The plagues of the vials exhibited in this chapter are separated by the thief-like advent of Christ. "Last plagues" imply others that are not the last. The former plagues precede the advent; and all developed after it are "the seven last plagues."

What extraordinary blindness to affirm that none of the vials are poured out till after Christ comes, while his coming is predicted under the sixth! This sixth-vial prophecy is subversive of the notion. The position it occupies as a speaking hieroglyphic shows, that five of the vials, and a considerable part of the sixth, were to be poured out before the advent. It is impossible therefore for the outpouring of all the vials to be delayed till that event.

When it takes place, then in giving judgment to the saints recently raised, judged, and chosen, as signified by the "golden girdles" and "pure and white linen," the golden vials are given to them; and they consummate in their seventh vial mission the work of the whole seven vials, which without their intervention would never ultimate in victory over the beast, his image, his mark, and the number of his name.

The Seventh Trumpet, or Third Woe, comprehending the Seven Vials, or Last Plagues, in which is filled up the wrath of the Deity.

Apoc. 11:14; 8:13; 16; 18; 19; 20:1,3.


The whole habitable of Daniel's four beasts

The events of this sixteenth chapter are participants with those of the thirteenth verse of chapter eleven. The woeful calamity last noted there is the Reign of Terror in which

"the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the Deity of the heaven".

The terror was preceded by the abolition of all titles of distinction; and by the conversion of the tenth kingdom of Babylon into the FRENCH DEMOCRATIC AND SOCIAL REPUBLIC. This was the "great earthquake," or political revolution, which made the earth to tremble 1260 years after the giving of the Saints into the hand of the ecclesiastical element of the Little Horn (Dan. 7:25), and the shocks and vibrations of which continued to be felt from A.D. 1790 to 1820, an "hour" of thirty years...

See Eureka 16 for detailed historical expositions of the Vials

1 And I heard a great voice [preparings for war] out of the <Nave> [our Lord has rule] saying to the 7 Angels [the Seven Spirits of the Deity operating instrumentally through "the Powers that be" (ordinarily styled "Providence") - One over France the other 6 throughout Europe - ], Go <forth> [1792] and pour out the vials of the wrath of <the Deity into> the earth.

A great voice

The Royalist declaration of Pilnitz against the French Assembly - A provocation to civil war

...when John "heard a great voice from the Nave" seventeen centuries before the beginning of the third woe, he heard an utterance symbolically prophetic of a declaration, proclamation, or manifesto, which should lead to the development of the events of the seven vials. The great voice he heard was evidently symbolical of this, because the words of the great voice were a command to the Seven Angels, and therefore to the Powers, to go forth and begin the work of pouring Out the wrath of the Deity into the earth.

That which was represented to John as issuing from the Nave, the Most Holy Lord Jesus Christ caused to issue from the Powers, and therefore from himself, in that great voice they unitedly proclaimed, and sent forth from PILLNITZ, July 27th, 1790.

This was coeval with the earliest shocks of the "great earthquake". The famous treaty of this date prepared for the invasion of France. The Powers regarded the cause of the French king, then threatened by the revolution, as their own.

In the declaration of Pilnitz, they required that he should be free to go wherever he pleased, that is, to join their standard; that he should be replaced on his throne, that the Assembly should be dissolved, and that the princes of the Holy Roman empire having possessions in Alsace, should be reestablished in their feudal rights. In case of refusal they menaced France with war, in which all the Powers would concur who had guaranteed the French monarchy.

This great voice only irritated the Assembly and people of France. They demanded by what right the princes of Europe combined to interfere in their government; by what right they gave orders to a great people, and imposed conditions upon it; and since the sovereigns appealed from them to force, they prepared themselves for resistance.

The frontiers were put in a state of defence, 100,000 of the national guards were levied, and they waited with assurance the attacks of the kings, well convinced that the French people, animated by the Spirit of the Revolution, "the Spirit of life from the Deity," and within their own frontiers, would be invincible.

Eureka 16.1.

The Emigration - French monarchists and papists

...The Emigration was styled "External France," and was formed in the Austrian Low Countries, and in the neighboring electorates. The Counter-Revolution was openly prepared at Brussels, at Worms, and at Coblentz, not only under the protection of Foreign Courts, but even with their assistance. This fact identifies "the emigration" with the operation of the "Great Voice;" through the emissaries of which in the interior of France, it was enabled to combat the Revolution in its camp, and to foment civil war.

In preparing the situation for the outpouring of the First Vial, there were the European Coalition of the diademed horns, the Kings of the Earth, and the Image of the Beast; together with the Emigrant Nobility and non-juring Priests beyond the frontiers: also the Revolution, with its priestly and royalist enemies within the country.

Eureka 16.1.

The seven angels- Elohim at work upon the prominent agitants

...the Seven Spirits on all the agents of the situation, on the Powers, the emigrants, the refractory priests, the French king, political parties in the Assembly, the clubs, and the populace, to bring on a crisis in which there would be found scope for the outpouring of wrath upon the worshippers of the Beast's Image, and upon the men who had the Beast's Sign.

Eureka 16.1.

Preparations for the pouring out of the first vial

The revolt of the disaffected popish faction occurred chiefly in the departments of Calvados, or Gevaudan, and of La Vendee. These provinces were not much disposed to welcome the Revolution, because the middle and more intelligent class was far from numerous there; and the populace, or ignorant multitude, were blindly devoted to the clergy and nobility, upon whom they depended.

Such a population as this had to be prepared, therefore, for a severe visitation of the wrath of the first vial. This preparation was effected by the opposing forces brought to bear upon them.

The Emigration without, and the refractory ecclesiastics within, operating upon a brutal and superstitious multitude, was perceived by the Legislative Assembly to be a danger for the Revolution, which required to be crushed out by the most vigorous appliances.

