon "the sun" of Roman Europe. They had eclipsed him in Italy; and their Corsican chieftain received imperial power, and in the exercise of it literally "scorched men with fire." Being now the sun of a great part of Europe he would tolerate no rival.

The house of Hapsburg still claimed to be the sun of the Roman world, which the head of the now imperial democracy resolved should not be. He therefore

"scorched men with great heat"

in his German wars. He executed all the wrath of the fourth vial upon the Austrian empire, till at length the time arrived to "fill the beast's kingdom with darkness."

This could only be accomplished by a total eclipse of the Roman sun. The fifth vial was, therefore, poured out upon the beast's throne. The vengeance was terrific. The people of the beast

"gnawed their tongues for pain. And blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, and repented not of their deeds."

The power of the little horn was "consumed," but not yet "destroyed to the end." The battle of Austerlitz in 1805 decided the fate of its dominion for a time. Francis of Austria still retained possession of his hereditary domain, which included Hungary and Bohemia; but "THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE," says Sir Walter Scott,

"having lasted full 1000 years, was declared to be no more, and of its ancient influence, the representation was to be sought for not at Vienna, but at Paris."


But the work was yet unfinished while the papal Jupiter remained temporal sovereign of Rome. Having to contend with the British Leopard in Spain, the beast and the image deemed it a favourable opportunity to break the yoke of their consumer. Napoleon had required the pope to declare war against England. But England was too good a friend to receive such treatment. He therefore refused; and replied to his demand by hurling the thunders of the Vatican at his head; while Austria energized by British gold, assembled 500,000 men for the war. This was in 1809.

In five days this mighty host was broken and dispersed. The battle of "Wagram reduced the little born once more to inactivity; and the Corsican avenger obtained leisure to extinguish the image of the beast.

By a decree dated from the palace of the little born at Schoenbrun he annexed the Ecclesiastical State to the kingdom of Italy; and by a second decree, dated at Vienna May 17, 1809, he suppressed the temporal sovereignty of the pope; incorporated Rome with the French empire; declared it to be his second city; appointed a committee of administration for its civil government; and settled a pension on the pope in his spiritual capacity: all of which came to pass exactly 1260 years from the capture of Rome by Totilla and his Goths.

Thus, by the power given to "the earth," the dominion of the ten-horned, and two-horned, Beasts and their Image, was completely taken away till the fall of their consumer. The kingdoms, or horns, of the Beast were all reduced to vassalage, while the imperial chief of the dernocracy created thrones, and made kings and princes of whomsoever he pleased. It was a glorious sight to the eye of faith to behold him and his democratic nobles with the Beast writhing at their feet. He claimed for his immediate liege subjects a population of 42,000,000 of souls; with Italy, Carniola, and the Illyrian provinces, as a portion of his personal empire. His authority was almost absolute in Switzerland.

He was lord of the confederation of the Rhine. The king of Naples was one of his generals; and the Peninsular seemed on the verge of final subjugation. Thus, an empire of 800,000 square miles, and containing a population of 85,000,000, in territory one fifth part, and in number of inhabitants one half, of United Europe, was either in quiet subjectlon to Napoleon's sceptre, or on the point, as was supposed, of becoming so.

But the time had not then arrived either for the final destruction of the Beast's dominion; or, for the saints to possess the kingdom for ever: nor, indeed, are the saints of tbe Median class the persons for whom everlasting dominion is intended. These are merely the consumers and tormentors of the fourth beast; and not

"the possessors of the kingdom under the whole heaven for ever, even for ever and ever."

This is reserved for the saints of the holy city, styled by Daniel, "the people of the saints."

It was necessary, therefore, to energize the prostrate Beasts, and to enable them once more to prevail against the saints, but not to kill them, as in 1685; for their agency was still needed for the perfecting of the plagues that yet remain to be executed for the tormenting of the Little Horn to the end.

To compass, this necessity, God had reserved powers on the east and west of Europe which had not been subdued. These were the great rival dominions of England and Russia. To the former had been assigned the pouring out the wrath of the second vial upon the sea.

England began her work in 1793, and, with little interruption, made the sea "as the blood of a dead man" for two and twenty years. The maritime parts of the Beast's dominion suffered the vengeance of her power; and so completely did she clear the sea of his ships of war and cornmerce, that it might be truly said of them

"every living soul in the sea died;"

and the waves were ruled by Britain's fleets alone.


In attacking Russia, the democracy exceeded the limits of its commission; for the Russian dominion is not yet of the ten-horned Beast of the sea, or two-horned Beast of the earth. While Russia, indeed, was combatting for the Beasts in Italy and Germany, her hosts were at length everywhere defeated; but when they stood upon their own soil God shielded them from the Avenger, whose strength was wasted by his frost and snow.

Repelled within the limits of Roman Europe, the power of Napoleon dried up more rapidly than it prevailed. By the armies of Russia on the east, and by those of England on the south, the Beasts were again enabled to stand. The Eagle fled before the Leopard and the Bear, who at length wrested from him the prey, and restored it to liberty and dominion, just 1260 years from the defeat and death of Teias, the last of the Gothic kings of Italy; and the defeat of the Franks and Allemanni there.

Thus far the seventh trumpet had sounded with terrible effect against the Greco-Roman dragon; which was plagued not only in Europe, but in Egypt and Syria. In 1815, peace was finally proclaimed ; the "holy alliance" formed; the "holy Roman empire" resuscitated; and the papal Jupiter re-instated on his throne; and the rest of Europe portioned out according to the interests of the old dynasties of the Beast, and the good pleasure of the Congress at Vienna.

But the Beast and his allies can settle nothing upon a permanent basis any more. "For ever" in its decrees, extends only to the end of the blasts of the seventh trumpet. The "holy alliance" was pledged to keep down the democracy, and to maintain the "order" in which the blasphemers of God's name, and the destroyers of the earth, delight. But after a few years God dissolved it like a thing of air.

Elpis Israel 3.3.

See Eureka 16 for detailed historical expositions of the Vials

1 And I heard a great voice [preparings for war] out of the <Nave> [our Lord has rule] saying to the 7 Angels [the Seven Spirits of the Deity operating instrumentally through "the Powers that be" (ordinarily styled "Providence") - One over France the other 6 throughout Europe - ], Go <forth> [1792] and pour out the vials of the wrath of <the Deity into> the earth.

A great voice

The Royalist declaration of Pilnitz against the French Assembly - A provocation to civil war

...when John "heard a great voice from the Nave" seventeen centuries before the beginning of the third woe, he heard an utterance symbolically prophetic of a declaration, proclamation, or manifesto, which should lead to the development of the events of the seven vials. The great voice he heard was evidently symbolical of this, because the words of the great voice were a command to the Seven Angels, and therefore to the Powers, to go forth and begin the work of pouring Out the wrath of the Deity into the earth.

That which was represented to John as issuing from the Nave, the Most Holy Lord Jesus Christ caused to issue from the Powers, and therefore from himself, in that great voice they unitedly proclaimed, and sent forth from PILLNITZ, July 27th, 1790.

This was coeval with the earliest shocks of the "great earthquake". The famous treaty of this date prepared for the invasion of France. The Powers regarded the cause of the French king, then threatened by the revolution, as their own.

In the declaration of Pilnitz, they required that he should be free to go wherever he pleased, that is, to join their standard; that he should be replaced on his throne, that the Assembly should be dissolved, and that the princes of the Holy Roman empire having possessions in Alsace, should be reestablished in their feudal rights. In case of refusal they menaced France with war, in which all the Powers would concur who had guaranteed the French monarchy.

This great voice only irritated the Assembly and people of France. They demanded by what right the princes of Europe combined to interfere in their government; by what right they gave orders to a great people, and imposed conditions upon it; and since the sovereigns appealed from them to force, they prepared themselves for resistance.

The frontiers were put in a state of defence, 100,000 of the national guards were levied, and they waited with assurance the attacks of the kings, well convinced that the French people, animated by the Spirit of the Revolution, "the Spirit of life from the Deity," and within their own frontiers, would be invincible.

Eureka 16.1.

The Emigration - French monarchists and papists

...The Emigration was styled "External France," and was formed in the Austrian Low Countries, and in the neighboring electorates. The Counter-Revolution was openly prepared at Brussels, at Worms, and at Coblentz, not only under the protection of Foreign Courts, but even with their assistance. This fact identifies "the emigration" with the operation of the "Great Voice;" through the emissaries of which in the interior of France, it was enabled to combat the Revolution in its camp, and to foment civil war.

In preparing the situation for the outpouring of the First Vial, there were the European Coalition of the diademed horns, the Kings of the Earth, and the Image of the Beast; together with the Emigrant Nobility and non-juring Priests beyond the frontiers: also the Revolution, with its priestly and royalist enemies within the country.

Eureka 16.1.

The seven angels- Elohim at work upon the prominent agitants

...the Seven Spirits on all the agents of the situation, on the Powers, the emigrants, the refractory priests, the French king, political parties in the Assembly, the clubs, and the populace, to bring on a crisis in which there would be found scope for the outpouring of wrath upon the worshippers of the Beast's Image, and upon the men who had the Beast's Sign.

Eureka 16.1.

Preparations for the pouring out of the first vial

The revolt of the disaffected popish faction occurred chiefly in the departments of Calvados, or Gevaudan, and of La Vendee. These provinces were not much disposed to welcome the Revolution, because the middle and more intelligent class was far from numerous there; and the populace, or ignorant multitude, were blindly devoted to the clergy and nobility, upon whom they depended.

Such a population as this had to be prepared, therefore, for a severe visitation of the wrath of the first vial. This preparation was effected by the opposing forces brought to bear upon them.

The Emigration without, and the refractory ecclesiastics within, operating upon a brutal and superstitious multitude, was perceived by the Legislative Assembly to be a danger for the Revolution, which required to be crushed out by the most vigorous appliances.

It decreed, that all Frenchmen assembled beyond the frontiers found to be embodied on Jan. 1, 1792, should be treated as conspirators, and become liable to the punishment of death, and confiscation of property for the benefit of the nation: while the refractory priests were commanded to take the oath of citizenship, under pain of being deprived of their pensions, and of being declared suspected of revolt against the law.

Eureka 16.1.

This question was determined April 20, 1792. Louis XVI, attended by all his ministers, presented himself before the Assembly on that day, and caused General Dumourier, then minister of war, to make report on the political situation of France. He concluded his recital of grievances by advising war against Austria.

The king then proposed a declaration of war, which was received by the National Assembly with a deep and silent emotion. After the king had retired, they determined to meet in the evening, when the war was resolved on almost unanimously. Thus was begun with the chief of the confederate powers, that war which lasted a quarter of a century, which confirmed the Revolution triumphantly, and which changed the whole face of Europe.

..."Go forth!" They issued "from the Nave," July 27, 1790; and reached the crisis predetermined, April20, 1792

Eureka 16.1.

2 And the first went <forth>, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there <ensued a grievous and malignant ulcer> upon the men <who have the sign> of the beast, and <who do homage to> his image.

The seven angels of v1 cooperated together in kindling the political ferment and uproar of the European populace, moving the political and ecclesiastical factions into position to make ready for the pouring out of the vials. The armies of Europe attempted to restore the French monarchy but under the direction of 'The convention' the French republic resisted successfully the foreign invaders and maintained their freedom from the Royal and papal oppressors albeit amid great bloodshed and chaos among the people.

The seven angels of v1 cooperated together in kindling the political ferment and uproar of the European populace, moving the political and ecclesiastical factions into position to make ready for the pouring out of the vials. The armies of Europe attempted to restore the French monarchy but under the direction of 'The convention' the French republic resisted successfully the foreign invaders and maintained their freedom from the Royal and papal oppressors albeit amid great bloodshed and chaos among the people.

He went forth

This first angel is the only one of the seven of whom it is individually testified that "he went forth". They all went forth together, and formed the situation.

They did not successively go forth from the Nave, when the time came for each to pour out. If they had, a distinct situation would have required to be created for each; whereas all seven being represented as going forth together, it was only necessary to say of the first "he went forth" as the co-operative work of the twenty-one months laid a foundation, broad and deep for the combined operation of the first five; and the successive out pouring of the sixth and seventh.

...As the first angel sounded his trumpet against the earth before it was planted with the modern kingdoms of Europe, or Ten Horns, to bring them into position as elements of the new papal constitution of the West (ch. 8:7); so the angel of the first vial pours out his portion of wrath upon the same arena considerably extended.

The men <who have the sign> of the beast

...upon the papal populations of Europe; and upon those of the same section of the Continent, who, although not constitutionally papal, are signed with the papal institutions of infant rhantism

... He begins with France, the Tenth of the Great City, as the most murderous of the horns in their co-operation with the Papacy in its wars against the witnesses and saints of Jesus. His visitations descended grievously upon all the departments of that country; but with the greatest intensity upon those sections of it, where their blood had been most abundantly shed.

France became an altar of sacrifice to which beasts were brought for slaughter that had devoured and oppressed the saints. The "great voice" brought them thither from all parts of "the Holy Roman Empire," and from Naples, Piedmont, Spain, Russia, and Prussia; in short, there remained no other states neutral than Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, and Turkey.

All these peoples, on hearing of the ignominious decapitation of Louis XVI., by the republicans, proceeded to the invasion of France with forces amounting to 355,000 horse and foot; by which they flattered themselves they would sweep the Revolution from "the earth;" and re-establish the old regime.

in the memorable campaign of 1793-'4, [the armies of the republic] carried the war into the territories of their invaders... they had killed 80,000 of their enemies, and taken 90,000 prisoners: and at length annexed Belgium and Holland to France.

Eureka 16.2.

A grievous and malignant ulcer

In the natural body, an ulcer is an open, running sore, resulting from local inflammation, or constitutional irritation, more or less intense. In its formation, it is attended with heat, redness, pain, and swelling, which result in a solution of the continuity of the part, or an open sore; which often, if malignant, eats away the flesh, and lays bare the bones.

Such is the figure used in the text illustative of the effect of the hot, fiery, painful, and swelling indignation of the Deity poured out from the vial of the first angel upon the men of the Body Politic, to which the Sign and Image of the Beast belong.

In the first epoch of the French Revolution, it became the subject of a high degree Of irritation, which progressed rapidly into an intense and burning inflammation, which ulcerously destroyed the organic constitution of the State.

No great popular revolution has ever been accomplished, nor ever will be, without the infliction of misery, and the commission of excess which makes humanity shudder.

...The epoch which followed is that in which the new order of things is discussed and established, and in which the Assembly, after having been destructive, became constituent. This assembly terminated its own existence, September 29, 1791. It accomplished in two years "the greatest revolution which a single generation of mankind ever witnessed".

In the midst of its labours it put down despotism and anarchy, by defeating the intrigues of the court, the high clergy, and nobility, and maintaining the subordination of the people. But its successors, the National Legislative Assembly, did not apply itself in the consolidation of the work already done; and the Revolution, which was Divinely commissioned to subvert the monarchy under its auspices entered upon its republican phase, in which the "grievous and-malignant ulcer" broke forth in all the hideousness of carnage and corruption.

...Under the National Constituent Assembly, the shocks of the "great earthquake" had abolished all privileged orders; declared the possessions of the Catholic Church national property, and sold it for the use of the State: abolished tithes; ordained the civil constitution of the clergy, by which they were made independent of the Pope, and dependent upon the State; and abolished all titles, armorial bearings, liveries, and orders of chivalry; so that vanity lost its privileges as power had already done.

These radical organic changes caused the high clergy to declare war against the Revolution; the nobility to emigrate; and foreign powers to abandon the struggle of kings against each other, and to begin, in alliance with the emigrant priests and nobility without, and the refractory ecclesiastics within, the struggle of kings with the awakening peoples of the world.

Eureka 16.2.

The despotism of the multitude under Danton, Robespierre, and Marat, under the name of the Republic of "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" - was now the Sovereign authority.

... At the suggestion of Danton, they took their great and last oath, that they would die or annihilate the tyrants. After this the tide of events began to turn in favour of the Convention, which soon became everywhere victorious.

The Committee of Public Safety, thinking, not without cause, that its enemies, although subdued, were not disposed to submission, adopted a terrible system of extermination, to prevent their recovering themselves. They sent twelve columns, known by the name of the Infernal Columns, to scour the country with fire and sword, to explore the woods, to carry off those who were collected together, and to spread terror throughout the Vendean country of the Image-worshippers of the Beast.

The Committee, now the great power in the republic, abandoned itself to the most terrible executions. Armies destroy only on the field of battle: it is a different thing with parties who, in violent situations, fearing that the struggle may be renewed even after victory, fortify themselves against new attempts by the most inexorable rigor.

By this they increased the grievousness and malignancy of the ulcer, from which the hemorrhage was copious and incessant. They established an entirely NEW ERA as compared with that founded on the legislation of Justinian.

In place of the Catholic calendar they substituted that of the republican, for the week of seven days, the decade of ten making every tenth day the day of rest, instead of Sunday. The New Era' was dated from Sept.22, 1792, the epoch of the foundation of the Republic.

The Catholic worship of the Beast's Image was abolished in 1793. Gobet, constitutional bishop of Paris, proceeded in full procession to the Convention, and declared that the religion he had taught so long was, in every respect, a piece of priest-craft, which had no foundation either in history or sacred truth.

The gold and silver plate of the Romish bazaars was seized; and the bazaars themselves, in most districts of France, were closed against priests and worshippers; the bells were broken and cast into cannon, and the whole ecclesiastical establishment worthily destroyed. Thus was righteously avenged upon

"the men who had the sign of the beast, and the worshippers of his image,"

the terrible cruelties and massacres of St. Bartholomew's and of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, inflicted by the kings of the House of Bourbon, and the priests of Rome.

The "grievous and malignant ulcer" was the Deity's way of doing justice to the slain. It was the first installment of wrath to be poured out upon the blasphemers of

"his name, and tabernacle, - them who dwell in the heaven".

It was a signal inception of the Third Woe, which awaits its consummation, when the Seventh Angel shall have ceased to sound.

Eureka 16.2.

The other 6 spirits of the Deity

The Seven Spirits of the Deity had all gone forth from the Nave on a mission of Divine wrath upon the inhabitants of the Apocalyptic earth (ch. 8:13). While the first angel was operating in France, the other six were not idle spectators of the flesh-devouring phenomena of the "grievous and malignant ulcer". Had the six been inoperative elsewhere, the other powers of the Great City would have left France to perish of the ulcer, while they maintained a strict neutrality, and confined themselves exclusively to their own internal affairs.

...the Seven Spirits of the Deity were all engaged with the several powers of the earth and habitable in preparing a situation, which in due time and order, would bring them all under the operation of the wrath decreed against them.