It decreed, that all Frenchmen assembled beyond the frontiers found to be embodied on Jan. 1, 1792, should be treated as conspirators, and become liable to the punishment of death, and confiscation of property for the benefit of the nation: while the refractory priests were commanded to take the oath of citizenship, under pain of being deprived of their pensions, and of being declared suspected of revolt against the law.

Eureka 16.1.

This question was determined April 20, 1792. Louis XVI, attended by all his ministers, presented himself before the Assembly on that day, and caused General Dumourier, then minister of war, to make report on the political situation of France. He concluded his recital of grievances by advising war against Austria.

The king then proposed a declaration of war, which was received by the National Assembly with a deep and silent emotion. After the king had retired, they determined to meet in the evening, when the war was resolved on almost unanimously. Thus was begun with the chief of the confederate powers, that war which lasted a quarter of a century, which confirmed the Revolution triumphantly, and which changed the whole face of Europe.

..."Go forth!" They issued "from the Nave," July 27, 1790; and reached the crisis predetermined, April20, 1792

Eureka 16.1.

2 And the first went <forth>, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there <ensued a grievous and malignant ulcer> upon the men <who have the sign> of the beast, and <who do homage to> his image.

The seven angels of v1 cooperated together in kindling the political ferment and uproar of the European populace, moving the political and ecclesiastical factions into position to make ready for the pouring out of the vials. The armies of Europe attempted to restore the French monarchy but under the direction of 'The convention' the French republic resisted successfully the foreign invaders and maintained their freedom from the Royal and papal oppressors albeit amid great bloodshed and chaos among the people.

The seven angels of v1 cooperated together in kindling the political ferment and uproar of the European populace, moving the political and ecclesiastical factions into position to make ready for the pouring out of the vials. The armies of Europe attempted to restore the French monarchy but under the direction of 'The convention' the French republic resisted successfully the foreign invaders and maintained their freedom from the Royal and papal oppressors albeit amid great bloodshed and chaos among the people.

He went forth

This first angel is the only one of the seven of whom it is individually testified that "he went forth". They all went forth together, and formed the situation.

They did not successively go forth from the Nave, when the time came for each to pour out. If they had, a distinct situation would have required to be created for each; whereas all seven being represented as going forth together, it was only necessary to say of the first "he went forth" as the co-operative work of the twenty-one months laid a foundation, broad and deep for the combined operation of the first five; and the successive out pouring of the sixth and seventh.

...As the first angel sounded his trumpet against the earth before it was planted with the modern kingdoms of Europe, or Ten Horns, to bring them into position as elements of the new papal constitution of the West (ch. 8:7); so the angel of the first vial pours out his portion of wrath upon the same arena considerably extended.

The men <who have the sign> of the beast

...upon the papal populations of Europe; and upon those of the same section of the Continent, who, although not constitutionally papal, are signed with the papal institutions of infant rhantism

... He begins with France, the Tenth of the Great City, as the most murderous of the horns in their co-operation with the Papacy in its wars against the witnesses and saints of Jesus. His visitations descended grievously upon all the departments of that country; but with the greatest intensity upon those sections of it, where their blood had been most abundantly shed.

France became an altar of sacrifice to which beasts were brought for slaughter that had devoured and oppressed the saints. The "great voice" brought them thither from all parts of "the Holy Roman Empire," and from Naples, Piedmont, Spain, Russia, and Prussia; in short, there remained no other states neutral than Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, and Turkey.

All these peoples, on hearing of the ignominious decapitation of Louis XVI., by the republicans, proceeded to the invasion of France with forces amounting to 355,000 horse and foot; by which they flattered themselves they would sweep the Revolution from "the earth;" and re-establish the old regime.

in the memorable campaign of 1793-'4, [the armies of the republic] carried the war into the territories of their invaders... they had killed 80,000 of their enemies, and taken 90,000 prisoners: and at length annexed Belgium and Holland to France.

Eureka 16.2.

A grievous and malignant ulcer

In the natural body, an ulcer is an open, running sore, resulting from local inflammation, or constitutional irritation, more or less intense. In its formation, it is attended with heat, redness, pain, and swelling, which result in a solution of the continuity of the part, or an open sore; which often, if malignant, eats away the flesh, and lays bare the bones.

Such is the figure used in the text illustative of the effect of the hot, fiery, painful, and swelling indignation of the Deity poured out from the vial of the first angel upon the men of the Body Politic, to which the Sign and Image of the Beast belong.

In the first epoch of the French Revolution, it became the subject of a high degree Of irritation, which progressed rapidly into an intense and burning inflammation, which ulcerously destroyed the organic constitution of the State.

No great popular revolution has ever been accomplished, nor ever will be, without the infliction of misery, and the commission of excess which makes humanity shudder.

...The epoch which followed is that in which the new order of things is discussed and established, and in which the Assembly, after having been destructive, became constituent. This assembly terminated its own existence, September 29, 1791. It accomplished in two years "the greatest revolution which a single generation of mankind ever witnessed".

In the midst of its labours it put down despotism and anarchy, by defeating the intrigues of the court, the high clergy, and nobility, and maintaining the subordination of the people. But its successors, the National Legislative Assembly, did not apply itself in the consolidation of the work already done; and the Revolution, which was Divinely commissioned to subvert the monarchy under its auspices entered upon its republican phase, in which the "grievous and-malignant ulcer" broke forth in all the hideousness of carnage and corruption.

...Under the National Constituent Assembly, the shocks of the "great earthquake" had abolished all privileged orders; declared the possessions of the Catholic Church national property, and sold it for the use of the State: abolished tithes; ordained the civil constitution of the clergy, by which they were made independent of the Pope, and dependent upon the State; and abolished all titles, armorial bearings, liveries, and orders of chivalry; so that vanity lost its privileges as power had already done.

These radical organic changes caused the high clergy to declare war against the Revolution; the nobility to emigrate; and foreign powers to abandon the struggle of kings against each other, and to begin, in alliance with the emigrant priests and nobility without, and the refractory ecclesiastics within, the struggle of kings with the awakening peoples of the world.

Eureka 16.2.

The despotism of the multitude under Danton, Robespierre, and Marat, under the name of the Republic of "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" - was now the Sovereign authority.

... At the suggestion of Danton, they took their great and last oath, that they would die or annihilate the tyrants. After this the tide of events began to turn in favour of the Convention, which soon became everywhere victorious.

The Committee of Public Safety, thinking, not without cause, that its enemies, although subdued, were not disposed to submission, adopted a terrible system of extermination, to prevent their recovering themselves. They sent twelve columns, known by the name of the Infernal Columns, to scour the country with fire and sword, to explore the woods, to carry off those who were collected together, and to spread terror throughout the Vendean country of the Image-worshippers of the Beast.

The Committee, now the great power in the republic, abandoned itself to the most terrible executions. Armies destroy only on the field of battle: it is a different thing with parties who, in violent situations, fearing that the struggle may be renewed even after victory, fortify themselves against new attempts by the most inexorable rigor.

By this they increased the grievousness and malignancy of the ulcer, from which the hemorrhage was copious and incessant. They established an entirely NEW ERA as compared with that founded on the legislation of Justinian.

In place of the Catholic calendar they substituted that of the republican, for the week of seven days, the decade of ten making every tenth day the day of rest, instead of Sunday. The New Era' was dated from Sept.22, 1792, the epoch of the foundation of the Republic.

The Catholic worship of the Beast's Image was abolished in 1793. Gobet, constitutional bishop of Paris, proceeded in full procession to the Convention, and declared that the religion he had taught so long was, in every respect, a piece of priest-craft, which had no foundation either in history or sacred truth.

The gold and silver plate of the Romish bazaars was seized; and the bazaars themselves, in most districts of France, were closed against priests and worshippers; the bells were broken and cast into cannon, and the whole ecclesiastical establishment worthily destroyed. Thus was righteously avenged upon

"the men who had the sign of the beast, and the worshippers of his image,"

the terrible cruelties and massacres of St. Bartholomew's and of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, inflicted by the kings of the House of Bourbon, and the priests of Rome.

The "grievous and malignant ulcer" was the Deity's way of doing justice to the slain. It was the first installment of wrath to be poured out upon the blasphemers of

"his name, and tabernacle, - them who dwell in the heaven".

It was a signal inception of the Third Woe, which awaits its consummation, when the Seventh Angel shall have ceased to sound.

Eureka 16.2.

The other 6 spirits of the Deity

The Seven Spirits of the Deity had all gone forth from the Nave on a mission of Divine wrath upon the inhabitants of the Apocalyptic earth (ch. 8:13). While the first angel was operating in France, the other six were not idle spectators of the flesh-devouring phenomena of the "grievous and malignant ulcer". Had the six been inoperative elsewhere, the other powers of the Great City would have left France to perish of the ulcer, while they maintained a strict neutrality, and confined themselves exclusively to their own internal affairs.

...the Seven Spirits of the Deity were all engaged with the several powers of the earth and habitable in preparing a situation, which in due time and order, would bring them all under the operation of the wrath decreed against them.

... the Seven Spirits were operating upon the British Power, and preparing it for the work of wrath upon the Apocalyptic sea; which, in this place, is representative of all the countries of "Babylon the Great" accessible to ships of war.

Eureka 16.3.

...there is a gradual harassing and punishing of all connected with the institution, extending over a considerable time, represented in another symbol under the figure of a woman being eaten and burnt by royal paramours. The vial under consideration has to do with the outpouring of the preliminary affliction. The date of its commencement coincides beautifully with the chronology of the case. It will be recollected that the name of blasphemy, after long germination was finally developed and established by the decree of the emperor Justinian, recognizing and confirming the claim of the bishop of Rome to be the head of all churches and spiritual lord of, mankind.

The date of this decree was A.D. 533, added to which, 1,260 years -- (the appointed period of its "power to make war") brings us to A.D. 1793, when all Europe was convulsed by the anti-Papal French Revolution, which developed that spirit of hostility -- private and public, religious and political -- to the Papal pretensions which has since steadily strengthened with the lapse of every year, till now the Church stands despoiled of her possessions throughout Europe, and its chief deprived of all power, and restricted to the Vatican as a private palace, which he calls his prison.

We have already had occasion to see why France should stand in the foreground in all that affects the Papacy. She has been in all her history the principal section of the Papal spiritual dominions. Her position in this respect is indicated by the official title which the head of the French State has held from the Pope -- the Eldest Son of the Church.

Other States hold other names from the same source. Thus, the Austrian emperor is "His Holy Apostolic Majesty"; the king of Spain, "His Most Christian Majesty"; the monarch of England, "Defender of the Faith"; etc.

These are imposing titles, but "The Eldest Son of the Church" points to the most important position in the Papal family; the eldest son is always an important member of any family.

To afflict the firstborn is to bring trouble in its most direct form, as in the last and worst of the plagues of Egypt. When therefore the time arrived to subject the worshippers of the beast to special judgment, we should on this principle expect to find France most intimately affected, and it was so.

She was not the Republican France of our day, but the priest-ridden, Pope-worshipping heretic-slaying country which befitted her position in the Papal family. At the close of the eighteenth century, events well answering to the infliction of "a noisome and grievous sore" -- or ulcerous sores -- on the worshippers of the beast, occurred in France. They filled Europe with dismay. They were truly dreadful, and without parallel in the history of the world.

They were the events that developed the First Napoleon, the especial tormentor of the men who worshipped the beast and his image. The people came into power for the first time in French history; they dethroned and imprisoned and finally murdered the king; they beheaded thousands of his sympathizers; they chased the aristocracy out of the country; they disestablished and disendowed the clerical orders; abolished all titles, pulled down monasteries, sold and divided the lands of the clergy and nobles, melted down church bells to make cannon balls, revolutionized the laws and institutions of the country, and generally made war against "the church" and its friends.