... the Seven Spirits were operating upon the British Power, and preparing it for the work of wrath upon the Apocalyptic sea; which, in this place, is representative of all the countries of "Babylon the Great" accessible to ships of war.

Eureka 16.3.

...there is a gradual harassing and punishing of all connected with the institution, extending over a considerable time, represented in another symbol under the figure of a woman being eaten and burnt by royal paramours. The vial under consideration has to do with the outpouring of the preliminary affliction. The date of its commencement coincides beautifully with the chronology of the case. It will be recollected that the name of blasphemy, after long germination was finally developed and established by the decree of the emperor Justinian, recognizing and confirming the claim of the bishop of Rome to be the head of all churches and spiritual lord of, mankind.

The date of this decree was A.D. 533, added to which, 1,260 years -- (the appointed period of its "power to make war") brings us to A.D. 1793, when all Europe was convulsed by the anti-Papal French Revolution, which developed that spirit of hostility -- private and public, religious and political -- to the Papal pretensions which has since steadily strengthened with the lapse of every year, till now the Church stands despoiled of her possessions throughout Europe, and its chief deprived of all power, and restricted to the Vatican as a private palace, which he calls his prison.

We have already had occasion to see why France should stand in the foreground in all that affects the Papacy. She has been in all her history the principal section of the Papal spiritual dominions. Her position in this respect is indicated by the official title which the head of the French State has held from the Pope -- the Eldest Son of the Church.

Other States hold other names from the same source. Thus, the Austrian emperor is "His Holy Apostolic Majesty"; the king of Spain, "His Most Christian Majesty"; the monarch of England, "Defender of the Faith"; etc.

These are imposing titles, but "The Eldest Son of the Church" points to the most important position in the Papal family; the eldest son is always an important member of any family.

To afflict the firstborn is to bring trouble in its most direct form, as in the last and worst of the plagues of Egypt. When therefore the time arrived to subject the worshippers of the beast to special judgment, we should on this principle expect to find France most intimately affected, and it was so.

She was not the Republican France of our day, but the priest-ridden, Pope-worshipping heretic-slaying country which befitted her position in the Papal family. At the close of the eighteenth century, events well answering to the infliction of "a noisome and grievous sore" -- or ulcerous sores -- on the worshippers of the beast, occurred in France. They filled Europe with dismay. They were truly dreadful, and without parallel in the history of the world.

They were the events that developed the First Napoleon, the especial tormentor of the men who worshipped the beast and his image. The people came into power for the first time in French history; they dethroned and imprisoned and finally murdered the king; they beheaded thousands of his sympathizers; they chased the aristocracy out of the country; they disestablished and disendowed the clerical orders; abolished all titles, pulled down monasteries, sold and divided the lands of the clergy and nobles, melted down church bells to make cannon balls, revolutionized the laws and institutions of the country, and generally made war against "the church" and its friends.

They even went so far as to suspend religion of every name, proclaiming God a myth, and futurity a dream. France became a slaughterhouse and her public life a "reign of terror." It was the most awful turmoil the world ever witnessed. More than a million beast-worshippers perished on the scaffold or on the field of civil carnage; and the survivors were brought under a tyranny as harsh and odious as ever flourished under despotism.

Life was deprived of its comfort, and society of its attractions; existence was barely durable. France for a long time was a pandemonium. The Papal interests were those that suffered everywhere. The convulsions in France vibrated throughout Europe, and everywhere carried injury and torment to the worshippers of the beast and his image.

The attempts of the European powers by military power to tranquillize France and restore the overthrown order of things, only aggravated the situation ten-fold. The armies of France, after long delays, were victorious at all points, and swept like a tornado over all the countries of Europe, extending everywhere the ravages of "the noisome and grievous sore" which fell with such severity on the worshippers of the beast and his image. Europe had no settled peace for twenty-five years after the outburst of the storm inaugurated by the first vial. The progress of the storm is marked and regulated by the succeeding vials.*

*13 Lectures on The Apocalypse.

3 And the 2nd angel poured out his vial <into> the sea [maritime war]; and it became as the blood of a <corpse> [Navies stagnant]: and every living soul died [severity of the conflict] in the sea [Britannia ruled the waves].

The pouring out of the vial into the sea, indicates that a maritime war would commence with the outpouring; and that, as the sea was to

"become blood as it were of a corpse,"

the war would be of unparalleled severity. To become blood as it were of a corpse, was also indicative that no hostile navies could ride the waves, except the ships of the power used as the agent of the Seven Spirits: That all naval life and activity would become stagnant, as the blood of a corpse, which is incapable of circulating, as during life, through the arterial and venous channels of the body.

All the war ships of the Great City found at sea would be destroyed by the potential minister of wrath; or compelled to take refuge beyond his reach, or to shut themselves up and not to venture out to sea. The ocean being thus cleared of the war ships belonging to the Powers of Babylon the Great, every sea-faring living soul was, to all intents and purposes of war, dead.

When "Britannia ruled the waves" there was no living soul afloat to fire a gun to her dismay. The French upon the land, and the British upon the sea, were the contemporary agents of the Seven Spirits for the tormentation of the worshippers of the Beast's Image in the second, third, fourth, and fifth vials of the sanguinary and scorching wrath of the avenger.

The portion of wrath committed to the Angel of the Sea began to be poured out in Holland on the landing of the British there, Feb. 26, 1793. It continued to pour concurrently with the third, fourth and fifth vials, for twenty years, with no intermission save the brief and deceptive peace of Amiens in 1802.

Eureka 16.3.

Thus the Seven Spirits of the Deity, ordinarily styled "Providence, operated upon parties in France and England for the development of the predetermined wrath of the Second Vial.

No doubt England and the Continental States would have escaped the awful castigation of the vials, if she had stood aloof; for without her subsidies of many millions sterling, they could not have equipped and brought their armies into the field, to have fought the battles of the third, fourth, and fifth vials, through which they were to drink blood, be terribly scorched with fire, and to gnaw their tongues for pain.

If she had stood aloof, the war and mercantile navies of Denmark, Holland, France, and Spain would not have been annihilated; she would not have lost her hundreds of thousands in the continental wars against the French and their allies; and she would not now be groaning under taxation, and a national debt that will never be paid.

But she could not stand aloof. Her inevitable de-stiny was to play the part in the terrible tragedy of the vials which the wisdom of Deity had assigned her, and for which she had been prepared. Nations cannot do what they please, any more than individuals.

The great manager of the world's theatre is the Lord Jesus Christ, whose dramatic program is the Apocalypse or Revelation given to him by the Father; the nations and powers are mere performers played off by him against one another for the denouement of the plot Divinely conceived. He creates war and makes peace; and without his permission "the powers that be" can do neither.

...In 1793, the greater part of the French fleet at Toulon was destroyed by Lord Hood; in June, 1794, followed Lord Howe's great victory over the French off Ushant; then the taking of Corsica, and nearly all the smaller Spanish and French West Indian Islands; after this, in 1795, Lord Bridport's naval victory, and the capture of the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch; likewise, Soon after, the capture of a French and Dutch fleet sent to retake it; then, in 1797, the victory over the Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent, and that off Camperdown over the Dutch; then, in succession, Lord Nelson's three great victories of the Nile in 1798, of Copenhagen in 1801, and of Trafalgar in 1805.

In this long naval war, extending from 1793 to 1815, it appears from James' Naval History that there were destroyed altogether near 200 ships of the line, between 300 and 400 frigates, and an almost incalculable number of smaller vessels of war and ships of commerce. As Dr. Keith remarks, the whole history of the world does not present such a period of naval war, destruction, and bloodshed. In the figurative language of the prophecy 

"the sea became blood as it were of a corpse".

It will be unnecessary for me to follow the British in their descents upon Holland, the maritime provinces of France and Italy; and their campaigns in Portugal, Spain, Belgium, and so forth.

Eureka 16.3.


"The second angel poured out his vial upon the sea, and it became as the blood of a dead man, and every living soul died in the sea."

The events of the first vial affected the land: the Roman habitable in its entire extent was afflicted, but the sea was to be brought under the operation -- yet not the sea as a physical element but as the basis of the maritime interests of nations, in which there is a mingling of both the literal and figurative, without causing confusion, however.

To stop trade by sea would be to inflict much suffering on those living on land. As the result of the vial, the sea was to become as "the blood of a dead man." The blood of a dead man is stagnant -- non-circulatory. The sea would be stopped as a medium of national-life circulation. What could have this effect? It could be effected miraculously in various ways, but the events foreshadowed in Apocalyptic symbolism were not to be miraculous events.

We must find the counterpart in natural events. Whatever difficulty, as a matter of speculation, we might have in finding an application for the second vial, it is ended when we ask if the sea was the scene of national events after the pouring out of the first vial.

You have all heard of British naval achievements. You have heard of Hood, Nelson, and other naval celebrities, who swept the fleets of all nations from the sea and laid the foundation of the national song that "Britannia rules the waves."

These traditions take us back to the time in question. Before the end of the last century, Britannia did not rule the waves. She was strong on the ocean, but not "Queen of the sea." She shared the strength of the sea with several European powers -- France, Holland, Portugal and Spain: but the events springing out of the French Revolution brought England to the first position.

These events comprised many bloody naval engagements (the battles of Trafalgar, the Nile, Aboukir, etc., etc.), in which England cleared the ocean of all rival fleets. During these operations, 200 ships of the line, appertaining to the beast-worshippers, between 300 and 400 frigates, and an incalculable number of smaller vessels, were destroyed, and countless multitudes of lives lost.

*13 Lectures on The Apocalypse

4 And the 3rd angel poured out his vial [The 10th of April, 1796, is the date of the commencement] <into> the rivers [Rhone, Rhine, Danube and Po - the great Napoleonic wars - sword of Yahweh avenging the European City of Babylon the Great], and fountains of waters [Italian penininsula and Austria] [Alpine regions (Melting snowcaps - streams converge upon the rivers]; and they became blood.

The arena of conflict was a country of mountains and rivers, inhabited by the posterity of thieves and murderers, whose crimes nothing could expiate but draughts of human gore. 

...... the rivers and lakes became blood by sanguinary conflicts in the field

...The judgments of this vial upon the Great City are parallel with those of the third trumpet upon the Catholic world, before the constitutional institution of the Papacy by Justinian.

The first four trumpets punished the Catholic west for its apostasy and crimes; the first five vials, the same region, for the sanguinary cruelty of its populations and rulers in their wars upon the saints and prophets of the Deity. Hence the parallel in the order and similitude of the judgments.

The 10th of April, 1796, is the date of the commencement of the outpouring of the wrath upon the fountains of waters. It is celebrated by the battle of Monte Notte, the first of the victories of Napoleon Buonaparte. When he joined the army of Italy before the battle, he addressed it, saying,

"Soldiers, you are hungry and naked. The republic owes you much, but she has not the means to acquit herself of her debts. The patience with which you support your hardships among these barren rocks is admirable, but it cannot procure you glory. I am come to lead you into the most fertile plains that the sun beholds. Rich provinces, opulent towns, all shall be at your disposal. Soldiers! with such a prospect before you, can you fail in courage and constancy?"

In consequence of this success, the French were placed on that side of the Alps which slopes towards Lombardy, and where the rivers from these mountains flow down to join the Po. Napoleon, who soon convinced the world that he was a Man of Destiny, by the victory of Monte Notte and its immediate consequences, opened a highway from France, through the kingdom of Sardinia, into the Austrian possessions in Italy.

The Austrian power was at that time the pillar and support of the temporal and spiritual power of the Pope in Italy the strong defence of the Papal States against the overwhelming inundation of the revolution, which in France had plucked up the Latin superstition by the roots.

The decree of the French Directory was on record for the total ruin of the Pope and of his power, both spiritual and temporal; but this feat could not be executed while the British ruled the sea; and her allies, the Austrians, occupied Lombardy; and their confederates the Italian Duchies, Venice and Naples.

These image-worshipping powers had therefore to be laid low in the dust, ere the Sans Culottes could reach the Pope...

The fifth vial could not be reached until the work to be done in the third and fourth was thoroughly performed. Napoleon Buonaparte, a youth of twenty-six, and a small and ill-appointed army of hungry Sans Culottes, constituted the contemptible force with which the Seven Spirits of Deity commenced the enterprise of cutting up the formidable, well-disciplined, numerous, and ably-commanded armies of the Beast; of scattering them like chaff before the tempest; and of rolling off his Image-protecting power beyond the passes of the Tyrol.

In the course of a brief campaign of scarcely a month, what history terms "fortune" placed "her favourite" in full possession of the desired road to Italy. He had gained three battles over vastly superior forces, who lost 25,000 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners; he had taken eighty pieces of cannon, and twenty-one stand of colours; reduced the Austrian army to inaction; and almost annihilated that of Sardinia; whose Savoyard King, one of the most distinguished in Europe, found himself at the feet of one, who for a time had power, in the emphatic phrase of Scripture,

"to bind kings with chains, and nobles with fetters of iron".

Eureka 16.4.

The French occupied Milan, which received them with great show of republican joy. This did not disarm the purpose of Buonaparte, who imposed a requisition of twenty millions of lives. All the public funds were turned into the French military chest; and the church plate experienced the same fate.

While Lombardy suffered much, the neighboring countries were not spared. Writing of this crisis, the historian remarks of these,

"the Italian states stood like a brotherhood of old trees, decayed at heart and root, but still making some show of branches and leaves, until the French invasion rushed down, like the whirlwind which lays them prostrate".

Before Buonaparte released his hold upon them he despoiled them all.

His headquarters, May 24, were at Lodi. He was soon informed that Pavia, with all the surrounding districts, in his rear, were in full insurrection. The Italians were disgusted at the spoliations of money and works of art, they had been subjected to; and with the open indignities thrown upon the places and objects of their superstition, as well as on the persons and character of their priests.

About thirty thousand insurgents were in arms. Buonaparte lost no time in giving them blood to drink. The village of Benasco was taken by storm, the inhabitants put to the sword, and the place plundered and burned. He blew open the gates of Pavia with his cannon, dispersed the insurgents, and put their leaders to death. He menaced with fire and sword, all who in future should become insurgent; a threat which he made good soon after upon the inhabitants of Lago, which was taken by storm, pillaged, burned, and the men put to the sword.

Eureka 16.4.

We are guided to the locality of this vial by asking, what part of the European earth has been most distinguished for the "shedding of the blood of saints and prophets"?

Whether we give the question an ancient or a modern application, the result is the same. Where was Peter crucified? Where was Paul beheaded? Where flourished the power that imbrued its hands in the blood of the witnesses everywhere? Where were whole heretical districts desolated by the Papal soldiery in the terrible scenes that drew from Milton his memorable lines on the slaughtered Albigenses.

All these questions lead us to the Italian Peninsula. Why should any part of this peninsula be described as "the rivers and fountains of waters"? It will be found that this is a very appropriate description, as distinguishing the region in question from the sea and the land. In the northern part of Italy, embracing the Alpine regions, the country is cut up and intersected with springs, rivers, fountains, and lakes, as no other part of Europe is.

It is a perfect network, as anyone may see who looks at a map of Northern Italy, Piedmont, and Switzerland. That this is the district upon which the vial was to operate is shown by the history of the case; for the next phase of the European turmoil, springing out of the French Revolution, shows us Napoleon I, in this very region, conducting several campaigns against both the Austrian and Italian upholders of the Papacy.

These campaigns were obstinate, prolonged, and bloody, and subjected the country of "the rivers and fountains of waters", to more than the usual calamities attendant on war. Read the history of these events, and you have the picture of whole districts desolated; pestilence following in the wake of famine, and decimating thousands of the non-combatant population.

The rigours of the times fell with especial severity on the aristocratic upholders of the beast and his image. They were made to disgorge their wealth, give up their pictures and ornaments, and submit to the spoliation on pain of death.

The common people were befriended, so far as the intention of the conqueror could be effected: it was the persecuting class, especially, that had the blood of the third vial given them to drink. If you are tempted to think it strange that retribution should fall at the end of the eighteenth century, for deeds performed in all the previous centuries by persons long dead, you must remember that those upon whom the retribution fell were the hearty supporters and endorsers of what had been done by their fathers.

It was a case similar to the generation of Israel contemporary with the Lord Jesus. Jesus told them that upon that generation would come all the righteous blood shed upon earth (Matt. 23:35), because they allowed the deeds of their fathers (Luke 11:48).

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

5 And I heard <from> the Angel of the waters say, Righteous, O Lord, < art thou, who art, and who wast and who art coming, > because thou hast <decreed these things>.

In my translation, I have restored the ho erchomenos to what, I conceive to be, its proper place. "He who is coming" is exceedingly appropriate in this fifth verse; inasmuch as the third vial, in the outpouring of its wrath, was a sign to those who witnessed its terrible judgments, that the coming, announced in the fifteenth verse, was steadily and surely approaching. The reader can therefore adopt my rendering, or that of the Common Version, which is essentially the same.

... the Apocalypse when given, was a prophecy of things afterwards to transpire, preparatory to, and introductory of, the thief like and glorious manifestation of Him "who is coming".

The Divine formula, therefore, where introduced, as much required the words "and who is coming," as the words "who is and who was," in order to keep constantly before the minds of "the servants of the Deity" in all intermediate ages and generations, the great truth, until it shall be verified in the visible apocalypse of ho erchomenos, THE COMING ONE.

In the times of the A.B.C. manuscripts (A. codex alexandrinus, B. codex vaticanus, C. codex ephraemi resciptus) , the appearing of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, was deemed a pestilent heresy by the party in place and power; who had no scruples about altering and omitting words and phrases, if it suited their purpose. This being the fact, the testimony of their manuscripts is questionable.

It is true, that in ch. 11:17, the omission would seem warranted by the reason given for thanksgiving - "because thou hast taken thy great power and reigned;" which implies, that the almighty Elohim had come, and that therefore, after this event, to affirm that he is coming, would be anachronistic and inappropriate.

This is true, still, for the reason given, I conclude, that the words were a part of the prophecy originally delivered to John, and ought not therefore to be omitted.

Eureka 16.4.

6 For they have <poured out> the blood of saints and prophets, and <to> them <thou hast given> blood to drink; for they are worthy.

7 And I heard < from> another out of the Altar say<ing, Yea, Ο Lord, the almighty Deity>, true and righteous are thy judgments.

8 And the 4th angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and < it> was given to him to scorch <the> men with fire.

The judgments or plagues of the Fourth Trumpet smote so as to darken a third part of the sun, moon and stars; so that for a third part of the day, and of the night, there was no light.