They even went so far as to suspend religion of every name, proclaiming God a myth, and futurity a dream. France became a slaughterhouse and her public life a "reign of terror." It was the most awful turmoil the world ever witnessed. More than a million beast-worshippers perished on the scaffold or on the field of civil carnage; and the survivors were brought under a tyranny as harsh and odious as ever flourished under despotism.

Life was deprived of its comfort, and society of its attractions; existence was barely durable. France for a long time was a pandemonium. The Papal interests were those that suffered everywhere. The convulsions in France vibrated throughout Europe, and everywhere carried injury and torment to the worshippers of the beast and his image.

The attempts of the European powers by military power to tranquillize France and restore the overthrown order of things, only aggravated the situation ten-fold. The armies of France, after long delays, were victorious at all points, and swept like a tornado over all the countries of Europe, extending everywhere the ravages of "the noisome and grievous sore" which fell with such severity on the worshippers of the beast and his image. Europe had no settled peace for twenty-five years after the outburst of the storm inaugurated by the first vial. The progress of the storm is marked and regulated by the succeeding vials.*

*13 Lectures on The Apocalypse.

3 And the 2nd angel poured out his vial <into> the sea [maritime war]; and it became as the blood of a <corpse> [Navies stagnant]: and every living soul died [severity of the conflict] in the sea [Britannia ruled the waves].

The pouring out of the vial into the sea, indicates that a maritime war would commence with the outpouring; and that, as the sea was to

"become blood as it were of a corpse,"

the war would be of unparalleled severity. To become blood as it were of a corpse, was also indicative that no hostile navies could ride the waves, except the ships of the power used as the agent of the Seven Spirits: That all naval life and activity would become stagnant, as the blood of a corpse, which is incapable of circulating, as during life, through the arterial and venous channels of the body.

All the war ships of the Great City found at sea would be destroyed by the potential minister of wrath; or compelled to take refuge beyond his reach, or to shut themselves up and not to venture out to sea. The ocean being thus cleared of the war ships belonging to the Powers of Babylon the Great, every sea-faring living soul was, to all intents and purposes of war, dead.

When "Britannia ruled the waves" there was no living soul afloat to fire a gun to her dismay. The French upon the land, and the British upon the sea, were the contemporary agents of the Seven Spirits for the tormentation of the worshippers of the Beast's Image in the second, third, fourth, and fifth vials of the sanguinary and scorching wrath of the avenger.

The portion of wrath committed to the Angel of the Sea began to be poured out in Holland on the landing of the British there, Feb. 26, 1793. It continued to pour concurrently with the third, fourth and fifth vials, for twenty years, with no intermission save the brief and deceptive peace of Amiens in 1802.

Eureka 16.3.

Thus the Seven Spirits of the Deity, ordinarily styled "Providence, operated upon parties in France and England for the development of the predetermined wrath of the Second Vial.

No doubt England and the Continental States would have escaped the awful castigation of the vials, if she had stood aloof; for without her subsidies of many millions sterling, they could not have equipped and brought their armies into the field, to have fought the battles of the third, fourth, and fifth vials, through which they were to drink blood, be terribly scorched with fire, and to gnaw their tongues for pain.

If she had stood aloof, the war and mercantile navies of Denmark, Holland, France, and Spain would not have been annihilated; she would not have lost her hundreds of thousands in the continental wars against the French and their allies; and she would not now be groaning under taxation, and a national debt that will never be paid.

But she could not stand aloof. Her inevitable de-stiny was to play the part in the terrible tragedy of the vials which the wisdom of Deity had assigned her, and for which she had been prepared. Nations cannot do what they please, any more than individuals.

The great manager of the world's theatre is the Lord Jesus Christ, whose dramatic program is the Apocalypse or Revelation given to him by the Father; the nations and powers are mere performers played off by him against one another for the denouement of the plot Divinely conceived. He creates war and makes peace; and without his permission "the powers that be" can do neither.

...In 1793, the greater part of the French fleet at Toulon was destroyed by Lord Hood; in June, 1794, followed Lord Howe's great victory over the French off Ushant; then the taking of Corsica, and nearly all the smaller Spanish and French West Indian Islands; after this, in 1795, Lord Bridport's naval victory, and the capture of the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch; likewise, Soon after, the capture of a French and Dutch fleet sent to retake it; then, in 1797, the victory over the Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent, and that off Camperdown over the Dutch; then, in succession, Lord Nelson's three great victories of the Nile in 1798, of Copenhagen in 1801, and of Trafalgar in 1805.

In this long naval war, extending from 1793 to 1815, it appears from James' Naval History that there were destroyed altogether near 200 ships of the line, between 300 and 400 frigates, and an almost incalculable number of smaller vessels of war and ships of commerce. As Dr. Keith remarks, the whole history of the world does not present such a period of naval war, destruction, and bloodshed. In the figurative language of the prophecy 

"the sea became blood as it were of a corpse".

It will be unnecessary for me to follow the British in their descents upon Holland, the maritime provinces of France and Italy; and their campaigns in Portugal, Spain, Belgium, and so forth.

Eureka 16.3.


"The second angel poured out his vial upon the sea, and it became as the blood of a dead man, and every living soul died in the sea."

The events of the first vial affected the land: the Roman habitable in its entire extent was afflicted, but the sea was to be brought under the operation -- yet not the sea as a physical element but as the basis of the maritime interests of nations, in which there is a mingling of both the literal and figurative, without causing confusion, however.

To stop trade by sea would be to inflict much suffering on those living on land. As the result of the vial, the sea was to become as "the blood of a dead man." The blood of a dead man is stagnant -- non-circulatory. The sea would be stopped as a medium of national-life circulation. What could have this effect? It could be effected miraculously in various ways, but the events foreshadowed in Apocalyptic symbolism were not to be miraculous events.

We must find the counterpart in natural events. Whatever difficulty, as a matter of speculation, we might have in finding an application for the second vial, it is ended when we ask if the sea was the scene of national events after the pouring out of the first vial.