... the sun, moon and stars ... the Imperial Catholic Constitution of the Western Third of the Roman Empire; which was superseded in Rome, by the Seventh Head, or Gothic kingly form of government; after the fall of which, Rome's political day and night continued darkened two hundred and forty years, when it again shone forth imperially, as the capital of "THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE," founded by Charlemagne.

The crowning of this conqueror by the Pope in Rome "emperor of the West," terminated the Sun's ternary eclipse; dark spots have since crossed its disc, but with the exception of these, the Imperial Sun of the Two-Horned Beast's Image empire, has been subjected to no darkening, worthy of Apocalyptic notice, till the epoch of the fourth and fifth vials, which have special reference thereto.

The Sun, then, of the fourth vial is the Imperial and Regal Sovereignty of European Antichristendom. The Pope, the Emperor, and the Kings, are the official terms indicative of the Sun in its shining forth upon the nations.

...We shall find that this scorcher of men, was the same whom the Egyptian Mamelukes termed "the King of Fire". His theory was, that Providence was on the side of the heaviest artillery: this, however, depends upon its being "given to him" who scorches with it, to handle it judiciously. It was so given to Napoleon Buonaparte, who, until his mission was performed, surpassed all his contemporaries in the use of it. He was truly a scorcher of blasphemers with great heat.

Eureka 16.5.


Here our attention is directed to the sun. The sun of the European system we get to know the meaning of by the sixth seal, in which, you will recollect, the sun was turned into darkness. In that case we found the darkening of the sun to be the eclipse of the Pagan imperialism of the Roman Empire.

The emperor, as the embodiment of the power of the empire, was dethroned, and his office extinguished. In the fourth vial it is not the darkening, but a heating of the sun, that is before us. We must find the meaning in connection with some imperial luminary of the Roman system, just after the judgments of the third vial had exhausted themselves on "the rivers and fountains of waters".

That luminary we must find to be so acted upon as to give forth great and destructive heat. The history of the period exactly answers to the requirements of the prophecy.

It brings the Austrian Empire before us. You must remember that the position of Austria in those days was very different from what it is now. Before the wonderful Papal-destroying exploits of Napoleon I the Austrian emperor was emperor of Germany, the military head of the "Holy Roman Empire", the second horn of the two-horned (Pope and Emperor) beast of the earth.

He was the most considerable member, the overshadowing power of the European system. He was the sun of the system, whose light gave strength and cheer to those enjoying his patronage, and the withholding of whose rays caused darkness.

The pouring of the fourth vial upon this sun was effected by the victories and astounding pretensions of Napoleon, who, after the temporary settlement of the Italian campaigns, adopted an attitude towards the sovereigns of Europe that led Austria to put forth her whole strength in the vain attempt to crush the formidable enemy, which had sprung up in the presence of affrighted Europe, to the old order of things.

The result was a war of great severity, spread over the principal regions of middle Europe, and subjecting populations to a great -- a scorching -- heat of affliction. The occupations of peace were suspended; vast tracts were desolated; and countless thousands fell victims to the calamities of the times, which, however, as the sequel shows, did not have the effect of inducing enlightened repentance, but rather goaded men to give vent to their feelings in blasphemy.

Austria was overthrown; peace ensued for a season; and the way cleared for The Fifth vial.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

9 And <the> men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the Name of < the Deity who> hath power over these plagues: and they repented not to give <glory to him>.

From the Chief Sorcerer in Rome to the meanest poisoner among the western nations, this unrepentant state of mind is their characteristic. They still cling tenaciously to their superstitions, and are as murderously disposed towards all that oppose them as of old. On the side of the oppressor is power; and, wherever that power is, there are the priests, clergy, and ministers of the apostasy to be found sanctifying tyranny, and dividing with the plunderer the gains of extortion and the profits accruing from popular ignorance and folly.

Because as murderers, they have shed the blood of saints and prophets; blood has been given them to drink; they have been scorched with fire and have been made to gnaw their tongues with pain (xvi. 6,8,10). Yet "they repented not of their deeds." The judgments that have been poured out upon them, and which have ensanguined the page of history to this present, have failed to bring them to repentance. The things written on the outside of the scroll speak only of the fullness of wrath for such.

As they will not repent, utter destruction is written against them in their being made to "drink of the wine of the wrath of Deity, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation," and in being 

"tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb" (xiv. 10).

When this consummation shall have been developed, the saints' war, which pertains to the great and dreadful day of Yahweh (Apoc. xvi. 14; Joel ii. 31) will have expended itself in the conquest of the Ten Horns, or "kingdoms of the world" (Apoc. xi. 15; xvii. 14), the utter and fiery consumption of the ecclesiastical system of the Greco-Latin habitable (xviii. 4-8), the extinction of the beast and false prophet power in the lake of fire, and the binding of the Dragon in the bottomless abyss.

Eureka 5.2.2

The plagues of the vials exhibited in this chapter are separated by the thief-like advent of Christ. "Last plagues" imply others that are not the last. The former plagues precede the advent; and all developed after it are "the seven last plagues."

What extraordinary blindness to affirm that none of the vials are poured out till after Christ comes, while his coming is predicted under the sixth! This sixth-vial prophecy is subversive of the notion. The position it occupies as a speaking hieroglyphic shows, that five of the vials, and a considerable part of the sixth, were to be poured out before the advent. It is impossible therefore for the outpouring of all the vials to be delayed till that event.

When it takes place, then in giving judgment to the saints recently raised, judged, and chosen, as signified by the "golden girdles" and "pure and white linen," the golden vials are given to them; and they consummate in their seventh vial mission the work of the whole seven vials, which without their intervention would never ultimate in victory over the beast, his image, his mark, and the number of his name.

Eureka 12.2.

10 And the 5th angel poured out his vial upon the <throne > of the Beast; and < it was> his kingdom <which had been darkened> [but not destroyed - it lives on but not in the imperial sunshine]; and they <did gnaw> their tongues <from the anguish>.

At the crisis of the fifth vial, only one thing remained, for the complete darkening of the political organization of which this throne was the chief, and that was, the obliteration of it from among the kingdoms of the world. When this should be accomplished, there would then be no throne to shed forth the sunlight of its glory upon the kingdom of the Beast.

The Bourbon kings of France, and Spain; the kings of Portugal, of Naples, of Sardinia, of Italy, were all wiped out; and the Holy Romano-German empire dissolved. All these old things had passed away; and all things had become new; in relation to which, the Pontifical Throne was a deformity and a curse.

While therefore, the new things flourished in glory and power, this relic of an effete barbarism was decreed of Heaven to be wrathfully precipitated into darkness; and there to remain, until the reaction of unrepentant wickedness should cause its emergence from the shadow of death, in preparation for a second and final catastrophe at the hand of Christ and the Saints.

Eureka 16.7.

11 And blasphemed the <Deity> of <the> heaven because of their pains and their <ulcers>, and <they> repented not of their <works>.


The first question here is, where are we to find the seat of the beast? What beast is it? We read of the beast of the sea, the beast of the earth, and the image-beast: but it is not said on the seat of which the fifth vial was poured. No practical difficulty arises from this, because these various symbols are but historic aspects of the same power.

The beast of the sea with seven heads and ten horns shows us the Pope-headed system of nations established on the downfall of imperial Rome; the beast of the earth -- the political Papacy merged by agreement and concordat with the second imperial dynasty (horn) that sprung up in northern Europe, viz.: the German emperorship; and the image of the beast, the system resulting from the restoration of Rome, under the Popes, to the imperial position occupied by Rome under the emperors.

Now "the seat of the beast" in any of these phases would be Rome, apart from which the imperial tradition was not recognized. The Papal element of the beast was always the most considerable, as occupying the traditional seat of the empire besides putting forth special pretensions to authority. The imperial element enthroned at Vienna, was always to be considered as co-ordinate with the Pope, and therefore as seated with him on the seven hills.

The correctness of the view thus presented -- (that "the seat of the beast" is to be found in the actual Roman territories themselves) -- is proved by the fact that the chapter of European history next after the events of the fourth vial shows us the course of judgment directed against the Pope and his dominions.

After the overthrow of Austria, Napoleon directed his attention to the position of the Pope with a view of inducing him to accept his friendship and alliance in the re-settlement of Europe. Napoleon did not succeed in bringing the Pope to his views, and the result was the outbreak of war, in which by a curious combination of circumstances, the Pope was befriended by the anti-Papal powers, England, Prussia and others.

The Pope's friends were, however, of no use to him, for God was against him. The fifth vial was poured out upon his kingdom, and what could man avail to help? Napoleon raised an army which he hurried into Italy with his usual celerity and dash, and overthrew all the forces brought into the field against him.

Darkness immediately set in upon the seat of the beast. The Pope was taken prisoner, and brought to France. He was made to pay the expenses of the war. The Papal kingdom was extinguished: Rome degraded to the position of a second class city in the French empire, and offered the privilege of representing herself in the French legislative assembly in Paris by seven delegates.

The cardinals and friends of the Pope had a dreadful time of it. They were stripped of their wealth; the ecclesiastical property was taken from them: the churches given up to public use and even pillage. Symbolically, they gnawed their tongues for pain. . . .

After many a prolonged and determined effort to throw off the incubus of Napoleon, they accepted the situation and acquiesced in the extinction of the kingdom in which they had hitherto been the lights, but which was now full of darkness.

Afterwards, the darkness passed away, and there was a revival of the Papal kingdom, but the Papacy never recovered from the shattering effects of the judgments of the vials. It was a mere shadow of its former self; and finally the shadow disappeared with the full end of the 1,260 years in 1867-70, since which epoch, the Pope has been merely a bishop -- a false prophet -- and not a king.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

They blasphemed the Name of the Deity of the heaven

They gave expression to their blasphemy in their deeds. They committed the most blasphemous act against his Name in their power, in re-establishing upon the Seven Heads, or Mountains, "the Name of Blasphemy." They delivered the Pope from captivity; and restored to him his pontifical throne and kingdom, which had cost so much human blood and misery to darken. He had learned nothing, and forgotten nothing of his blasphemy.

In his proclamation from Cezena, May 5, 1814, a little before reentering Rome, he characterized himself and his office by the papal title of "the Vicar of the Deity upon earth". The acts following this re-assertion of the old impiety were in blasphemous harmony with it.

A few days after the proclamation, he crowned at Ancona, with all the sanctimoniousness of superstition, a "miraculous image of the Virgin," the duplicate of that at Rome, as the guardian and saviour of Ancona; and decreed its festival, and connected a plenary indulgence with its worship.

The Name of the Deity for salvation was superseded as of old, by the merits of the saints of the Romish calendar, and of the phantasm, styled by the worshippers of the image, "the Blessed Mary always a Virgin".

Bible Societies were special objects of papal wrath. They were declared to be tares in the midst of wheat, and wolves in the guise of lambs; while the scriptures themselves circulated by them, unaccompanied by Romish explanations, were denounced by Leo XII in 1824, as poisonous pastures, and the gospel rather of the devil than of the Deity.

And in 1825, he published a Bull of Jubilee, promising to exhibit Christ's cradle, as an attraction to the pilgrimage; and with authoritative instructions to the pilgrims to call upon the Virgin Mary, as the great advocate for sinners, on that day of grace and mercy.

"And they repented not of their works" - hou metanoesan, they changed not their old mode of thinking, feeling, and acting in regard to the worship and institutions of the Beast's Image.

The judgments of the Deity are intended to alienate men from their iniquities, and to incline them to better things; and when they come to be executed by the saints, the world will learn righteousness (Isa. 26:9): in the absence, however, of such righteous executors of wrath, there is no hope of the world's repentance, but it will go on to transgress more and more, till the cup of its iniquity overflows.

...the "pains" and "ulcers" which tormented the inhabitants of all the countries of Papal and Protestant Europe, as they became in turn the scene of warfare. They were certainly terrific, and calculated to make the subjects of them "gnaw their tongues for the pain;" and, contemplated from a humanitarian standpoint, greatly to be deplored.

But when it is remembered, that they were worshippers of an imaginary ghost of a dead woman, they called "the Virgin Mary, and Holy Mother of God;" were Protestant Blasphemers of the Deity's Name; and the representatives of those who hunted from their homes their "heretical" friends and neighbours whom they burned to death, or drove from the haunts of men, to perish in the woods by hundreds, yea, by thousands, of hunger, nakedness, and cold - when we remember this, we can but say, that they were rightly served; and respond with the voice from the Altar,

"Even so, 0 Lord the almighty Deity, true and righteous are thy judgments!"

Eureka 16.10.

Napoleon no longer experienced any resistance, and his commands were obeyed from one extremity of the European Continent to the other. The imperial power was at this moment at its maximum; and England, which had then eleven hundred vessels of war, was the only power that resisted his will.

At this crisis, as if to manifest his contempt, and to mark his defiance of all the potentates of Europe, Napoleon gave an extraordinary proof of confidence in the plenitude of his power, in the publication of the following decree, which signalized the approaching outpouring of the Fifth Vial, dated May 1808.

"Whereas the temporal sovereign of Rome has refused to make war against England, and the interest of the two kingdoms of Italy and Naples ought not to be intercepted by a hostile power; and whereas the donation of Charlemagne, our illustrious predecessor, of the countries which form the Holy See, was for the good of Christianity, and not for that of the enemies of our holy religion: We therefore decree, that the duchies of Urbino, Ancona, Macerata and Camerino, be forever united to the kingdom of Italy: to which kingdom all cardinal prelates and natives of these districts are commanded to return by the 5th of June, on pain of confiscation of goods".

This singular and salutary exercise of despotic power called forth a declaration from the Pope in which he maintained the rights of his See, and earnestly protested against the intended spoliation. This, however, did not prevent the entry of a French army, which took possession of all the strong places in the ecclesiastical territories. And this was followed by the annexation of Parma, Placentia, and Tuscany to the French empire; so that the kingdom of Italy was now guarded on every side by the empire.

After the lapse of some months, the Pope's protest was enforced by a sentence of excommunication against the authors and instruments of the act of spoliation. This was productive of new violence on the part of Napoleon, his "most dear son in Christ!" In 1809, the wrath of the fifth vial at length descended upon "the throne" itself. Its pontifical occupant, the Name of Blasphemy upon the Seven Heads of the Beast-Dominion, was arrested by his order, and brought as a captive to Avignon, in fulfillment of the saying,

"He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity" (ch. 13:10).

But this was not all. A provisional government was established in the ecclesiastical states; the Inquisition was abolished; many temporal and spiritual abuses were abrogated; and various civil and judicial reforms were introduced. Rome itself, wonder-fully improved and embellished in the hands of the Great Emperor, was degraded by decree from a sovereign to a subject rank.

It was declared to be the second city of the New Empire; and empowered to send seven members to the Legislative Body; and a deputation, arriving from thence at Paris, presented an address of homage, to which Napoleon replied in style and language of an emperor of the West.

... "The designs of Napoleon," says Ranke, "were now (in 1805) revealed. The Constituent Assembly had endeavored to emancipate it-self entirely from the pope. The Directory wished to annihilate his authority. Buonaparte's notion was to retain him, but in a state of absolute subjection; to make him a tool of his own boundless ambition".

After a while he was permitted to return to Rome. But, on his resistance to Napoleon's views, there followed in 1809, the outpouring of the wrath of the fifth vial upon the throne, originally given to him by the Dragon (ch. 13:3), in consequence of which the Roman State was abolished, and there was neither republic nor kingdom upon the Seven Hills.

....A hundred and fifty thousand worshippers of the Beast's Image were marched into the field of blood and fire, and began the campaign in the spring of 1809. The Tyrolese rose in rebellion; king Jerome Buonaparte was expelled by the Westphalians; Italy was wavering, and Prussia was only waiting a reverse in the fortunes of the Great Emperor once more to take up arms.

The campaign of the fifth vial commenced on the 18th of April. On the 22nd, the French and Austrians met in long and obstinate conflict at Eckmuhl. The slaughter was great, and the darkness of night alone rescued the Austro-Beast's forces from ruin. After this, Napoleon advanced rapidly upon Vienna, the city of the Beast's Dragonic Mouth (ch. 13:11; 16:13), the Imperial Aulic Council - into which, on the 10th May, he once more entered as a conqueror.

As Napoleon used to say, "the hand of God leads my armies . This was true; they were so led, until the mission marked out for him Apocalyptically was accomplished. 

Eureka 16.8.

Napoleon a type of Messiah

And the same hour there was a great earthquake (ch. 11:13).

This "same hour" is characterized as that in which the Two Tormenting Prophets, having risen from three lunar days and a half of years of political death, ascended to the possession of terrific power in the government, or heaven, in the sight of their enemies.

The three days and a half, and the 1260 days of their sackcloth prophesying, styled inch. 11:6, hen hemerais auton tes propheteias in their days of the prophecy, both ended together. The common terminus of these two periods was A.D. 1789-'90; and signalized the commencement of the "same hour," or twelfth part of "a time," equal to thirty years.

These ended with the beginning of the outpouring of the sixth vial, and the death of the "Man of Destiny," who had figured so gigantically in the ministration of the wrath of the third, fourth and fifth vials.

...The Hour of Judgment, in which "the Man of War" celebrated by Moses in his song, develops himself as the Man of Destiny, is characterized in its incipiency, by the preparation of a people to whom judgment may be given. This preparation, which is antitypical of that in 1789-'90, and at the termination also of a symbolic period of 1260 days, consists in a resurrection and ascension process.

This resurrection and ascension are greater than the resurrection and ascension of the two tormenting prophets; for the antitype and substance are always grander and more intrinsically important than type and shadow.

The earth is to be made to cast out, or bring forth, literally, the feeble; but poetically, the dead - aretz rephaim tapil (Isa. 26:19). These feeble ones all appear before the bema, or tribunal of justice; not before the thronos, throne or seat of dominion: and there, having been previously made capable of so doing, by the impressment of their identity, they every one give account of themselves to Christ, "the Judge of the living and dead".

...Napoleon's work in his hour, assisted by his talented generals, was the type, or shadow cast before, of the work yet to be performed by Christ, the Man of War, and his brethren in arms, upon the same Beast, under the Seventh Vial, and in the terrible hour of his judgments.

Napoleon and his marshals at the head of the French, was the shadowy representation in real life of the scene exhibited in ch. 19 of this prophecy, where Christ, the Faithful and True Warrior, is seen with his Brethren at the head of the Jewish white horse (Zech. 10:3), making righteous judicial war upon the same enemies, the worshippers of the Beast and his Image, that Napoleon scorched so effectively. And further, when his work was consummated, where among the Powers was the Papacy?

It was nowhere. For about six years, the Papacy had no place in the Napoleonic Empire; neither in the antitypical dominion of Jesus and his Brethren will such a curse and blasphemy be tolerated. Napoleon effected a temporary abolition of it, and deprived Rome of its sovereignty for a while; but Christ Jesus, the king-breaker and king-maker of the fu-ture judicial hour, will abolish it forever, and sink Rome in the un-fathomable abyss of fire, to be "found no more at all".

Seven thunders, styled "Coalitions," were organized against the French by the Powers of the world. These, however, were not the Seven Thunders whose utterances John was commanded not to write. The former were only the shadows of the future coalitions that will be formed against the King of the Jews, for the like purpose for which they were formed against the Emperor of the French, as being

"the enemy and disturber of the tranquillity of the world, and hostile to its civil and social relations".

Napoleon and Jesus Christ are both chargeable with this hostility. The tranquillity of the Beast and his Image, and the perpetuity of their dynastic, civil, and social, institutions and relations, are doubtless highly desirable to all who profit by them. But, it is contrary to the Divine purpose that the wicked be at peace. The Deity hath decreed that there is no peace for them. It is only to the righteous that abundance of peace is promised.

He therefore raised up Napoleon, and strengthened him by His power; and hath raised and exalted Jesus, and made him strong; and will send him again into the world under the sixth vial, to take peace far away from the worshippers of the Beast's Image; and to destroy them and their institutions, by

"the energy whereby he is able to subdue all things to himself".

Coalition after coalition will, doubtless, be formed against him; but, they will only serve, as under the third, fourth and fifth, vials, to bring their hosts up to the field of slaughter; that they may be

"tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb".

...The parallel between Napoleon and Christ is still further remarkable in this, that they both were plebeian and poor in their beginning; and commanded by their wonderful works the attention and admiration of man-kind. They were both friends of Israel, and enemies of their oppressors; Christ was born to be a king, and therefore a military commander, which Napoleon became by extraordinary ability and success.

They both entered upon their career in youth, to the confusion of the wise and prudent. Christ is the Mediator of the Commonwealth of Israel; Napoleon was the legally constituted Mediator of the Helvetic Common-wealth.

Napoleon was king of Italy, emperor of Europe, and "Protector of the Church;" Christ is King of Israel, the destined Emperor of the world, and Protector of the Faithful in all future time.

Napoleon abolished the ancient dynasties, gave their thrones to his brothers and relations, and darkened the kingdom and throne of the Beast; Christ will abolish all dynasties, will give their thrones to his Brethren, and de-stroy finally the same kingdom and throne: Napoleon suppressed the Papacy; Christ will destroy it, and leave not a wreck behind.

Eureka 16.9.

...the "pains" and "ulcers" which tormented the inhabitants of all the countries of Papal and Protestant Europe, as they became in turn the scene of warfare. They were certainly terrific, and calculated to make the subjects of them "gnaw their tongues for the pain;" and, contemplated from a humanitarian standpoint, greatly to be deplored.

But when it is remembered, that they were worshippers of an imaginary ghost of a dead woman, they called "the Virgin Mary, and Holy Mother of God;" were Protestant Blasphemers of the Deity's Name; and the representatives of those who hunted from their homes their "heretical" friends and neighbours whom they burned to death, or drove from the haunts of men, to perish in the woods by hundreds, yea, by thousands, of hunger, nakedness, and cold - when we remember this, we can but say, that they were rightly served; and respond with the voice from the Altar,

"Even so, 0 Lord the almighty Deity, true and righteous are thy judgments!"

Eureka 16.10.

Blasphemous and unrepentant

We have seen in the ninth chapter of this work, that the first and second woes, executed by the Saracens and Euphrateans upon the Greek division of the Apostasy, though they were of intense severity, worked no repentance in the Latins.

They beheld Mohammedanism enthroned in the City of the Great Constantine; and the Trinitarian Superstition he had vindicated by the sword in conflict with the Dragon, trampled in the dust by the Moslem; yet in all this, they did not perceive the Deity's repudiation of Catholicism; or, if they did, they would not be instructed and corrected by it. Thus,

"the rest of the men who were not killed by these plagues," the Latin Catholics of the West, "repented not of the works of their hands" (ch. 9:20,21).

From the killing of the Eastern Third by the capture of Constantinople, to the resettlement of Europe by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, three hundred and sixty-two years had elapsed; and notwithstanding the terrible plagues of the past twenty-five years, the Latins, both Romish and Protestant, showed themselves to be as unrepentant of their "works" as ever.

These works and deeds are recited in ch. 9:20,21; such as idols or images of gold, silver, brass, stone, and wood, which their hands had made, as representatives of the demons, ta daimonia, the "disembodied spirits," they worshipped as guardians, intercessors, ministers of grace, and mediators between Christ and men. The deeds of

"the men who had the sign of the beast in their right hand, and in their foreheads,"

and who served as priests of these idols, vulgarly styled "the clergy", and of which they repented not, were murders, sorceries, fornication, thefts. And the people were like their priests.

They continued to uphold and sanction all these abominations with the blindest veneration and devotion, till the exhausted patience of the Deity gave place, in 1796, to the terrible outpouring of the third vial, at the hand of his servant Napoleon, who, as "his servant Nebuchadnezzar" on a former occasion, gave the worshippers of images "blood to drink", and "scorched them with great heat"

Eureka 16.10

The Outpouring of Wrath Upon Euphrates

12 And the 6th angel poured out his vial upon the great river <the> Euphrates [commenced 1820]; and the water thereof was dried up that the way of the kings <who are from a sun's risings> might be prepared.

The period between the fall of Turkey and the capture of Jerusalem by the king of the North, is the period of preparation; and the crisis of that period, "the way prepared" of the saints. The prepared way consists in the crisis revealed in Dan. 11:40–45; 12:1, 2; Ezek. 38:16–19; 39:2–4; and Zech. 14:1–5, and will be developed through the agency of what already exists as the [FROG POWER]

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Dec 1860


This was poured upon "the great river Euphrates", which directs our attention to the country possessing that river as its distinguishing river -- viz., the Turkish empire. While the events of the previous vials were in progress, Turkey was a great and formidable power -- so powerful that a writer on prophecy at the beginning of the present (nineteenth) century, perceiving that the downfall of the Turkish empire was meant, expressed his inability to conceive by what means it could be brought to the position of powerlessness and exhaustion to which the symbolism of the sixth vial pointed.

But the time had now arrived for the commencement of those events which would prepare the way for the appearance and power of the kings of the east, who should succeed tottering Papalism in universal empire. These have not yet made their appearance, but their way is prepared.

...So long as that [Ottoman] empire exist[ed], the way of the coming kings [was] barred; for the land of any king is his "way." Is there not, therefore, a manifest reason why Turkey should be dried out of the way, in preparation for the manifestation of the kingdom of God.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

The sixth vial has been pouring out "on the great river Euphrates."

In 1820, the Greeks rebelled against the Sultan, and, after several years war, succeeded by the aid of the western powers, in establishing the kingdom of Greece. In 1826; the janisaries revolted, and thousands of them were massacred by order of the Sultan. In 1827, Turkey lost 110 ships in the battle of Navarino. In 1828 war with Russia, and a general revolt throughout Albania.

From 1821 to 1831, ravages of cholera and plague, and depopulation of the eastern provinces. From 1820 to 1848, the Algerine war by which Algeria is annexed to France. In 1839, Egpyt and Syria wrested from the Porte by Mehemet Ali. War between Egypt and Turkey, in which the Turkish fleet revolts to Egypt.

In 1844, massacres by the Turks in Syria; and exterminating war between the Maronites and Druses there. And in 1848, Russia moved her forces south, and took up her position in the Turkish principalities of the Danube, to be in readiness to avail herself of subsequent events.

All these disasters have so weakened the Porte, that the dominion of the Sultan could not be preserved for a month, but for the jealousies of England and France against Russia, which awaits only the opportunity of re-planting the Greek cross on the dome of St. Sophia.

Elpis Israel 3.3.

The time at length arrived to make preparation for the restoration of Israel. The "abomination that maketh desolate" had prevailed under divers forms for "1290 years" (Dan. 12:11), from the celebrated epoch 529 -- '33 beginning the third year of Justinian's reign upon the throne of Constantinople. The dragon, of whose dominion this city became the seat after Constantine transferred the government from Rome, was the desolator of the Hebrew commonwealth.

He destroyed the city and temple, scattered Judah, and consumed the land with fire and sword. These have been its work for about 1780 years. But of this long period a portion has been separated which should reach to the time when

"that determined should be poured upon the desolator" (Dan. 9:27).

Now, that "which is determined" is the wrath of God contained in the sixth vial, and which is appointed to be poured out upon the eastern division of the Greco-Roman Dragon.

If therefore it be ascertained when the vial began to pour, the time is also discovered when the 1290 years of the desolation end. This ascertained, there is of course no difficulty in knowing when they commenced.

When we look into the history of our own time, it is easy to perceive that the sixth vial began in 1820 -- '3. The other vials had been exhausted principally upon the western division of the empire, with the exception of the second, which affected the east and west alike.

The sixth, however, is poured out primarily upon the east, and drying up the desolator's dominion there, pours on until its stream is commingled with that of the seventh, by which both the east and the west are wrapped in an universal conflagration; which terminates in the final destruction of the little horn, or two-horned beast and his prophet; the subjection of the ten kingdoms to the dragon of Constantinople; and lastly, their combined overthrow at the battle of Armageddon by the Lord of hosts.

The details of the sixth and seventh vials are amplified in that portion of the apocalypse beginning at the fourteenth verse of the seventeenth chapter, and ending at the sixth of the twentieth.

Elpis Israel 3.3.

In the days of Isaiah, the Assyrian power, which afterwards established itself in the Holy Land, was styled the Euphrates, and all the glory of that power, "the waters of the river." An invasion also of the country by the Assyrian is termed a

"coming up over all his channels and going over all his banks;"

so that when he came to stretch out the wings of his army over the breadth of Palestine, and to encompass the walls of Jerusalem, as in the days of Sennacherib, he is said by the prophet to "overflow and go over and to reach even to the neck." The passage is a beautiful and appropriate illustration of the scripture style in treating of powers and their invasions. It reads connectedly as follows:

"Behold, Yahweh bringeth upon them (the people who refuse the waters of Siloah-Israel) the waters of the river strong and many, the King of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: and he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach to the neck, and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O God with us!"

Now, to "dry up the water of this river" was to cause the evacuation of the Holy Land by the power that desolated it; so that it should again be confined by the Euphrates which was the frontier of its dominion. The transfer of this mode of speech from Isaiah to the Apocalypse does not at all alter its signification. The Euphrates there represents the power that fills the breadth of Immanuel's land contemporary with the outpouring of the sixth vial; and "the water thereof," all the glory of that power, and the "drying up" of that water the freeing the land from its accursed presence. Hence, John's prediction translated into unfigurative speech runs thus-

The sixth Angel poured out the wrath determined upon the Ottoman Desolator; and its power was totally abolished.

No prediction can be plainer than this; and it is one that every one who has any respectable acquaintance with the history of Turkey's last thirty-four years [since 1820], is fully assured is being fulfilled, Compare what Turkey was in power thirty years ago with what she is now in the Holy Land. Then its power was cruelly despotic and repressant; but now it exists there but as a shadow of its former self, mild and promotive of all internal improvements. What a change is this!

Still John's prediction is not fully accomplished. He saw it "dried up;" as yet we only see it drying up. An American now in Palestine says, "It is the decrepid and defenceless state of the peoples here that keeps them as peaceable as they are, rather than fear of the government.

They literally have little government to fear. All of government there is (and by this, I mean, that force is all the government that is of any use in the Turkish empire) is on the northern frontiers. This state of things throws open the way for all so disposed to make such depredations on whoever they may fall in with as they see fit. It is this, and nothing but this, that has put a stop to travel in this part of the country. There is no one to call the Bedouin to account for his depredations on foreigners that may be passing through his neighborhood.

Having then full assurance that the power of the existing Euphratean desolator is drying up, we might with propriety inquire, when will the process be complete? In answer to this question it may be said that the day and hour of his expulsion from the Holy Land, if fixed in the counsels of God, are not revealed. He is to alienate the land for a price or pecuniary consideration to a power from beyond the Euphrates and Tigris capable of protecting, or shadowing it with its wings, while it is growing into "a land of unwalled villages," rich in cattle and goods. When this alienation is accomplished, the Ottoman power in Palestine will be gone; and this will be the precursor to its overthrow in Europe and Constantinople.

It falls there to make way for the Russo-Greek, which is the last dynasty of the Little Horn of the Goat that will be permitted to reign there.

Herald of the kingdom and age to come, Jan 1855

The great river Euphrates, which flows into the Great City, has dried up greatly; that the way of these kings from the Sun's risings, may be prepared -- the power of the fourth, or Ottoman, angel is now only nominal; and the Gallic Frogs have well-nigh performed their mission: what, then, remains, but that Yahweh whom we seek should suddenly come to his temple, even the Messenger of the Covenant whom we delight in? (Apoc. xvi. 12-15; Mal. iii. 1) and having broken, as a thief, into the strong man's domain, bind him with chains and cause Babylon to fall, no more again to rise and curse the world with her cruelty and deceit.

Eureka 11.3.3.

The Ottoman Power being "the Great River Euphrates" of the symbolical Babylon, we have a subject before us capable of receiving, and as its sanguinary and earth-destroying history proves, well deserving, the indignation and wrath of Deity.

As the fourth of the Euphratean Angels (ch. 9:15) loosed against the Greek Catholic division of the Babylonian Apostasy, it has judicially and terrifically executed its mission. In performing the part allotted to it, it has repaid justice the debt incurred by the demon-worshipping and idolatrous Greek Catholics, who, when they reigned in Constantinople, were more wicked, and less tolerant of truly good men, than the Turks.

The Osmanlis are not idolators. Their zeal was great against all such; hence their Contempt of Catholics, both Greek and Latin, and their greater tolerance of Protestants. Still, the Euphratean is only a Sin-Power, well and heavily laden with its own peculiar offenses.

One of its greatest offenses consists in the treatment Yahweh's land, and people Israel, have experienced at its hand. As the modern representative of the Little-Horn-of-the-Goat power, it has "parted his land" "for gain" (Joel3 :2; Dan. 11:39); and ruling over Israel, has made them to howl; so that His name continually every day is blasphemed (Isa. 52:5).

No man likes his property to be laid Waste, and his slaves to be abused. Of both these counts the Constantinopolitan Little Horn has been so intensely guilty in regard to Yahweh's inheritance, that it has acquired the Scriptural epithet of Shomaim, THE DESOLATOR (Dan. 9:27).

... Hence, the political Euphrates standing in this antagonism to Deity, it is for this, and not because of its severity upon the Greeks, that the wasting wrath of the sixth vial is poured out upon it.


The prophecy, then, doth not signify a drying up of population. The Euphrates represents a power of the Apocalyptic Babylon; and as the name is indicative of water flowing in a certain channel, "water must signify the power of the Euphratean empire, expressed, as governments ordinarily express it, by force and arms.

There is one other place, and one only, in the Apocalypse, where water is used in the singular; as, inch. 12:15, in the words,

"the Serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the Woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood".

In this place "water" signifies power incorporated in armies, Sent forth from government to sweep away, as by a flood, the objects of its displeasure. Hence, the water of the Great River Euphrates, in like manner, represents the military power of the Ottoman empire; which is dissipated by a process of evaporation, a drying up; a gradual exhaustion, so as at last to leave the channel of the river in the heart of the Great City, empty; and devoid of all power to impede, or interfere with operations developing in the south-eastern recesses of the empire.

...The military and political power of the Ottoman empire was to be dried up by the wrath of the Sixth Vial, that the way for a certain class of kings might be cleared of all hindrances and impediments to their enterprize in its be-ginning.


Affairs continued generally prosperous with the Turks till the commencement of 1820. "That year", it has been remarked, "the Ottoman empire, by unwonted good fortune, found itself freed at once from foreign war and domestic rebellion". But before the year was closed, the scene was wonderfully changed; and causes of exhaustion and distress were then introduced, which have continued their incessant operation, until at length the mighty empire of the Osmanlis, which used to make the heart of Babylon to faint, and her knees to tremble, has passed into a proverb as "the Sick Man," soon to give up the ghost, and to leave the fragments of his estate to others.

The first cause that operated thus, was, as had been surmised, internal revolt and insurrection. The terminal epoch of the 1290 was now on hand. In the summer of 1820, Ah Pasha of Yanina asserted his independence; and by his revolt, the Greek insurrection, which had been for some time silently progressing, was precipitated. The inhabitants of the Greek islands called in their merchant ships; and in November, the Suliote Greeks returned to their country from the Ionian islands, and raised the standard of revolt against the Sultan, in alliance with Ah Pasha, their former oppressor.

In February, 1821, Chourshid Pasha of Tripolizza, having marched from thence against Yanina, leaving the Morea almost destitute of Turkish troops, the Moreote Greeks broke out into insurrection, which quickly extended to the Aegean Isles and districts of Northern Greece, Epirus, and Thessaly; while, at the same time, the standard of revolt was raised also in the trans-Danubian provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia.

- Continued Eureka Historical Summary of the Drying Up of the "Great River Euphrates"


No sooner had the effects of the first five vials subsided in the pacification and re-settlement of Europe as the result of Waterloo, and in the death of Napoleon in St. Helena, than the destruction of the Turkish Empire began.

To realize the full nature and signification of the fact, you must go back to the days of the sixth trumpet, which brought the four Ottoman waves of conquest over eastern and southern Europe.

... Think of the power of the Sultans, who were the most exalted monarchs of their time: and think of their long and powerful reigns. A sense of those days will enable you to estimate rightly the great change that commenced A.D. 1820, in harmony with the symbolism of the sixth vial.

The symbol was a drying river. Therefore we must look for events of a gradual character, more internal than external, having the effect of exhausting the power of the empire, and opening the way for another power in her evaporated territories. Such has been the history of Turkey since 1820, till the present moment, when she is on the verge of dissolution.

In 1826 the Sultan accomplished the insane performance of destroying the select provincial soldiery, known as Janizaries. These were bodies of troops got up, and maintained, and officered by the provincial aristocracy -- the flower of the army and the prop of the empire. The reason of their destruction was the complaining and almost dictatorial attitude they had assumed in various military and political questions.

Having in vain endeavoured to conciliate them, the Sultan, with a purpose unknown to all; ordered them to the capital, and having marshalled them in a great square, he surrounded them with troops, to whom he gave orders for an indiscriminate massacre of the Janizaries. The orders were carried out, and thus, in one day, the core of the empire's strength was taken out; for these Janizaries were in the hands of the independent chiefs, who vied with each other in the efficiency of their corps and the general vigour of their administration.