You have all heard of British naval achievements. You have heard of Hood, Nelson, and other naval celebrities, who swept the fleets of all nations from the sea and laid the foundation of the national song that "Britannia rules the waves."

These traditions take us back to the time in question. Before the end of the last century, Britannia did not rule the waves. She was strong on the ocean, but not "Queen of the sea." She shared the strength of the sea with several European powers -- France, Holland, Portugal and Spain: but the events springing out of the French Revolution brought England to the first position.

These events comprised many bloody naval engagements (the battles of Trafalgar, the Nile, Aboukir, etc., etc.), in which England cleared the ocean of all rival fleets. During these operations, 200 ships of the line, appertaining to the beast-worshippers, between 300 and 400 frigates, and an incalculable number of smaller vessels, were destroyed, and countless multitudes of lives lost.

*13 Lectures on The Apocalypse

4 And the 3rd angel poured out his vial [The 10th of April, 1796, is the date of the commencement] <into> the rivers [Rhone, Rhine, Danube and Po - the great Napoleonic wars - sword of Yahweh avenging the European City of Babylon the Great], and fountains of waters [Italian penininsula and Austria] [Alpine regions (Melting snowcaps - streams converge upon the rivers]; and they became blood.

The arena of conflict was a country of mountains and rivers, inhabited by the posterity of thieves and murderers, whose crimes nothing could expiate but draughts of human gore. 

...... the rivers and lakes became blood by sanguinary conflicts in the field

...The judgments of this vial upon the Great City are parallel with those of the third trumpet upon the Catholic world, before the constitutional institution of the Papacy by Justinian.

The first four trumpets punished the Catholic west for its apostasy and crimes; the first five vials, the same region, for the sanguinary cruelty of its populations and rulers in their wars upon the saints and prophets of the Deity. Hence the parallel in the order and similitude of the judgments.

The 10th of April, 1796, is the date of the commencement of the outpouring of the wrath upon the fountains of waters. It is celebrated by the battle of Monte Notte, the first of the victories of Napoleon Buonaparte. When he joined the army of Italy before the battle, he addressed it, saying,

"Soldiers, you are hungry and naked. The republic owes you much, but she has not the means to acquit herself of her debts. The patience with which you support your hardships among these barren rocks is admirable, but it cannot procure you glory. I am come to lead you into the most fertile plains that the sun beholds. Rich provinces, opulent towns, all shall be at your disposal. Soldiers! with such a prospect before you, can you fail in courage and constancy?"

In consequence of this success, the French were placed on that side of the Alps which slopes towards Lombardy, and where the rivers from these mountains flow down to join the Po. Napoleon, who soon convinced the world that he was a Man of Destiny, by the victory of Monte Notte and its immediate consequences, opened a highway from France, through the kingdom of Sardinia, into the Austrian possessions in Italy.

The Austrian power was at that time the pillar and support of the temporal and spiritual power of the Pope in Italy the strong defence of the Papal States against the overwhelming inundation of the revolution, which in France had plucked up the Latin superstition by the roots.

The decree of the French Directory was on record for the total ruin of the Pope and of his power, both spiritual and temporal; but this feat could not be executed while the British ruled the sea; and her allies, the Austrians, occupied Lombardy; and their confederates the Italian Duchies, Venice and Naples.

These image-worshipping powers had therefore to be laid low in the dust, ere the Sans Culottes could reach the Pope...

The fifth vial could not be reached until the work to be done in the third and fourth was thoroughly performed. Napoleon Buonaparte, a youth of twenty-six, and a small and ill-appointed army of hungry Sans Culottes, constituted the contemptible force with which the Seven Spirits of Deity commenced the enterprise of cutting up the formidable, well-disciplined, numerous, and ably-commanded armies of the Beast; of scattering them like chaff before the tempest; and of rolling off his Image-protecting power beyond the passes of the Tyrol.

In the course of a brief campaign of scarcely a month, what history terms "fortune" placed "her favourite" in full possession of the desired road to Italy. He had gained three battles over vastly superior forces, who lost 25,000 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners; he had taken eighty pieces of cannon, and twenty-one stand of colours; reduced the Austrian army to inaction; and almost annihilated that of Sardinia; whose Savoyard King, one of the most distinguished in Europe, found himself at the feet of one, who for a time had power, in the emphatic phrase of Scripture,

"to bind kings with chains, and nobles with fetters of iron".

Eureka 16.4.

The French occupied Milan, which received them with great show of republican joy. This did not disarm the purpose of Buonaparte, who imposed a requisition of twenty millions of lives. All the public funds were turned into the French military chest; and the church plate experienced the same fate.

While Lombardy suffered much, the neighboring countries were not spared. Writing of this crisis, the historian remarks of these,

"the Italian states stood like a brotherhood of old trees, decayed at heart and root, but still making some show of branches and leaves, until the French invasion rushed down, like the whirlwind which lays them prostrate".

Before Buonaparte released his hold upon them he despoiled them all.

His headquarters, May 24, were at Lodi. He was soon informed that Pavia, with all the surrounding districts, in his rear, were in full insurrection. The Italians were disgusted at the spoliations of money and works of art, they had been subjected to; and with the open indignities thrown upon the places and objects of their superstition, as well as on the persons and character of their priests.

About thirty thousand insurgents were in arms. Buonaparte lost no time in giving them blood to drink. The village of Benasco was taken by storm, the inhabitants put to the sword, and the place plundered and burned. He blew open the gates of Pavia with his cannon, dispersed the insurgents, and put their leaders to death. He menaced with fire and sword, all who in future should become insurgent; a threat which he made good soon after upon the inhabitants of Lago, which was taken by storm, pillaged, burned, and the men put to the sword.

Eureka 16.4.

We are guided to the locality of this vial by asking, what part of the European earth has been most distinguished for the "shedding of the blood of saints and prophets"?

Whether we give the question an ancient or a modern application, the result is the same. Where was Peter crucified? Where was Paul beheaded? Where flourished the power that imbrued its hands in the blood of the witnesses everywhere? Where were whole heretical districts desolated by the Papal soldiery in the terrible scenes that drew from Milton his memorable lines on the slaughtered Albigenses.

All these questions lead us to the Italian Peninsula. Why should any part of this peninsula be described as "the rivers and fountains of waters"? It will be found that this is a very appropriate description, as distinguishing the region in question from the sea and the land. In the northern part of Italy, embracing the Alpine regions, the country is cut up and intersected with springs, rivers, fountains, and lakes, as no other part of Europe is.

It is a perfect network, as anyone may see who looks at a map of Northern Italy, Piedmont, and Switzerland. That this is the district upon which the vial was to operate is shown by the history of the case; for the next phase of the European turmoil, springing out of the French Revolution, shows us Napoleon I, in this very region, conducting several campaigns against both the Austrian and Italian upholders of the Papacy.

These campaigns were obstinate, prolonged, and bloody, and subjected the country of "the rivers and fountains of waters", to more than the usual calamities attendant on war. Read the history of these events, and you have the picture of whole districts desolated; pestilence following in the wake of famine, and decimating thousands of the non-combatant population.

The rigours of the times fell with especial severity on the aristocratic upholders of the beast and his image. They were made to disgorge their wealth, give up their pictures and ornaments, and submit to the spoliation on pain of death.

The common people were befriended, so far as the intention of the conqueror could be effected: it was the persecuting class, especially, that had the blood of the third vial given them to drink. If you are tempted to think it strange that retribution should fall at the end of the eighteenth century, for deeds performed in all the previous centuries by persons long dead, you must remember that those upon whom the retribution fell were the hearty supporters and endorsers of what had been done by their fathers.

It was a case similar to the generation of Israel contemporary with the Lord Jesus. Jesus told them that upon that generation would come all the righteous blood shed upon earth (Matt. 23:35), because they allowed the deeds of their fathers (Luke 11:48).

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

5 And I heard <from> the Angel of the waters say, Righteous, O Lord, < art thou, who art, and who wast and who art coming, > because thou hast <decreed these things>.

In my translation, I have restored the ho erchomenos to what, I conceive to be, its proper place. "He who is coming" is exceedingly appropriate in this fifth verse; inasmuch as the third vial, in the outpouring of its wrath, was a sign to those who witnessed its terrible judgments, that the coming, announced in the fifteenth verse, was steadily and surely approaching. The reader can therefore adopt my rendering, or that of the Common Version, which is essentially the same.

... the Apocalypse when given, was a prophecy of things afterwards to transpire, preparatory to, and introductory of, the thief like and glorious manifestation of Him "who is coming".

The Divine formula, therefore, where introduced, as much required the words "and who is coming," as the words "who is and who was," in order to keep constantly before the minds of "the servants of the Deity" in all intermediate ages and generations, the great truth, until it shall be verified in the visible apocalypse of ho erchomenos, THE COMING ONE.

In the times of the A.B.C. manuscripts (A. codex alexandrinus, B. codex vaticanus, C. codex ephraemi resciptus) , the appearing of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, was deemed a pestilent heresy by the party in place and power; who had no scruples about altering and omitting words and phrases, if it suited their purpose. This being the fact, the testimony of their manuscripts is questionable.

It is true, that in ch. 11:17, the omission would seem warranted by the reason given for thanksgiving - "because thou hast taken thy great power and reigned;" which implies, that the almighty Elohim had come, and that therefore, after this event, to affirm that he is coming, would be anachronistic and inappropriate.

This is true, still, for the reason given, I conclude, that the words were a part of the prophecy originally delivered to John, and ought not therefore to be omitted.

Eureka 16.4.

8 And the 4th angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and < it> was given to him to scorch <the> men with fire.

The judgments or plagues of the Fourth Trumpet smote so as to darken a third part of the sun, moon and stars; so that for a third part of the day, and of the night, there was no light.

... the sun, moon and stars ... the Imperial Catholic Constitution of the Western Third of the Roman Empire; which was superseded in Rome, by the Seventh Head, or Gothic kingly form of government; after the fall of which, Rome's political day and night continued darkened two hundred and forty years, when it again shone forth imperially, as the capital of "THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE," founded by Charlemagne.

The crowning of this conqueror by the Pope in Rome "emperor of the West," terminated the Sun's ternary eclipse; dark spots have since crossed its disc, but with the exception of these, the Imperial Sun of the Two-Horned Beast's Image empire, has been subjected to no darkening, worthy of Apocalyptic notice, till the epoch of the fourth and fifth vials, which have special reference thereto.

The Sun, then, of the fourth vial is the Imperial and Regal Sovereignty of European Antichristendom. The Pope, the Emperor, and the Kings, are the official terms indicative of the Sun in its shining forth upon the nations.

...We shall find that this scorcher of men, was the same whom the Egyptian Mamelukes termed "the King of Fire". His theory was, that Providence was on the side of the heaviest artillery: this, however, depends upon its being "given to him" who scorches with it, to handle it judiciously. It was so given to Napoleon Buonaparte, who, until his mission was performed, surpassed all his contemporaries in the use of it. He was truly a scorcher of blasphemers with great heat.

Eureka 16.5.


Here our attention is directed to the sun. The sun of the European system we get to know the meaning of by the sixth seal, in which, you will recollect, the sun was turned into darkness. In that case we found the darkening of the sun to be the eclipse of the Pagan imperialism of the Roman Empire.

The emperor, as the embodiment of the power of the empire, was dethroned, and his office extinguished. In the fourth vial it is not the darkening, but a heating of the sun, that is before us. We must find the meaning in connection with some imperial luminary of the Roman system, just after the judgments of the third vial had exhausted themselves on "the rivers and fountains of waters".

That luminary we must find to be so acted upon as to give forth great and destructive heat. The history of the period exactly answers to the requirements of the prophecy.