After their destruction, the management of military and other matters in the provinces was left to government officials sent from the capital, who held their posts precariously at the pleasure of the central authorities, and consequently were more intent on using their position for their private enrichment as rapidly as possible, than for the efficient conduct of the public service.

The result was shortly seen in the neglect of the public works, the disrepair of roads, the languishing of agriculture, for want of means of communication, and for want of protection from the rapacity of the collectors sent from the capital. Along with these causes of decay, there was a succession of the appalling disasters of fire, famine, and pestilence, depopulating whole districts; while in her political relations everything went against her, and tended to the curtailment of her empire and the weakening of her power.

Greece (till then a part of the empire for 400 years) revolted, and was made independent by the action of the European powers. Egypt revolted, and was erected into a semi-independent country, owning vassalage to Constantinople, but still self-governing under a vice-royalty. Moldavia and Wallachia revolted, and were detached as autonomous provinces, as the result of the Crimean War, and afterwards united in one government under the name of Roumania which has since become independent.

Then Servia revolted, with a similar result. More recently, Bulgaria revolted, and the severe measures of repression resorted to by the Turkish Government roused European indignation, and led to the Russo-Turkish war, which further reduced the shrinking, and drying, and dying empire.

Bulgaria became a self-governing country under a prince; Bosnia and Herzegovina were sliced off, and annexed by Austria; Roumelia also became practically independent, and all that was left of European Turkey was Albania, Thrace, and Macedonia, which are all in the full throes of new insurrection, which bids fair to finish the Turkish dominion in Europe altogether.

Concurrently with these political and geographical evaporations, various other causes of decay have been in active operation (such as living on borrowed money, etc.), which have reduced the Turkish Government to a state of extreme poverty and impotence.

The facts are so glaring, and so widely known, that it is unnecessary to do more than thus briefly allude to them as illustrating the full progress of the sixth vial, in the evaporation of the political Euphrates, in preparation of the way of the kings of the East.

13 Lectures on the Apocalpypse

The Sun of Righteousness

The rays of his power shine forth with creating and formative energy. Men and women are created in the earth, and projected from it. At this stage of the wondrous operation, they have "not the bodies that shall be;" but "come forth" (John 6:29), With bodies corruptible, without honour, weak, soulish, and earthy; for, that which is, "out of the earth, is earthy," ek ges choikos.

Each one is the Sun's rising, because the Sun of Righteousness is "the resurrection" (John 11:25); and so long as he is below the horizon, there can be no springing forth. But those people who have sprung forth into existence, "must all," both good and bad,

"be made manifest before the judgment seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things through the body, according to what he hath done, whether good or bad" (2 Cor. 5:10).

That which makes manifest is light (Eph. 5:13). The light thrown upon the case of each individual is his account of himself to the Deity; "for we shall" not only "all stand before the judgment seat of Christ;" but

"every one of us shall give account of himself to the Deity" (Rom. 14:10,12).

This self-rendered account manifests the character of the reporter, and determines his case for better or worse. If he be approved by "the Judge of the living and the dead," he is recognized as "the blessed of his Father," and being quickened, is authorized to "inherit the kingdom prepared for" such as he; to sit with him in his throne; and to exercise power over the nations (Matt. 25:34; Apoc. 2:26; 3:21).

Now, he that inherits a kingdom, sits upon a throne, and rules nations, is "a king;" and such a king, who was once dead, and sprung forth from the earth by the power of the Sun of Righteousness; and was selected from a crowd of people newly born of the earth, is

"a king from, or out of, a Sun's risings".

But, though there is "healing in the wings of the Sun of Righteousness," all are not healed who spring forth from earth, by the potency of his formative and life-imparting beams. "Many," saith Daniel,

"dust of the ground, shall awake from sleeping; some for living ones of the Olahm (the Millennium) and some for the objects of reproach and contempt of the Olahm" (ch. 12:2):

an arrangement in the resurrection-state endorsed by Christ, who, in John 5:28, saith,

"the hour is coming in which all who are in the tombs (mnemeios 'retained in memory' there) shall hear the voice of the Son of Man, and shall come forth; they who have done the good things, for a resurrection of life; but they who have practised the evil, for a resurrection of condemnation."

All these whose destinies are so diverse, are "risings of the Sun;" but, we see, that they do not all attain to the kingdom; for none can possess this, who, having come forth", are condemned. The condemnation leaves them corruptible, without honour, weak, soulish, and earthy; and such, Paul testifies, in 1 Cor. 15:50,

"cannot inherit the kingdom of the Deity".

They are repudiated by the Judge; and consigned to a common fate with the Beast and the False Prophet; who are subjected to the sword and burning flame by "the Kings" "chosen" "out of the risings of the Sun;" to prepare whose way, the wrath of the sixth vial is drying up the power of the Euphratean Ottoman Dynasty of the Goat's Little Horn.


Cyrus, and the "sanctified ones," his Medes and Persians, were typical of Christ and his Kings in "the way prepared," through the drying up of "the Great River Euphrates" by the sixth vial. Cyrus was named by Deity, and mentioned by name, about one hundred and sixty years before the capture of Babylon. His name and office are both representative as well as his mission.

The name given was Coresh, which some interpret by the word sun; on the ground that the Greek writers affirm that the name in Persian signified the sun. Gesenius says, they were correct. But, should we go to pagan Greeks and Persians to learn the meaning of a Hebrew name conferred upon a man whom the God of Israel intended to raise up to accomplish a work upon Babylon, which was to find its antitype over 2400 years after?

My answer is, no. Coresh in Hebrew does not signify the sun, which is there represented by shemesh. Coresh is a proper name compounded of caph, like, and yoraish, the participle of yarash, which signifies, to seize, to take possession of, to occupy, mostly by force. Hence, Yoraish comes to signify one who takes possession of his inheritance by conquest.

This definition of Cyrus' Hebrew name accords with the facts of his history. The Deity had predetermined, that he should inherit the Babylonish Empire, which included the Holy Land; and that he should take possession of it by conquest. He therefore made Yoraish a part of his name; and, as he intended his career to be typical of His own Son's, Whom he hath constituted "the Heir of all things" terrestrial; and who is also to acquire possession of his inheritance by conquest; he added the letter caph, and condensing the three syllables into two, named him Coresh, or Koraish, signifying Like the Heir.

Now, let the reader note What occurred before Cyrus and Darius, with their "sanctified ones" (Isa. 13:3), the kings of the north, could take possession of Babylon. It was necessary, that "the Great River Euphrates," which flowed into and through the city, "should be dried up; that the way of Yahweh's Anointed Shepherd and his flock, might be prepared" (Isa. 44:25; 45:1).

"A drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up;" "I will dry up her great river eth-yammah; and make her springs dry" (Jer. 50:38; 51:36). This was literally accomplished by Cyrus, who turned the Euphrates from its course; left the channel of the river dry; marched his troops along the dried way in the night into the very heart of Babylon; and, coming upon the king and nobles "as a thief," put them without discrimination, or mercy, to the sword.

Such was the practical representation of the entrance into the Apocalyptic Babylon by Yahweh's Anointed Shepherd, the all-conquering Heir of the World, and the Kings, whom he will have raised to consubstantiality with himself (1 John 3:2), and constituted his co-operators, and companions in arms. He has been, so to speak, besieging Babylon, and inflicting upon her all the miseries of a besieged city, by the forces engaged in the execution of the plagues of the first five vials; but, as in the typical operations of Cyrus, "the sanctified ones" of the Eternal Spirit have not come into the possession of the Apocalyptic Babylon by direct assaults.

The Divine purpose required that the European Babylon should be entered by a coup de main, or unexpected attack. Cyrus entered thus. Since the commencement of the sixth vial, Christ Jesus has been, by his agents, drying up the Great River of Babylon, the Ottoman power; which, undried, would have been an inconvenience, and an embarrassment, in the development of those judicial household-arrangements, which must precede the manifestation of "the kings of the Sun's risings", to the world.

Before the outpour of this vial, the Ottoman was a power, overshadowing Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Syria, in great force. It could have concentrated its armies upon any of these provinces in great numbers; and with powerful and embarrassing effect, upon any un-warlike crowd that might be convened for the purposes of judgment, organization, and legislation, the necessary preparation for all great enterprises in a world like this.

It is true, that the Deity could destroy them all, however numerous and powerful, as He did the army of Sennacherib, in the reign of Hezekiah: there is here no question about what He could do; He can do what He pleases: but it is not according to His revealed plan of operations in the work of manifesting His sons, to have that judicial and preparatory work interrupted by battle, and the burial of a host of corpses.

To prevent this embarrassing inconvenience, He deemed it necessary to dry up from those countries the overflowing power of "the Desolator" - to diminish it, and hold it in check by other jealous powers whose mutual distrust should reduce "the Sick Man" to a nullity.


But, shall it be said, that the wrath of the sixth vial was designed to dry up the great Turkish power, in order to put in its place a stronger and greater power, the Muscovite, before the coming of Christ and the manifestation of his Kings?

The sixth vial is in part to remove Gentile Power to a convenient distance - to diminish, not to increase it, in the region of Sinai, and Teman, and Mount Paran (Hab. 3:3; Deut. 33:2): but, to substitute the Russian in Constantinople for the Turk; and to give the Czar dominion over the Ottoman empire before Christ comes; would render nugatory the drying up process of the past forty-eight years.

My present conviction therefore, is, that the gathering together of the national armies against Jerusalem (Zech. 14:2) is after the appearance of Christ in the South; that is, in Teman; where he begins his career as "THE KING OF THE SOUTH(*) Dan. 11:40); and before he appears upon Mount Zion.

Hence, we have not to wait the advance of the Russian Gog against Constantinople, and his overflowing and passing over, and stretching forth his power over Egypt, and the Holy Land. This will certainly come to pass; but it will all be consequent upon, not antecedent to, the appearing of Christ in Teman. The Great Euphratean Ottoman Power is not dried up to prepare the way of the greater power of Gog; but,

"that the way of the Kings out of the Sun's rising might be prepared"


13 And I saw out of the Mouth [  gives expression to policy - symbol of government] of the Dragon [CONSTANTINOPLE] [Dragon and serpent 12: 15 - sin imperially manifested in the flesh], and out of the Mouth of the Beast [VIENNA in 1848] [identical with the mouth of the Beast of the Earth and out of the Mouth of the False Prophet [ROME - No longer the image of the Beast having lost its European dominion - (temporal power)],  [identical with the Lion Mouth of Ch. 13:2,5,6. This is the Mouth which speaks "great things and blasphemies". It is the Mouth also of the Image (ch. 13:15) the Two-Horned Ecclesiastical element of the European Polity, headed up in the Papal Dynasty, and enthroned in ROME] three Unclean Spirits [3 centres of Executive control, enforcing policies contrived by multiple European [political, civil and ecclesiastical demons [pneumata daimonon v14 though proceeding from three different mouths, they are in nature, origin, and tendency the same.] - [which] [in their combined operation] [propel the nations toward Armageddon] <like to> Frogs [France ... whose policy gives tone and action to the councils of Europe]  (a prominent sign of our own times also)

3 Unclean spirits

... Those influences are symbolized by three unclean spirits, like frogs, which John saw emanate from the three European centres. ... France... is exhibited as exercising at the time of the drying of the Euphrates an influence so potent as to emanate frog-like, or in French shape, from the mouth of the dragon (CONSTANTINOPLE), beast (VIENNA), and false prophet (ROME).

...Under Napoleon III France became a disturbing element among the European powers, with the effect of rousing them from the military dormancy into which they had sunk with the close of the stormy career of the first Napoleon. A nearly forty years peace had made militarism almost obsolete.

....The mysterious policy of Napoleon III -- preceded as it was by the coup d'etat -- set a process of reciprocal arming into motion which no one could stop.

This process was greatly accelerated by the wars into which Louis Napoleon from time to time dragged the nations of Europe. These wars were in the very order of the frog-like emanations of the symbol.

First there was the Crimean war, which commenced with a declaration of war from CONSTANTINOPLE (the mouth of the dragon), inspired distinctly and directly by Louis Napoleon, as afterwards transpired in diplomatic documents. This declaration of war, therefore, issuing from Constantinople, was palpably a frog-like or French-like spirit coming out of the mouth of the political dragon.

Next, from VIENNA, came the declaration of war by the emperor of Austria, in 1859, against Sardinia (backed by France) -- a declaration which a study of the events of the time, will show you as distinctly traceable to the operation of French policy on the Austrian government as in the case of the Constantinopolitan declaration.

Finally, in ROME, there was the Papal war, in which the Pope, energized by the French, who sent troops to his aid, made war upon the revolutionists. This also was a frog-like emanent from the mouth of the false prophet. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of the sixth vial.

You may be aware that this is not an interpretation invented after the things happened, but one that was published in 1850 by Dr. Thomas, before the events transpired. The occurrence of these wars afterwards, in the very order of the symbols, is all the more to be noted as a confirmation of the Divine character of the whole prophecy, and pre-disposes the mind to consider the import of the wonderful parenthesis:

"Behold, I come as a thief; blessed is he that watcheth."

What is this but the coming of the Lord? The time of its occurrence is indicated in this general way. It is when the Euphrates is dried, and the nations are armed and ready for the Armageddon conflict, that Jesus steals into the world to resume his work, and to carry it on to the glorious issues displayed in subsequent parts of the Apocalypse.

The sixth vial is nearly fulfilled, and Jesus comes under the sixth vial, but exactly at what stage of it is not revealed. We are therefore in the position described by Christ, that

"we know neither the day nor the hour."

His first work is a work of judgment on his own house, as indicated by the words,

"Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments."

His next work is work of public participation in the wars that will ensue. The armies of the nations are (providentially) gathered to Armageddon, that is, to the mountains of Israel (Ezek. 38:6-16), where they are overthrown with great slaughter, and the kingdom of God established in nucleus form in the land of Judah. Then comes the era of public tumult, depicted in the 7th vial.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse



Fifth Sign of the Times

The fifth sign of the nearness of the apocalypse of Christ is the existence of the Frog Power concurrent with the drying up of the Ottoman dominion. The record of this sign is in the two verses between the twelfth and the fifteenth of Rev. 16.—between the prediction of the falling of Turkey, and that of the coming of Christ "as a thief."

It is one of the signs belonging to the Sixth Vial Period; and concerning it, John of Patmos says,

"I saw that out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like to frogs (for they are spirits of dæmons doing wonders,) go forth upon the kings of the earth, and of the whole Habitable, to assemble them for the war of that Great Day of God the Almighty".

"Behold, I come as a thief!" Blessed is he that watcheth."

In this remarkable testimony the powers symbolized by the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet become the subjects of a special political inspiration, under the working of which they speak.

"Out of the fullness of the heart the mouth speaketh."

They are full of that which when spoken to the kings of the earth and whole Habitable, stir them up to war. Hence the emissions from the three mouths are styled "three unclean spirits of demons," and they are said to be "like to frogs," because the things spoken by the mouths of the three powers are the evident result of the political influence of a fourth power, whose symbol is Frogs. Thus we have

1. The croakings of the frogs, by which the dragon, beast, and the false prophet are inspired;

2. The frog-inspired powers uttering belligerent counsels to other worldrulers of the darkness in the Heavenlies—the kings of Europe, Asia, and so forth;

3. The demons through whom the utterances find access to the kings; and,

4. The political wonders they accomplish and which result finally in bringing them into personal collision with Yahweh's Anointed King.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Dec 1860


The Three Unclean Spirits

A mouth is Apocalyptically a symbol of government, through which the political organization of which it is the executive, gives expression to its policy. In this remarkable text, three such mouths are indicated, as first, the Mouth of the Dragon Polity; second, the Mouth of the Beast Polity; and third, the Mouth of the False Prophet Polity.

THE Mouth OF THE BEAST....has been for a long time enthroned in VIENNA; but in the days of Charlemagne, who founded the dominion, the seat of its secular dominion was Aix-le-Chapelle at present included in Prussian territory.

...Out of these three several political centers, three unclean spirits go forth whose resemblance is like to Frogs. There were not three unclean spirits out of each mouth; but only one out of each, making three in all. The unclean spirits are "spirits of Daemons". Of the number of the daemons, no hint is given whether they are many or few.

Half a dozen or more daemons operating upon the Dragon, Beast, and False Prophet, only excite the outflow of an unclean spirit from each, which is characterized by a symbol, representative of the power whose wonder-working daemon causes the mouth to speak. The Spirit of the Dragon, the Spirit of the Beast, and the Spirit of the False Prophet are "unclean", or unholy; and in their operation after the advent, directed against that which is holy and true, even against "the Deity who is Almighty". They are the spirits which cause the Beast and the kings of the Earth and their armies to gather together to make war against him that then sits on the white horse, and against his army (ch. 19:11,19; 17:14).

The spirits themselves are sanguinary and warlike policies, through which the governments indicated breathe out threatenings and slaughters against their adversaries. These policies are generated in the minds of cabinets by the diplomatic influences therein developed. The influence that gains the ascendant affirms the policy that rules, and becomes the spirit of the executive or mouth. When it speaks it proclaims war, and puts in operation all the machinery necessary to carry it into effect.

...The phrase is pneumata daimonon, spirits of daemons. These Apocalyptic entities are political daemons; that have to do with politics, civil and ecclesiastical.

It is true, they may be diaboli, devils, as Judas was (John 6:70) but all devils are not daemons. The daemons of this prophecy are official personages engaged in doing or working out, signs, wonders, or remarkable events, poiounta semeia; all tending, in their combined operation, to the development of the situation termed

"the war of that great day of the Deity who is Almighty".



Gog becomes the Mouth of the dragon when he becomes the autocrat or Emperor of Constantinople. Russia not yet the mouth of the dragon power.

Gog yet to become the Mouth of THE DRAGON..Govern Constantinople and issue from that throne political and ecclesiastical influence - "unclean spirit".


We did see democracy in Russia under Gorbachev! Has that spirit gone forth and prepared the nations for Armageddon?

THE FALSE PROPHET ; Papal propaganda has also evolved to ebb with the flow of democracy. 

MOUTH OF THE BEAST; Speaking in concert with the Papacy. Central Europe controlled by Charlemagne [AD 800] did the bidding of the Pope. 

Underlying the Gomer and Magog [Franco- German] Axis controlling Europe  - The EU has many affiliations to Pontifical Rome. Macron the energetic and re-elected French leader is particularly amorous toward the Whore of Babylon.


He is styled a false prophet, because his utterances, or prophesyings, are mere fraud, deceit, and vanity; because the signs, and lying wonders wrought in the presence of the Beast - authorities by him, are an imposture, and his preaching, allocutions, decrees, and so forth, the falsehoods of a lying oracle, by which they are deceived who have received the mark of the beast, and who worship his image (Apoc. 19:20).