It brings the Austrian Empire before us. You must remember that the position of Austria in those days was very different from what it is now. Before the wonderful Papal-destroying exploits of Napoleon I the Austrian emperor was emperor of Germany, the military head of the "Holy Roman Empire", the second horn of the two-horned (Pope and Emperor) beast of the earth.

He was the most considerable member, the overshadowing power of the European system. He was the sun of the system, whose light gave strength and cheer to those enjoying his patronage, and the withholding of whose rays caused darkness.

The pouring of the fourth vial upon this sun was effected by the victories and astounding pretensions of Napoleon, who, after the temporary settlement of the Italian campaigns, adopted an attitude towards the sovereigns of Europe that led Austria to put forth her whole strength in the vain attempt to crush the formidable enemy, which had sprung up in the presence of affrighted Europe, to the old order of things.

The result was a war of great severity, spread over the principal regions of middle Europe, and subjecting populations to a great -- a scorching -- heat of affliction. The occupations of peace were suspended; vast tracts were desolated; and countless thousands fell victims to the calamities of the times, which, however, as the sequel shows, did not have the effect of inducing enlightened repentance, but rather goaded men to give vent to their feelings in blasphemy.

Austria was overthrown; peace ensued for a season; and the way cleared for The Fifth vial.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

9 And <the> men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the Name of < the Deity who> hath power over these plagues: and they repented not to give <glory to him>.

From the Chief Sorcerer in Rome to the meanest poisoner among the western nations, this unrepentant state of mind is their characteristic. They still cling tenaciously to their superstitions, and are as murderously disposed towards all that oppose them as of old. On the side of the oppressor is power; and, wherever that power is, there are the priests, clergy, and ministers of the apostasy to be found sanctifying tyranny, and dividing with the plunderer the gains of extortion and the profits accruing from popular ignorance and folly.

Because as murderers, they have shed the blood of saints and prophets; blood has been given them to drink; they have been scorched with fire and have been made to gnaw their tongues with pain (xvi. 6,8,10). Yet "they repented not of their deeds." The judgments that have been poured out upon them, and which have ensanguined the page of history to this present, have failed to bring them to repentance. The things written on the outside of the scroll speak only of the fullness of wrath for such.

As they will not repent, utter destruction is written against them in their being made to "drink of the wine of the wrath of Deity, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation," and in being 

"tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb" (xiv. 10).

When this consummation shall have been developed, the saints' war, which pertains to the great and dreadful day of Yahweh (Apoc. xvi. 14; Joel ii. 31) will have expended itself in the conquest of the Ten Horns, or "kingdoms of the world" (Apoc. xi. 15; xvii. 14), the utter and fiery consumption of the ecclesiastical system of the Greco-Latin habitable (xviii. 4-8), the extinction of the beast and false prophet power in the lake of fire, and the binding of the Dragon in the bottomless abyss.

Eureka 5.2.2

The plagues of the vials exhibited in this chapter are separated by the thief-like advent of Christ. "Last plagues" imply others that are not the last. The former plagues precede the advent; and all developed after it are "the seven last plagues."

What extraordinary blindness to affirm that none of the vials are poured out till after Christ comes, while his coming is predicted under the sixth! This sixth-vial prophecy is subversive of the notion. The position it occupies as a speaking hieroglyphic shows, that five of the vials, and a considerable part of the sixth, were to be poured out before the advent. It is impossible therefore for the outpouring of all the vials to be delayed till that event.

When it takes place, then in giving judgment to the saints recently raised, judged, and chosen, as signified by the "golden girdles" and "pure and white linen," the golden vials are given to them; and they consummate in their seventh vial mission the work of the whole seven vials, which without their intervention would never ultimate in victory over the beast, his image, his mark, and the number of his name.

Eureka 12.2.

10 And the 5th angel poured out his vial upon the <throne > of the Beast; and < it was> his kingdom <which had been darkened> [but not destroyed - it lives on but not in the imperial sunshine]; and they <did gnaw> their tongues <from the anguish>.

At the crisis of the fifth vial, only one thing remained, for the complete darkening of the political organization of which this throne was the chief, and that was, the obliteration of it from among the kingdoms of the world. When this should be accomplished, there would then be no throne to shed forth the sunlight of its glory upon the kingdom of the Beast.

The Bourbon kings of France, and Spain; the kings of Portugal, of Naples, of Sardinia, of Italy, were all wiped out; and the Holy Romano-German empire dissolved. All these old things had passed away; and all things had become new; in relation to which, the Pontifical Throne was a deformity and a curse.

While therefore, the new things flourished in glory and power, this relic of an effete barbarism was decreed of Heaven to be wrathfully precipitated into darkness; and there to remain, until the reaction of unrepentant wickedness should cause its emergence from the shadow of death, in preparation for a second and final catastrophe at the hand of Christ and the Saints.

Eureka 16.7.

11 And blasphemed the <Deity> of <the> heaven because of their pains and their <ulcers>, and <they> repented not of their <works>.


The first question here is, where are we to find the seat of the beast? What beast is it? We read of the beast of the sea, the beast of the earth, and the image-beast: but it is not said on the seat of which the fifth vial was poured. No practical difficulty arises from this, because these various symbols are but historic aspects of the same power.

The beast of the sea with seven heads and ten horns shows us the Pope-headed system of nations established on the downfall of imperial Rome; the beast of the earth -- the political Papacy merged by agreement and concordat with the second imperial dynasty (horn) that sprung up in northern Europe, viz.: the German emperorship; and the image of the beast, the system resulting from the restoration of Rome, under the Popes, to the imperial position occupied by Rome under the emperors.

Now "the seat of the beast" in any of these phases would be Rome, apart from which the imperial tradition was not recognized. The Papal element of the beast was always the most considerable, as occupying the traditional seat of the empire besides putting forth special pretensions to authority. The imperial element enthroned at Vienna, was always to be considered as co-ordinate with the Pope, and therefore as seated with him on the seven hills.