Eureka 13.12.


I see a war among the powers resulting from an antagonism to French ambition, which must precede the battle of Armageddon; the Great City has also to be divided into three parts; and the Feet of Nebuchadnezzar's Image have to be fashioned into shape out of the materials that exist.

This requires time; and during this time the colony is forming and prospering to tempt the spoiler to his destruction by the stone power, on the mountains of Israel.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Sept 1852


In A.D. 96, when John was an exile in Patmos, the Franks were savages in an untamed country, living by hunting and fishing like American Indians. But the Holy Spirit revealed to him that this people would play a conspicuous part in the affairs of nations; and, foreseeing by what symbol they would represent themselves, He symbolized their nation by it, and styled them "Frogs".

... the Frogs in the prophecy are the symbol of the French democratic power. It will be seen from the armorial shield of Clovis, that the frogs and the lilies were both used as Symbols. They are both indigenous to wet, or marshy, lands, and therefore very fit emblems of the French, who came originally from the marshes of Westphalia.

But on the shield of Pharamond, so far back as A.D. 420, the frogs without the lilies appear in the armorial bearings of the Franks; and in the medal of Childeric I. there is no lily, but the frog only.

It would therefore seem from this, that the lilies were not the original arms, but superadded many years after; and at length adopted by the Bourbons as the symbol of their race in its dominion over the frogs.

These, then, represent the nation, and the lilies, or fleur de lis, the ruling dynasty. Now, if the apostle had said, "I saw three unclean spirits 'like lilies' come out of the Mouths," he would have intimated by such a similitude that the French Bourbons were the cause of the "unclean spirits" issuing forth from the Sultan, the Emperor, and the Roman Prophet. But he does not say this; he says they were like frogs.

He informed him, that under the sixth vial their influence would be remarkably apparent. That the Frog-nation would have much to do with the Dragon, Beast, and False Prophet; in fact, that so intimate and direct would their dealings be with them, that its effect would be perceived in the warlike tendency and influence of the measures proceeding from the Sultan, the Emperor, and the Pope; who, being so completely entangled in the complications created by the policy of the Frog-power, would in their endeavors to extricate themselves, involve the whole habitable in war, which would end in the destruction of the Two-horned Beast, and the False Prophet and in the subjugation of the surviving horns to the new Imperial dominion of the kings of the Sun's risings, whose way is prepared by the drying up of the Great River Euphrates.



The Going Forth of the Frog-spirits

The restoration of the Bourbons by foreign bayonets, in 1815, was a heavy blow and great discouragement, but not destructive, of the revolutionary spirit of 1789. A power had organized itself under the title of "the Holy Alliance," consisting of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, who bound themselves by a treaty at Paris, the real object of which was to maintain despotic and arbitrary power, in church and state, and to support each other against any revolutionary movement among their own subjects.

... The Bourbon kings had helped to dry up the Great River Euphrates; and the time had come in 1848 to direct French influence and power towards other objects. To elaborate these, it was necessary to remove the Bourbon Lilies and to bring a more revolutionary agency upon the stage The Bourbons forgot nothing and learned nothing. Their sympathies were all with the stagnant past by the malaria of which they had become "imbecile". The spirit of the age is

"the Spirit of life from the Deity that entered into the two unburied dead prophets" (ch. 11:9-11 - in 1789).

This is a restless, revolutionary, progressive, spirit, essentially hostile to the papacy, priestcraft, and all the governments that sustain them. This spirit was widely diffused among the people of Europe in 1848 but intensely active in France, Italy, and Germany.

In France especially, the volcanic fires broke out for the third time with a fury, which all the strength and policy of half a dozen forms of government during a period of sixty years, had failed to quench. In this "wonderful year," the throne of the "Citizen King," which had been set up by a ruse played off by Lafayette upon the revolutionists of 1830, was leveled to the ground; and the fleur de lis indignantly trampled in the dust.

There was a general rising of the people throughout Europe against the governments which oppressed them; and every throne tottered to its foundation. In France, the kingly form of government was utterly repudiated; and the DEMOCRATIC AND SOCIAL REPUBLIC upon the basis of

"Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality,"

established in its stead. Here was a revival of the Republic of 1793, founded upon the fall of the Bourbons, and subverted, or perverted, by Napoleon I.

The battle was fought by the workmen in the streets of Paris; the victory was theirs: it was the victory of THE FROGS over the FLEUR DELIS. The dynasty represented by this flower was abolished; and the marsh people resumed their original Westphalian right of choosing the most notable frog among them for their ruler. But for four months their government and National Assembly were only provisional.

During this time, it was practically the parliament and executive of the democracy throughout Europe. Under the influence of their favour Germany, Italy, and Hungary, become insurgent. The earth shook on every side. Urged on by its democracy, Sardinia attacked the Austro-Italian element of the Little Horn; and provoked by the treachery of its Papal Eyes and Mouth, the democracy of Rome became insurrectionary, and so alarmed him, that he fled for safety to the kingdom of Naples.

But Sardinia was not successful. By the defeat at Novara, the Austrian became paramount in Italy. This alarmed the Parisian Frogs, who did not wish the False Prophet to be reinstated in Rome under Austrian protection. They determined, therefore, although Rome was in possession of a sister Democratic and Social Republic, to seize upon the Seven Hills and to get the pope into their own keeping.

Hence, they drove out Mazzini and Garibaldi with their adherents; abolished the Roman Republic; and re-established the Pope. By this move, they got possession of Rome, and the Frog-power became an element in the policy of the Beast of the Earth and his Prophet; so that any spirit going forth from their Mouths would have resemblance to the Frogs, whose policy might originate, or give it shape.

Eureka 16..11.2.3.


...the three phases of the Frog-Sign have had three successive beginnings, each signalized by a war; the first began in 1853, resulting in the Crimean war; the second, in 1859, in the Italian war; and the third, in 1867, in the invasion of the Roman States. But the Frog-Sign is not yet complete. The prophecy seems to require "a simultaneous going forth" of all the three daemon-spirits to the kings of the earth and of the whole habitable: to convene them contemporaneously to encounter some great and urgent danger, that threatens, if not overcome, to subvert and destroy all their "legitimate interests".

Among the influences brought into exceedingly prominent activity will doubtless be the Franco-Papal, or the unclean froglike daemon-spirit that issues from the Mouth of the False Prophet. When the crisis is formed, the Prophet of the Great City will be in high feather, exerting himself in the presence of the Beast, with all the spiritual influence he possesses over the millions of Antichristendom, to induce them to join in the crusade preached, as the grand rally of "the earth and the whole habitable" against the great and pressing terror of the situation.

The "kings of the earth" are the rulers of middle, eastern, and northern Europe; and those of "the whole habitable", western and southern Europe, with other outlying regions, whose powers are Apocalyptically symbolized. But, what is the Great Terror that throws the Dragon, the Beast, and the False Prophet, into such tumultuous alarm, that their several governments should seek to excite the whole world simultaneously to war? The answer to this important question will form thesubject of the third part of the prophecy of this Sixth Vial. The Thief like advent.



The Frog emporer

The term "Frog-Emperor" refers to Napoleon III of France, who as Louis Napoleon, became President of France in 1848 after the abdication of Louis Phillippe.

On the formation of the Second Empire in 1852, he appointed himself Emperor and took the title of Napoleon III. He was a nephew of Napoleon I, and hoped to gain popularity and power by the use of his family name and the nostalgic appeal to the "Napoleonic Legend".

His rule came to an end with the disastrous defeat of France at the hands of the Prussians in 1870. This, like 1848, became another "remarkable year" in which prophecy was dramatically fulfilled.

The success of the Prussians brought them to the forefront of the German nations, and the Second Reich (Germany) came into existence. The defeat of the French by the Prussians permitted the unification of Italy, followed by the termination of the temporal power of the Papacy. This was a terminal date for the 1260 year period (Dan. 7:25) according to the Papal times. The Emperor Phocas in AD 607-610 gave power to the Papacy, and 1870 saw the termination of its temporal power.

Hitler established what he called the Third Reich which linked modern Germany with the past. The first Reich was the Holy Roman Empire; the 2nd was the Germany establish by the efforts of Bismarch in 1870, and the Third was that established by Hitler. So Germany took over from Austria the role of the Beast of the Book of Revelation.

This was after the original publication of Eureka; but was anticipated by its Author.

Logos publications

Rome did actually become capital of Italy in 1870, when the French were forced to withdraw their troops from the city because of their disastrous defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. Italian revolutionaries then entered Rome and took the city, placing Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia on the throne.

This, we believe, was prophetically necessary in order to provide a revolutionary political voice of intrigue to issue from the "mouth of the false prophet" as required by The Apocalypse (Rev. 16:13).

The horns associated with the revived Beast of the Sea, the Western European powers, are required to first "hate the whore and make her desolate and naked," and afterwards to "agree and give their kingdom unto the beast" (Rev. 17:16-17).

In consequence, at the epoch of its judgment at the hands o f Christ, Babylon the Great is seen triumphantly riding the beast (Rev. 17:3). The revival of a united Italy provided the means for this.

Following World War I, Mussolini came to power in Italy, and in 1929 through the Lateran Treaty, revived the temporal power of the Papacy by granting Papal autonomy over the Vatican.

After World War II, the Common Market was brought into existence by the Treaty of Rome in 1957, providing the means whereby the horns of the West began to "give their kingdom unto the beast".

Today, Europe is divided into two parts answering to the two feet of the Image seen by Nebuchadnezzar, the Common Market is laying the foundation for the full manifestation of the "beast" of The Apocalypse, whilst the international influence and prestige of the Papacy are more widespread than at any time in its history.

The Author of Eureka died on 5th March, 1871 so he did not see the remarkable political developments that have vindicated his interpretation of The Apocalypse.

Logos Publications

Rome the location of the mouth of the false prophet

No longer the image of the beast having lost temporal power over the sea and earth territories. Now just the false prophet.

Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi, considered one of the greatest generals of modern time, unified Italy. He was intensely anti-Catholic and anti-papal. His military campaigns resulted in the loss of dominions for the papacy. Papal Rome ceased to be the image of the beast around 1868-1870.

"A prisoner in the Vatican (Italian: Prigioniero nel Vaticano; Latin: Captivus Vaticani) or prisoner of the Vatican described the situation of the Pope with respect to Italy during the period from the capture of Rome by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy on 20 September 1870 until the Lateran Treaty of 11 February 1929. Part of the process of Italian unification, the city's capture ended the millennium-old temporal rule of the popes over central Italy and allowed Rome to be designated the capital of the new nation. Although the Italians did not occupy the territories of Vatican Hill delimited by the Leonine walls and offered the creation of a city-state in the area, the Popes from Pius IX to Pius XI refused the proposal and described themselves as prisoners of the new Italian state - Wikipedia.

The False Prophet Body is located in all the kingdoms of the Great City, where they make merchandise of the peoples with their sorceries, in pretense of curing their souls. The Mouth of this Body has been, for many dark and gloomy centuries, established in Rome.

It is the executive and legislative authority there, which despotically and absolutely administers or controls the spiritual affairs of two hundred millions of worshippers of the two-Lamb-horned Beast of the earth, and of the Ten Horns.

When the first vial began to be poured out, it wielded a temporal power of formidable proportions. The Roman Mouth counted three millions of subjects in its own Church-States; this was its primary dominion the elective monarchy of the Pope-king.

But, besides this first dominion, he had great political authority in all the popish kingdoms of Europe; so that he ruled in Rome like one of the emperors of old. In these high times of tyrannical superstition, the Papal Constitution of things was "the Image" of the Beast's Sixth Head, that had the wound of the sword, and lived.

It was a terrible image of imperial power, sustained by the despotisms of the world, the ignorance of the people, and the internal Inquisition.

But, how is it with this Image in the spring of 1868? What is it now after passing through the scorching, ulcerating, darkening, and tormenting plagues of the vials thus far poured out? It has lost its temporal dominion, which has passed to the Frogs; and the Papacy is a mere "False Prophet", or spiritual power, with its Mouth in Rome.


If the reader take a view of the papel dominion at the close of the last century; then view it as it is now [1848], and compare the views together; he will doubtless come to the conclusion, that the pope is no longer the image of the imperial head of the beast. He has no dominion really, for it is so far consumed, that what remains is of little, or no account.

He has good will enough to make terrible examples of the democrats who caused his flight from Rome, but he cannot carry it into effect, because the French will not permit him. He is a fugitive in exile, and though pressed to return to Rome, he is afraid to go. He is then no longer imperial, and consequently, has fallen from his lconism, and become a simple prophet.

Elpis Israel 3.3.

That the Frog nation would have much to do with the dragon, beast, and false prophet; in fact, that so intimate and direct would their dealing be with them, that its effect would be perceived in the warlike tendency and influence of the measures proceeding from the sultan, the emperor, and the pope; who, being so completely entangled in the complications created by the policy of the Frog power, would in their endeavours to extricate themselves, involve the whole habitable in war, which would end in the destruction of the two-horned beast, and the false prophet, and in the subjugation of the surviving horns to a new Imperial dominion for a time.

...As records of facts, the journals are invaluable; but if a person permit his opinions to be formed by the views presented, in leading articles, and the, letters of "our own correspondents," he will be continually mislead, and compelled to eat his words for evermore.

The Bible is the enlightener. If men would not be carried about by every wind that blows, let them study this. It will unfold to them the future, and make them wiser than the world. The coming years will not be years of peace. The policy of the Autocrat will be to throw his adversaries off their guard, and take the Sultan [Turkey being the only part of the Sultan's provinces existing today] by surprise. He is to

"come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he will enter into the countries, and overflow and pass over. And many countries shall be overthrown" (Dan. 11:40, 41).

This is the career marked out for him; which neither France, nor England, nor the world combined can obstruct, or circumvent.

In dismissing this part of the subject, it is necessary to call the attention of the reader to a very important intimation in connection with the prophecy of the "unclean spirits like frogs." This part of the prediction is contained in four verses, that is, from the thirteenth to the sixteenth inclusive. Now, if the reader wll examine the passage, he will find that there is a break in the prophecy. That is to say, the subject of the spirits of demons gathering the kings of the whole habitable to war, is suddenly and entirely dropped; and an altogether different subject introduced.

This new topic is nothing less than the appearance of him who sent and signified the contents of the apocalypse to his servant John (Rev. 1:1).


" says he, "I COME AS A THIEF. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame."

Then, in the next verse, the former subject is revived, and it is revealed, that the angel of the sixth vial gathers the kings and their armies into the battle field of Armageddon; where, as we learn from other testimony, they encounter the Lamb upon whom they make war, without knowing, probably, that he is the commander of the forces with which they are contending (Rev. 17:14; 19:19,21).

Now, does it not strike the reader as remarkable that the coming of the Lord should be introduced in a prophecy like that concerning the frogs? But singular as it may seem it is by no means accidental, but the best possible place for it, because it is intimately connected with their operations. It is mercifully introduced as a warning of what is about to happen at the crisis, that the believer may not be taken at unawares. It speaks to us in effect, saying,

"When you perceive the policy of the frog-power acting upon the demon of Turkey, the demon of Austria, and the demon of Romanism, so as to cause them to assume an attitude tending to embroil the nations, you may then know that I, the Lord, am about to revisit the world stealthily.

Elpis Israel 3.3.

"demon of Austria" Suggest now the EU - France the frog power in particular having great influence over catholic Europe

Re- emergence of The Beast

My personal view is that it's more likely to be a combination of both - the beast of the sea and the beast of the earth- France and Germany at the very heart of the system.

Historically, 150 years ago Europe was characterised by disparate states and nations fighting one another all over the face of Europe, no central power whatsoever. The idea of a latter day beast seemed impossible. Why? Because 150 years ago Gomer and Magog were at war.

The two oldest sons of Japheth were struggling for supremacy. That separation after the dissolution of Charlemagne's empire made it seem that a confederate Europe was impossible even a hundred years ago. Then about 50 years ago something very remarkable happened. A new force arose that began to confederate Europe together again. More effective to unite Europe so that the beast might appear in the latter days.

The force would not be military. It would be ideological, political and commercial. It began and with the ECSC - the formation of the European Coal and Steel Commission 1952. It was the formal bringing together of the key military industries of coal and steel of two countries by which two countries agreed to collaborate to join together their coal and steel resources. France initiated it for one reason alone. So that they could prevent Germany from ever having the resources to start another world war again on their own. Five years later the Treaty of Rome was signed by the six nations.

Another very significant date is the date of the Franco-German friendship treaty signed on the 22nd of January 1963 at the Elisé Palace. The 22nd of January is now known as Franco-German day and is celebrated as a special day in both France and Germany in France. It signified the end of the enmity between Gomer and Magog.

In that same year the pope issued a highly significant cyclical which translated from the Latin means peace on earth because France and Germany were friends at last and in that friendship treaty the Roman Catholic Church saw wonderful opportunities for its own resurgence.

Under the terms of that treaty the heads of state of the two governments have a formal meeting twice a year - quite a lot when you think about it. The head of France and the head of Germany meet together in formal assembly twice every year and sitting underneath them an apparatus friendship structure treaty. ..four foreign ministerial meetings between the two foreign ministers each year and sitting under that we also have the coordinators for Franco German unity that meet twice a year and the defense ministers meet four times a year.

Underneath that we've got a joint ambassadorial conference that takes place between all the ambassadors of France and all the ambassadors of Germany that come together for a united ambassadorial conference once a year, an environment council that meets twice a year, an economic and financial council that meets four times a year, and a cultural council that meets twice a year, just between these two countries.

There's an enormous framework for an unprecedented level of cooperation between these two countries since the terms of that treaty in 1963. Since the original treaty was signed the terms and provisions have been strengthened and increased over time.

So what do you think the Franco-German friendship treaty is translated into biblical, prophetical terms?

Well it's the Franco-German treaty alias the Magog Gomer Pact. That's what we'd expect to see from a biblical perspective if we were to see revival of the beast system at the time of the end. So it's been a very profound change in the political landscape of Europe since the signing of that document and there at the heart and soul of what's going on in Europe is France and Germany, Gomer and Magog who've signed a pact of cooperation.

Bro Roger Lewis - Notes from "The sons of Japheth"

14 For they are the Spirits of <Daemons> [pneumata daimonon - political daemons; that have to do with politics, civil and ecclesiastical], working <wonders>, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole <habitable>, to gather them <together for the war> of that great day of < the Deity who is> Almighty.

The Greeks, in their system of superstition, made a distinction between theoi, gods and daimones, daemons. Over all there was Zeus, their king and father.

The daemons were gods of an inferior order, yet an aerial race, occupying the third rank in their heavens. They were regarded as possessing wonderful intelligence; and in consequence of their middle position in the air, acting as interpreters and mediators between the superior gods and men.

"The whole daemonial race", says Socrates, "is between God and mortals, acting as interpreters or messengers to both. Through this race passes all divination, and the art of the priests; for God mingles not directly with the human race, but through these daemons is ever carried on the intercourse between the gods and men, both when awake and when asleep".

Plato says, that in the reign of Saturn the daemons were the political governors of mankind, ruling men as man rules the inferior animals.

"Saturn knowing," said he "how that human nature, in the absolute self-control of human affairs, can never avoid being filled with violence and unrighteousness, appointed as rulers and magistrates to our cities, not men, but beings of a divine and nobler race, namely, the Daemons. We do not constitute oxen as rulers over oxen, nor goats over goats, but we ourselves retain the dominion; the same thing did the Deity, because he was a lover of men. He appointed over us a better race than ourselves, namely, the Daemons"

... its fiction was convenient for symbolical representation of political analogies. Illus, the governments of the world and their high agents and officials, are a system of power, ordered, or arranged, by the Deity. They occupy a position in "the Air" (ch. 16:17), or political firmament, intermediate between Him and mankind in general.

They are therefore Daemons, a superior order of agents to the common herd; though often intellectually and morally inferior to many among the humblest of mankind. In unfigurative language, kings, cabinets, councils, conferences, ambassadors, ministers of state, and such like, are the Daemons of the prophecy in hand.

They are not to be confounded with ta daimonia, the da.monia of ch. 9:20. The fictitious ghosts of the Virgin-goddess, and of all the other saint-gods and saint-goddesses of the Romish superstition, are the daemonials, answering to the daemons of the pagan Greeks; but the daemons of ch. 16:14, are real official men, such as the Sultari, the Austrian and French emperors, the pope, and their political representatives.


15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.

...describes the relation of the advent to the nations of the earth, who when it occurs, are mustering for "the war of the great day of God Almighty," and who will be unconscious of the presence of Christ in the earth, till made to feel it in the adversities of war

TC 02/1870

The Coming One, who makes his entrance stealthily, is not merely a single individual; but a body of individuals, consisting of the kings of the earth and their Prince (ch. 1:5) to prepare whose way, the Great River Euphrates has been dried up.

It is the body of Earth's future kings, who will all be conformed to the Christ Image (Rom. 8:29; 1 John 3:2). They constitute the Mighty Angel, heaven-descended, who had been clothed with cloud (ch. 10:1); and from whose glory the earth is illuminated (ch. 18:1).

This angel-body of kings is constituently exhibited ch. 19:11-16. In this place, it is shown to be constituted of the hosts in the heaven accompanying their Commander in war. He and they together illustrate the name, "King of kings and Lord of lords" - the Seven Spirits of the Deity manifested in the Saints.

Such is "the Man who is the Angel" (ch. 21:17) who comes as a thief-the Man whose measure is 144 cubits. But, to whom is he to come as a thief? Certainly not to the constituents of his own body, which would be coming to himself. No; he comes upon the Dragon, the Beast, and the False Prophet, as a thief.

He breaks in unexpectedly into the Great City by way of the dried up channel of the great Ottoman Euphrates. He plants himself in the limits of the Turkish territory, where he makes all necessary preparations for "the war of the great day of the Deity who is almighty".

..."Behold, I come as a thief"?

Who is indicated by the personal pronoun "I"? The answer to this is the ETERNAL SPIRIT. figuratively represented in Ch. 5:6, by "a Lamb as it had been slain, having Seven Horns and Seven Eyes" the Eternal Spirit, manifested in the glorified Jesus, who is to the One Body as the acorn to the oak.

The Alpha, the First, the Beginning, is the Deity manifested in flesh justified by spirit, and called Jesus Christ; the Omega, the End, and the Last, is also the Deity manifested in flesh, justified by spirit, and styled, in Eph. 4:13, "the PERFECT MAN. the measure of the stature of the fullness of the Christ".

This Perfect man comes into Babylon the Great as a thief. A thief gets into the house as quietly and noiselessly as possible; and chooses a time when he supposes all the inmates are fast asleep, and consequently off their guard.

Having opened a door, or effected an entrance of some sort, he prepares to carry off the spoil. All his preparations for this are done with great caution and carefulness, so as not to awake the sleepers; from whom, the little light he employs is averted, lest its stimulus should disturb their slumbers.

This is as a thief comes, and exactly illustrates the coming of the "One like to a Son of Man". He does not come into Babylon like a descending balloon from the clouds, with all eyes fixed upon him, and wondering where he is going to alight! A thief does not come after this fashion.


That He May Not Walk Naked

The penalty incurred by neglecting to watch and keep the garments, is expressed in the words, "that he walk not naked, and they see his shame". When a body comes out of the dust of the ground, and there is impressed or written upon its organization a character previously developed in a former state, if that character be bad, such a person is said to "walk naked", even though he might be abundantly supplied with clothes.

He is morally naked, and certain to be put to shame. Being morally naked, he will continue to walk naked, in the sense of not being "clothed upon with the house which is from heaven;" that is, his earthy body will not be transformed into an identity with the spirit-body of the Lord Jesus. He will be dealt with judicially after the example of the first man, who, after receiving sentence of death, was "driven" with shame from the Divine Presence, to live awhile in sorrow and pain, and then to die and rot in the dust from whence he came (Gen. 3:24).

Such is the unhappy future of those "who profess to know God, but in works deny him;" and who, being "in Christ Jesus, walk after the flesh". After this order, "they come forth into a resurrection of condemnation," in which they reap of the flesh the corruption due to what they have thereunto sown.


This is the warning in the midst of the Sixth Vial, of the Apocalypse of the Son of Man, like a thief in the night, catching many unawares and unprepared spiritually (Mtt.25), blinded by the burdens and petty preoccupations of their own little lives, so that they cannot discern the signs of momentous developments in the political heavens heralding the imminent apocalypse of the Lord Jesus Christ, Israel's Messiah, to seize the sceptre from man's evil grasp and give it to those who are worthy (Lk.21.34- 36). They say in their hearts "the time is, not yet," (Hg.l.2).

Thick darkness reigns. The Apocalypse of Christ, in reality, is the climax of the book, so named, since all the Seals and Trumpets and Vials havebeen unfolding and tending to this very conclusion at the end of times; when the dramatic denouement of the plot is brought to fruition, namely the Apocalypse or unveiling of Christ in all power and glory, and with all his holy angels (Mtt.25.31), to render vengeance upon his enemies, and salvation to the faithful remnant of the Woman's Seed, who have held fast to the original faith, and earnestly scanned the political horizons for his return, who have contended earnestly for the faith (Jde 3), and

shared the vision of Enoch (Jude. 14.15), repudiated Apostasy, and delighted in the joyful prospect of Pslm 149 .

The Lord, has journeyed from the right hand of the Majesty on high back to the earth, to unlock the mystery of his mission, exhaust the wrath of God, and give a blessing to those who have watched and prepared, and endured to the end, when the love of many hath waxed cold (Mtt.24.13): 'Then, will the earth and its people tremble at the visible presence of Christ back in the earth (Isa 64.2-4) Hallelujah (Pslm, I 50). Then will he redeem his people Israel.

'And keepeth their garments' (unspotted by the evil world).

Keeps them pure, clean and white, which is the righteousness of the saints (Rev. 19.8), and not defiled by women (apostasy) (Rev. 14.4), or any other pollutions, grovelling in the lusts and desires of the flesh, rolling in the mire of filthiness, like the washed sow (2Pet.2.22).

The priests wore white linen garments down to the foot, whilst they ministered at the Altar (Ex.28), as long as they upheld the law and did not degenerate into Apostasy and idolatry (Isa 66, Jer.l- 7).

Their garments became spattered with blood from the sacrifice, self sacrifice in our case,

so that this will qualify a faithful disciple of Christ to wash their garments in the blood of Christ's enemies: Who is this that cometh from Edom with dyed garments? Yahweh of Armies mighty to save (ls.63.1-6, ls.34, Rev.1.13-16).

'Lest he walk naked and they see his, shame'.

Nakedness is symbolic of sin in Yahweh's eyes. The nakedness of sin's flesh of Adam's race (Lev.18, 19). There must be a divinely appointed covering, a purging of sin (1 Tim.2.5,6). A person loses this covering when there is no development of the divine character, or when there is pursuit of a sinful worldly way, or apostate embracing or fellowshipping of heresy, that which defiles and pollutes the sanctuary of Yahweh (Titus 3.10). Brethren and ecclesial elderships have a duty to uphold divine Truth, the pioneer faith, and repudiate apostasy (Acts 20.29,30,Mtt.7.l5,16).

The Temple Guard.

The most difficult watch was the Morning Watch, when tiredness prevailed, and the Temple guard would come round to check if awake Pslm.130.5,6. This can be rendered "my soul waiteth for God-like night guards for the morning." He is anxious for the morning to relieve him of his vigil, and the Temple guard find him asleep on his watch. Yahweh is the eternal watchman (Ps 121.4)

The Apocalyptic Messenger, Aug 2018



There are four words for "watching" in the New Testament, and they are interesting. The principle, most common one is gregoreuo (gray-gor-yoo'-o). The name Gregory means watcher. This is the word here in this verse. Its literal derivation is to be awake, and its meaning is vigilance.

The second word for "watching" is tereo (tay-reh'-o). That is the word in this verse translated "keep," as it usually is throughout the New Testament. But sometimes it is translated "watch." This word means to keep the eye fixed upon something, as to guard something valuable or to follow a guide carefully.

The third word is agrupneo (ag-roop-nee'-o), and literally it means to chase away sleep, from agreo, to chase, and hupnos, sleep, from which we get the word hypnotism. It implies forcing the mind and the senses to be alert, despite strong physical desire for rest and relaxation. This is a very instructive word. It is the one Jesus used when he said, in Luke 21,

"Watch, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy."

If we don't, we won't. And Paul of his tremendous labours, "in watchings often." (2Cor. 11)

The fourth is nepho (nay'-fo), which literally means to abstain from wine, and therefore, to be sober, to be clear-minded.

"Watch thou in all things, and endure affliction" (II Tim 4). "Let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith" (I Thess 5).

The "wine" to be abstained from are the things of this life-anything that takes our mind from eternal reality, that gives a temporary false sense of well-being and pleasure, that affects our judgment and discernment and stability.

...The watching required is not so much the external watching for the Lord's return and for the signs of it, rather it is the watching of one's self and one's own duties and responsibilities, so as to be ready and acceptable, whenever the Lord returns. A watching, too, for the welfare of the ecclesia and of the Body, and for individual members' needs, both natural and spiritual. Christ will ask each one of us at his return,

"What have you done for me and my little ones?"

All that we do, all day and every day, must be consciously done in the light of his return, and with a view to its being a joyful occasion, bringing approval and blessing and eternal love and communion. This requires a constant watching-a constant self-reminding and redirection of the mind and actions.

Bro Growcott - Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments

Keepeth his garments

Scripturally, clothing is used symbolically with five varieties of applications. First, covering of the natural and fleshly, which is nakedness and shame. This is the sense in the passage before us in Revelation 16.

...a covering of nakedness, of the flesh, of sin. Here, there are two aspects - our own duties and responsibilities, and the covering provided in Christ. We must perceive both, and the harmony between them.

To depend wholly on the first is to make the mistake of the Jew-seeking righteousness through works of law and personal accomplishment. To depend wholly on the second is to make the mistake of the churches of the world - the delusion that Christ has done everything, and we, not only need not, but cannot do anything to contribute to our own salvation. We can, and we must do much with God's help.

...We cannot earn salvation. Our very best and fullest efforts are utterly inadequate and powerless in this respect. It is wholly of God's grace, and love, and mercy, and gift, or none would attain life. BUT, our efforts will determine whether or not we receive and retain that grace and gift and mercy.

...The second part does not cancel the first, but intensifies it. If God is graciously doing His promised part within us, or willing to, we certainly must do that part commanded us. Both aspects are essential and inseparatable. We are not saved by works, but the best works of obedience that we can render are necessary to being saved, because that is the specified condition upon which God makes His gracious gift. And it is a very reasonable condition.

Christ supplies the garment of righteousness to cover our natural, naked, sinful fleshliness, but only - only on the condition that we will repudiate and energically fight that fleshliness. That's works.

It is we who must put the garment on-works. And keep it on-works. And keep it clean-works. And this is only done by the most intensive effort of careful obedience, constant prayer, and seeking of cleansing through forgiveness. Because of the weakness of the flesh, there is a continuous defilement, and there must, therefore, be a continuous cleansing that at any given moment the raiment may be in God's sight pure and spotless, or we cannot stand before Him.

In this life, we shall never be perfect, either in quality or in quantity of service and obedience. But perfection in both quality and quantity must be the continuous goal and the object of continuous effort. For we must be accounted perfect to be accepted. And we certainly shall not be accounted perfect in Christ, if we are not at least striving with all our might to be perfect. Perfection will not at the end be forced upon us, if we do not value it, and realize its urgent importance, and strive continually for it.

The king in the parable of the marriage supper came in to see the guests and found one without the required wedding garment (Matt. 22). He was cast forth unto outer darkness. The man had failed to put on the covering garment, or having put it on, he had failed to keep it on. The method of putting the garment on is clearly specified.

"He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved." (Mark 16). "As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ" (Gal. 3).

"Put on" here is literally clothed with, and is so translated elsewhere, as "clothed with camel's hair" (Mark 1).

Christ himself is the glorious garment we must put on. It is a very living, personal relationship, and must be very real to us. Putting on Christ is not the mere ritual of baptism, essential as that is, as God's only appointed doorway to salvation. Putting on Christ is putting on his character and his total God-centered love and submission and life-long service.

Bro Growcott - Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments

16 And he gathered them together into <the> place <which is called Hebraistically,> Armageddon.


Russia becomes the Dragon power when she takes Constantinople, and unites with the Beast when Germany is confederated with Russia.

The third element is the Papacy restored to a position of ecclesiastical power -Rev 16: 13-16, Rev 18: 7.

"I sit a Queen and am no widow"

This terrible unholy alliance is smashed on the Mountains of Israel - Ezk 38: Dan 11: 45

The Apocalyptic Messenger, June 2022

He gathered them together

...the unclean daaemon-spinits like Frogs having prepared the situation; and the great river Euphrates being sufficiently dried up; who is He that gathers them into Armageddon? The Apocalyptic answer is, the "One Angel standing in the Sun" - ch. 19:17 - the One Angel-Body, invested with omnipotence and glory; the Perfect Man, constituted of "the kings of a Sun's rising;" to prepare whose way "the water," or power, of the great Ottoman river has been dried up.

This "One Angel," hena aggelon, whose "countenance is as the sun shining in his strength" (ch. 1:16; 10:1), has then command of the situation. He cries with a loud voice, "a voice as the sound of many waters;" or, "as when a lion roareth", making proclamation, and saying to all the fowls flying in midheaven, to whom judgment is given,

"Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great Deity".

The gathering of the birds of prey which lodge in the branches of the kingdom (Luke 13:19), implies the previous gathering of the hosts to be devoured; and also the presence of a power potent enough to give their carcasses to the birds. This is the power that "comes as a thief;" which, having clothed himself with a cloud of brethren, next proceeds to gather by the policy he develops, the armies of the Beast and Kings of the Earth for a conflict with the New Power of Teman (ch. 19:19).

Such is the Apocalyptic answer to the question, who is He that gathers them? And the testimony of the prophets is in harmony with it. In Isaiah 66:18, the Spirit saith, "It shall come that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come and see my glory;" and in Mic. 4:12,

"Yahweh shall gather many nations as the sheaves into the floor"

for threshing:


"therefore wait ye upon me, saith Yahweh, until the day that I RISE UP to the prey; for my determination is to gather the nations, that I may assemble the kingdoms, to pour out upon them my indignation, even all my fierce anger; for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my jealousy" (Zeph. 3:8).

The Spirit of Christ also informs us of the place to which he will gather them. In Zech. 14:2, he says,

"I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken"

and in Joel 3:2,14,

"I will gather all nations, and will bring them down into the Valley of Jehoshaphat the Valley of Threshing".

These are sufficient to show that it is the Spirit in Apocalyptic manifestation who is the gatherer.

But these passages in context also show, that the Spirit in Son of Man, or One Angel, apocalypse, will not be in Jerusalem during the siege and capture of the city: for when it is in the hands of the enemy, he then

"goes forth and fights against the assembled nations, as when he fought in the day of battle"

he goes forth from Teman, and having been victorious at Botzra,

"he stands upon the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east,"

and also before and above the Valley of Jehoshaphat.

Here then is a manifest interval of time and space; of space, between Teman and the Mount of Olives; and of time, between the completion of the development of the One Yahweh-Elohim Angel-Man ready for action and his arrival at the Mount of Olives.

..."the land brought back from the sword" is not the land according to the original Abrahamic grant; but only that "tenth part" of it which Isaiah was informed in ch. 6:13, "shall return and be grazed". This tenth in the midst of the land is the locality of Armageddon... The return of security and prosperity to this tenth of the land, must...precede the development of the "One Yahweh" man.


Now, alliances between powers are often entered into and kept profoundly secret. The alliance between the Son of Solomon and the Anglo-Tyrian, may be unknown to the Mouth of the Dragon, the Mouth of the Beast, and to the Mouth of the False Prophet; that is, to

"the kings of the earth and of the whole habitable".

Not knowing the true character of the power in Teman; nor the real nature of the relations subsisting between it and Britain; they will act blindly in their policy respecting it. They will doubtless hear of its making great demonstrations in the East; and of its setting up a New Religion, in its principles and institutions, intolerant and subversive of all other faiths.

That it had cut off all communication with Mecca, to which it would allow no more pilgrimages; that the Anglo-Tyrian protector of Palestine seemed to favour its views; and had abolished the exercise of all Greek, Latin, and Mohammedan, religious rites in Jerusalem upon pain of death.

It may be supposed, that the British government would not venture upon such a course as this, if it was not assured that there was an Almighty power prepared to sustain it. To abolish the Greek and Latin superstitions in Jerusalem, would set the Frogs into violent activity, inflame the two hundred millions of European papists with burning fanaticism, and throw the Autocrat of all the Russias into fierce and furious paroxysms of wrath.

...Would not the False Prophet of Rome make proclamation, that Antichrist had come at last; and that he was aiming like another Mohammed, to destroy the Catholic church, and to propagate a new religion by the sword!

...All, therefore, who acknowledge that the Pope is the real Vicar of the true Christ, will be sure to regard the Arabian of Teman as the Anti christ; being assured that the true Christ would not seek to destroy his own Vicar.

The Frog power, which has taken the Papacy into its special keeping, and has set itself up as the champion of Latinism in the East, would doubtless in its working upon the Dragon, Beast, and False Prophet, urge upon them all, the necessity of providing, by a concerted action, for their common interest; and against a danger that threatens all the states and institutions of Europe.

Persuaded of this, an unclean daemon spirit would go forth from the Mouth, or government of each to all the kings of the earth, and of the whole habitable, to gather them together for a general crusade against the Arabian Antichrist; and for the deliverance of Jerusalem and the Holy Shrines out of the hands of the infidels.

By this time, probably, Russia will have made a movement against Constantinople; and being in the forefront of the line of march from Europe, and extending its dominion far into the north and east, it would be prepared to take the lead in the great movement of the west. As the Gog of the land of Magog, the Autocrat of nations will be prepared to marshal under his banner the forces of Persia, Cushistan, Phut, Gomer, and Togarmah of the north quarters, in addition to those of his hereditary domain of "all the Russias".




Yehoshaphat, in Hebrew, signifies the judgment of Yah. Joel also styles the glen, the Valley of Threshing:

"Multitudes, multitudes," says he, "in the Valley of Threshing: for the Day of Yahweh is near in the Valley of Threshing".

Apocalyptically, the same locality is styled ARMAGEDDON

"And he gathered them together in a place called Hebraistically, Armageddon".

Yahweh gathered them together without their perceiving the Hand that led them on to the slaughter -"I will," saith he,

"gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle".

Various derivations have been given of this mystical name; for such it is, inasmuch as there is no such name of a place in the land of Israel. Micah says,

"Yahweh shall gather many nations as sheaves into the floor, that the Daughter of Zion may arise and thresh them" (ch. 4:11-13).

The floor of threshing of which they are to be made the chaff (Dan. 2:35) is this Valley of Jehoshaphat. Under this aspect of things, they are a heap of sheaves, upon the threshingfloor; and this idea is represented by the word, Armah, the first two syllables of the name: the third indicates where this heap is to be, namely, in the gai valley; and the last syllable, for what purpose the heap is there, namely, for duwn judgment - Armagaidon, which in a Greek dress, is, Armageddon.

The reason why the text states, that the place, or valley, is "Hebraistically" called, is to give us to understand in what country the place is situated - in the country to wit, the native language of which is the Hebrew tongue.


17 And the 7th angel poured out his vial <upon> the Air; and there came <forth> a great voice <from the Nave of the> Heaven ["the Bride, the Lamb's Wife"], from the throne, saying, It is done [Ezk 39: 8].


This indicates the period of appalling revolution that sets in with the apparition of a new, and unknown, and mysterious power in the world of politics and the affairs of nations.

It is the time we have already looked at in connection with the movements of the 144,000, after their enthronement on Mount Zion -- the time of trouble spoken of by all the prophets -- a time of war, and disaster, and judgment, directly inflicted with the result of breaking the pride and power of man, and clearing the way for the universal establishment of the kingdom of God.

This is not an immediate result. It takes time. The little stone gradually becomes a mountain, which fills the earth. During the process there are details in the development of public events, which are foreshadowed in the further description of what occurred on the outpouring of the seventh vial:

"And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath. And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great."

The overthrow of the imperial Gog, under whose leadership the nations league themselves against Christ, in the first instance, sets the nations at liberty for new combinations. A three-fold division of the Roman habitable is one of the features of it. We need not speculate as to what this division will be. It is more practical to know that the national politics, one and all, fall before the prowess of the Son of David, and that Great Babylon, in particular, receives at his hand the accumulated wrath of centuries, in the way we have already had to contemplate in connection with the symbolism of chapter 14.

The political islands and mountains disappear. Rulers everywhere, great and small, abandon their power in terror at the presence of the world's conqueror. Destroying judgments -- (represented by the heavy hail) -- ministered by the saints (represented by the talent-weights), destroy those who destroy the earth; and, while filling the earth for a while with great wrath and woe, these judgments, like the cleansing storm, will clear the air, and purify the earth, and prepare the way for the sunshine of the glorious day that will dawn in fulfilment of the purpose declared in ages past.

Thirteen Lectures on the Apocalypse - Lecture 10

The judgments of the Seventh Vial are all in the future. They are the voices uttered by the Seven Thunders, which succeed the lion-roar of the Rainbowed Angel (ch. 10:3,4), and which issue from the throne (ch. 4:5).

...Apocalyptically, thunders are significant of wars. Hence, seven thunders are seven wars, which collectively make up

"the war of that great day of the omnipotent Deity".

The details of the seven thunders are not given; but the general results are specified in the prophecy of the seventh vial.

The ecclesiastical and secular constitution of Anti-christendom is the obnoxious subject of Divine vengeance. The Powers that be having answered the purpose of their permitted existence, the time has arrived under this vial for their abolition.

This can only be accomplished by Divine power; hence the war of the Deity, by which Babylon the Great, or the ecclesiastical constitution of the world; and "the Cities of the Nations," "the islands", and "the mountains," or kingdoms, empires, and states of all sorts, are transferred to the Saints; so that the wicked who now sit in the heavenlies, are hurled from their thrones, and sent empty away (Luke 1:51-53).

...The Seventh Vial is the concluding period of the Seventh Seal, and of the Seventh Trumpet; in other words, the vial, the trumpet, and the seal, all terminate at the same time.

The seal began With "the silence in the heaven about the space of half an hour" (ch. 8:1), A.D. 323; the trumpet, which is called in 1 Cor. 15:52, "the last trump, " began to sound With the issue of the Great Voice, A.D. 1790; but when, or at what date, the seventh and last vial shall begin to pour out its wrath, I am unable to say.

This, however, may be assuredly affirmed, that it will not begin until after the resurrection period, or "time of the dead;" and the capture of Jerusalem by Gog's forces; and its recovery by YAHWEH ELOHIM, "the Great King".

The casting out of the enemy from Jerusalem is followed by the establishment of the Nave, or Most Holy, and the Throne of David, therein. This must precede the outpouring of the wrath into the Air; because "a great voice" goes forth from the Nave-Throne, saying, "It is done;" which could not be if the throne had not already been set up.

The crowning events of the Sixth Vial put the Lamb with the 144,000 in possession of the Holy City. Their throne is "the great white throne" of the Yahweh Name, "from whose face, the earth and the heaven," by the judgments of the Seventh Vial, will be caused to "flee away;" for when the white throne receives its full dominion, no place, or room, "will be found for them" (ch. 20:11; Jer. 3:17) the Gentile"heaven and earth" will be made to give place to the "New Heavens and New Earth" in which Jerusalem will be a rejoicing, and her people a joy (Isa.65:17).

The Seventh Angel is the ETERNAL SPIRIT clothed with the white linen and golden-girdle company of splendid ones, Jesus and his Brethren; who, though incorruptible and deathless, do not let themselves out in their brightness, until they have accomplished the work of this seventh vial upon "the Air".

Eureka 16.12.

The Air

Now, the political world has its air as well as the natural. Like this, the political air, or firmament, "divides the waters," or peoples who rule, "from the waters," or peoples who are ruled; and whatever constitutes this division is the air or heaven.

The governments of the world are in this air, and constitute the sun, moon, stars, and constellations of the air or heaven.

If there were no air in the natural world, there would be no clouds, or "waters above the firmament;" but simply "darkness upon the face of the deep" - all waters would be commingled without order or distinction. Such would also be the case in the political world, if there were no political air or aerial.

This air divides the ruling class from the common people or "waters," called also "the sea", and sometimes "the earth". The air, or heaven, is therefore that which divides; or in modern phrase, the constitution, or constituted order of things among the nations.

When the Saracens made their irruption into the Dragon, or Graeco-Roman Constantinopolitan empire in the seventh century "the Sun and the Air were darkened" (ch. 9:2) in all the countries they subdued.

In other words, the political authority and constitution which placed them in subjection to the Byzantine Dynasty in Constantinople were eclipsed; as the kingdom of the Beast was "darkened" by the judgments of the Fifth Vial, but which afterwards became light again when the darkening power passed away.

Paul refers to the Air or Heaven of the Gentile world, or constitution of things, in Eph. 2:2, where he says, 'ye who were dead in trespasses and in sins, in time past walked according to the aion of this kosmos", or course of this order of things, "according to the chief of the authority of the Air, (which is) the Spirit which now worketh in the children of disobedience". The spirit that works in the disobedient is the spirit of flesh, or King Sin. He is the chief, the ruler, or prince, of "the authority of the Air".

The constituted authority of an empire, kingdom or republic, is "the authority of the Air" in those several dominions or states. The Powers that be are the Sin-Powers of the Air, styled by the apostle in Eph. 6:12, "principalities and authorities, the world-rulers of the darkness of the course of things (aion) the spirituals of the wickedness in the heavenlies". These all belong to "the authority of the Air".

... The denouement of the Sixth Vial opens the door and sets up the throne. There is then a throne in the Air which the air or heaven does not contain at the present time. All other thrones will continue to exist in the air contemporaneously with this new throne, which is the Throne of David restored, until they shall all be taken possession of by the saints of the Most High; when "the kingdoms of the world become our Lord's and his Christ's" (ch. 11:15).

Eureka 16.12.1.

It is done

"Behold, it is come, and IT IS DONE, saith Adonai Yahweh; this is the Day whereof I have spoken" Ezk 39: 8

That is, the day of the outpouring of the Seventh Vial is "the Great and Terrible Day of Yahweh". It is the day in which, after the fall of Gog upon the mountains of Israel, Adonai Yahweh will

"send a fire on Magog, and among them who dwell confidently in the isles;"

and which shall cause them to know that He is Yahweh.

"So," saith he, "willI make my Holy Name known in the midst of my people Israel; and I will not let them pollute my Holy Name any more; and the nations shall know that I, Yahweh, am the HOLY ONE in Israel".

During "the great and terrible day," the Nave smokes with indignation against Gog's land, or Magog, and against Babylon the Great, and other more distant lands.

...The smoke of torment must cease to ascend before the nations can be blessed in Abraham and his Seed, the Nave; and go up from year to year to worship the King, Yahweh Tz'vaoth, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles at Jerusalem (Zech. 14:17).

...no one engaged in the work of the Seventh Vial can rest from his labours; nor can the nations walk in the light of it (ch. 21:24). The smoke of torment must cease to ascend before the nations can be blessed in Abraham and his Seed, the Nave; and go up from year to year to worship the King, Yahweh Tz'vaoth, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles at Jerusalem (Zech. 14:17).

...those who have held the truth in unrighteousness, and so walked after the flesh, "go away into aionian punishment," in suffering which, they are punished with the goat-nations that "make war with the Lamb" (ch. 17:14; Matt. 25). They suffer this in the fiery indignation poured out of the Seventh Vial. They are scrutinized and condemned under the Sixth Vial, and executed under the Seventh.

Eureka 16.12.2..

18 And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, <such an earthquake > so great.

"Yahweh shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem"

This may be called the epoch of earthquakes; for the conclusion of the Sixth Vial is signalized by an earthquake that divides the Mount of Olives, and projects one half of the mount towards the north, and the other towards the south, and leaves a very great valley between. This shakes the earth while Gog is in the land, and accompanies the presence of Yahweh there, Who says,

"all the men upon the face of the land shall shake at my presence, and the mountains shall be thrown down, and the towers shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground. And I will call for a sword against him throughout all my mountains",

and so forth (Ezek. 38:19,20,21; Isa. 30:25).

This will be an earthquake in the most literal sense; but it may also be accepted as the earnest of that more terrible and extensive political earthquake of the Seventh Vial, of which the Spirit speaks in Haggai 2:6,21, saying,

"Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land; and I will shake all nations, and the khemdath  of all nations uvahu, they shall come; and I will fill this house with glory, saith Yahweh Tz'vaoth".

... "and I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations; and I will overthrow the chariots and those who ride in them; and the horses and their riders shall come down, every one by the sword of his fellow".

This is a decree against Gog, the Two-Horned Beast, the False Prophet, and the Ten Horns, with all their armies. Into their heaven the vial is to be poured, and its effect will be to shake them and their nations so terribly that there will be no more left of their dynasties, governments, and institutions in church and state

Eureka 16.12.3.

19 And the Great city <came> into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and <Babylon the Great was called to mind before the Deity>, to give to her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.

As a consequence of this shaking of all the nations, the Great City is resolved into thirds, and haipoleis, the cities, or states of the nations fall. They fall, because in the shaking, the Lamb and his staff with their army cast them down. The idea is expressed by Daniel in the words,

 "the thrones were cast down" (ch. 7:9).

In other words, the Lamb and they that were with him conquered the Ten Horns, and took possession of their kingdoms. The kingdoms of the world became Yahweh's, and His Christ's. As to the "three parts" into which the Great City Babylon is divided by the shocks of this great earthquake of nations, we are left Without positive information.

From the subsequent parts of the prophecy, however, it would seem that the Dragon might be reckoned as one third; the Beast, the Ten Horns, and the False Prophet, the second third; and Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the East, the third third. This eastern third would be the first to fall under the dominion of the throne in Zion:

"unto the daughter of Zion shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem".

...The little Stone, or kingdom of Christ, "the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel" (Gen. 49:24) is to become "a Great Mountain," or empire, after it has smitten "the destroying mountain," in its latter day manifestation, and to "fill the whole earth", (Dan. 2:34,35).

A mountain filling the whole earth will leave no room for any other mountains. To declare, consequently, that "the mountains were not found," is equivalent to saying that the empires of Turkey, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Britain and the United States, were all superseded and abolished, by the New Empire of Israel's King, then become

"the King and Elohim of the whole earth" (Zech. 14:9; Isa. 54:5).

The world to come, or future habitable, of which Paul spoke (Heb. 2:5), will admit of only one mountain,

"the mountain of Yahweh's House, to be established on the top of the mountains, and exalted above the hills; that all" the regenerated nations may flow into it" (Isa. 2:2).

No rival empires will be permitted to exist; for in that "economy of the fullness of the times,

" all things in the heavens or the air, and upon the earth, or the nations, will be gathered together under One Head (Eph. 1:10).

Eureka 16.12.3 (Part iv 3)

France is one of the Toe-kingdoms, and must be attached to the Feet of the Image as a constituent of the Ferro-aluminous dominion of the Czar.

But before this military democracy is superseded by the restoration of the Bourbons imperially subject to the Autocrat, it will subdivide the Great City into Three Parts, that is to say,

... the countries included within the limits of the Roman empire will be partitioned between three great powers. This will not be the first, but it will be the last time the Roman dominion has been thus divided.

In 311, it suffered a threefold division under Constantine, Licinius, and Maximin. In 324, it was reunited under Constantine; but in 337, it was divided into three parts again, and according to the divisions ruled by his sons Constantine, Constans, and Constantius.

The former two dying, Constantius became the sole ruler of the Great City in 350. Since that time there has been no threefold division of the empire until Napoleon I. In 1806, the Roman territory acknowledged three emperors, to wit, the Sultan, Francis of Austria, and Napoleon.

In 1815, this division was abolished by the overthrow of Napoleon, since which time the Great City has existed pretty much as it is with the exception of certain modifications in relation to Egypt, Greece, Belgium, and France.

The prophecy before us, however, announces that it is to be divided into three parts again, as a result of the mighty earthquake in which the Great City is to be entirely destroyed.

When we contemplate its present constitution there can be no doubt as to the means of this tripartite division. The threefold division of the imperial territory, and the maintenance of those divisions, is only possible by war.

There are only two Legs to the Image, not three; therefore the three divisions, when established, must be again reduced to two—and it is the fighting arising from the efforts to effect this reduction that brings the armies of all the nations of the Great City to battle against Jerusalem, where they meet their final overthrow as the forces of one [bishorned (bi horned?) imperial confederacy.

The French empire, if revived, will constitute one of the three divisions. This, however, is a purely meteoric affair, flitting across the political heavens to disappear forever before even the end come.

We say, not a permanent empire; because France is one of the ten, and can only be a Toe, not a Leg, of the Image. French imperialists are ambitious of a phantom that will be the ruin of their state. Their ambition, however, is useful. They will cause the tripartite division of the city, but be compelled to take up the humble position of a dependant constitutent of one of the two surviving thirds.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, June 1852

20 And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.

The thrones were cast down

21 And a great hail < as of a talent's weight descended out of the heaven upon the men; and the> men blasphemed <the Deity,> because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof < is> exceeding<ly> great.

From the political heaven, into which the Seventh Vial is poured, and in which the throne of David is One among many, upon all of which it makes war, the great hail descends upon the men, who worship the Beast and his Image.

Hail from a Political heaven would not be literally frozen waters; but rather something injurious set in motion against the enemies of the hailing power. When a government sends forth its armies to lay waste its adversaries and their countries with fire and sword, its troops are a storm, or plague, of hail; and every individual trooper is a hailstone of a certain weight.

Speaking of the Power that should destroy the kingdom of the Ten Tribes, Isaiah says,

"Behold, Yahweh hath a mighty and strong one, which as a tempest of hail, a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth with the hand" (ch. 28:2).

And again, speaking of the time when "Yahweh Tz'vaoth shall come down and fight for Mount Zion," he says,

"And Yahweh shall cause his glorious voice to be heard, and shall show the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of his anger, and with the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, and tempest, and hailstones".

The hailstones are an element of the lighting down of the arm of Deity. In Ezek. 13:11, we read,

"there shall be an overflowing shower; and ye, 0 great hailstones, shall fall; and a stormy wind shall rend the wall, daubed with untempered mortar".

Sirach, commenting upon this, says,

"Ezekiel made mention of the enemies under the figure of the rain".

A hail-shower is the enemy of the men upon whom it descends. When the Saints, in the execution of their Third Angel mission (ch. 14:9-11), descend like a tempest upon the men who worship the Beast and his Image, they become an exceedingly great hail, whose average weight is respectively, according to tables in Calmet, "a talent" of one hundred and twenty-five pounds troy.

It is evident from Matt. 25:24, that a talent and an individual are relative things; and that the one is as fitly represented by the other, as a passenger by rail is by the ticket he bears.

After the hail of talent-weights ceases the wrath of the Seventh Vial burns no more. The Beast and the False Prophet are destroyed, the Dragon is bound and shut down in the abyss, the Ten Horns are conquered, and nothing remains but the NEW JERUSALEM GOVERNMENT ruling in righteousness a world of regenerated nations, blessed in Abraham and his Seed for a thousand years.

Eureka 16.12.4. (16 part iv 4)