The correctness of the view thus presented -- (that "the seat of the beast" is to be found in the actual Roman territories themselves) -- is proved by the fact that the chapter of European history next after the events of the fourth vial shows us the course of judgment directed against the Pope and his dominions.

After the overthrow of Austria, Napoleon directed his attention to the position of the Pope with a view of inducing him to accept his friendship and alliance in the re-settlement of Europe. Napoleon did not succeed in bringing the Pope to his views, and the result was the outbreak of war, in which by a curious combination of circumstances, the Pope was befriended by the anti-Papal powers, England, Prussia and others.

The Pope's friends were, however, of no use to him, for God was against him. The fifth vial was poured out upon his kingdom, and what could man avail to help? Napoleon raised an army which he hurried into Italy with his usual celerity and dash, and overthrew all the forces brought into the field against him.

Darkness immediately set in upon the seat of the beast. The Pope was taken prisoner, and brought to France. He was made to pay the expenses of the war. The Papal kingdom was extinguished: Rome degraded to the position of a second class city in the French empire, and offered the privilege of representing herself in the French legislative assembly in Paris by seven delegates.

The cardinals and friends of the Pope had a dreadful time of it. They were stripped of their wealth; the ecclesiastical property was taken from them: the churches given up to public use and even pillage. Symbolically, they gnawed their tongues for pain. . . .

After many a prolonged and determined effort to throw off the incubus of Napoleon, they accepted the situation and acquiesced in the extinction of the kingdom in which they had hitherto been the lights, but which was now full of darkness.

Afterwards, the darkness passed away, and there was a revival of the Papal kingdom, but the Papacy never recovered from the shattering effects of the judgments of the vials. It was a mere shadow of its former self; and finally the shadow disappeared with the full end of the 1,260 years in 1867-70, since which epoch, the Pope has been merely a bishop -- a false prophet -- and not a king.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

They blasphemed the Name of the Deity of the heaven

They gave expression to their blasphemy in their deeds. They committed the most blasphemous act against his Name in their power, in re-establishing upon the Seven Heads, or Mountains, "the Name of Blasphemy." They delivered the Pope from captivity; and restored to him his pontifical throne and kingdom, which had cost so much human blood and misery to darken. He had learned nothing, and forgotten nothing of his blasphemy.

In his proclamation from Cezena, May 5, 1814, a little before reentering Rome, he characterized himself and his office by the papal title of "the Vicar of the Deity upon earth". The acts following this re-assertion of the old impiety were in blasphemous harmony with it.

A few days after the proclamation, he crowned at Ancona, with all the sanctimoniousness of superstition, a "miraculous image of the Virgin," the duplicate of that at Rome, as the guardian and saviour of Ancona; and decreed its festival, and connected a plenary indulgence with its worship.

The Name of the Deity for salvation was superseded as of old, by the merits of the saints of the Romish calendar, and of the phantasm, styled by the worshippers of the image, "the Blessed Mary always a Virgin".

Bible Societies were special objects of papal wrath. They were declared to be tares in the midst of wheat, and wolves in the guise of lambs; while the scriptures themselves circulated by them, unaccompanied by Romish explanations, were denounced by Leo XII in 1824, as poisonous pastures, and the gospel rather of the devil than of the Deity.

And in 1825, he published a Bull of Jubilee, promising to exhibit Christ's cradle, as an attraction to the pilgrimage; and with authoritative instructions to the pilgrims to call upon the Virgin Mary, as the great advocate for sinners, on that day of grace and mercy.

"And they repented not of their works" - hou metanoesan, they changed not their old mode of thinking, feeling, and acting in regard to the worship and institutions of the Beast's Image.

The judgments of the Deity are intended to alienate men from their iniquities, and to incline them to better things; and when they come to be executed by the saints, the world will learn righteousness (Isa. 26:9): in the absence, however, of such righteous executors of wrath, there is no hope of the world's repentance, but it will go on to transgress more and more, till the cup of its iniquity overflows.

...the "pains" and "ulcers" which tormented the inhabitants of all the countries of Papal and Protestant Europe, as they became in turn the scene of warfare. They were certainly terrific, and calculated to make the subjects of them "gnaw their tongues for the pain;" and, contemplated from a humanitarian standpoint, greatly to be deplored.

But when it is remembered, that they were worshippers of an imaginary ghost of a dead woman, they called "the Virgin Mary, and Holy Mother of God;" were Protestant Blasphemers of the Deity's Name; and the representatives of those who hunted from their homes their "heretical" friends and neighbours whom they burned to death, or drove from the haunts of men, to perish in the woods by hundreds, yea, by thousands, of hunger, nakedness, and cold - when we remember this, we can but say, that they were rightly served; and respond with the voice from the Altar,

"Even so, 0 Lord the almighty Deity, true and righteous are thy judgments!"

Eureka 16.10.

Napoleon no longer experienced any resistance, and his commands were obeyed from one extremity of the European Continent to the other. The imperial power was at this moment at its maximum; and England, which had then eleven hundred vessels of war, was the only power that resisted his will.

At this crisis, as if to manifest his contempt, and to mark his defiance of all the potentates of Europe, Napoleon gave an extraordinary proof of confidence in the plenitude of his power, in the publication of the following decree, which signalized the approaching outpouring of the Fifth Vial, dated May 1808.

"Whereas the temporal sovereign of Rome has refused to make war against England, and the interest of the two kingdoms of Italy and Naples ought not to be intercepted by a hostile power; and whereas the donation of Charlemagne, our illustrious predecessor, of the countries which form the Holy See, was for the good of Christianity, and not for that of the enemies of our holy religion: We therefore decree, that the duchies of Urbino, Ancona, Macerata and Camerino, be forever united to the kingdom of Italy: to which kingdom all cardinal prelates and natives of these districts are commanded to return by the 5th of June, on pain of confiscation of goods".

This singular and salutary exercise of despotic power called forth a declaration from the Pope in which he maintained the rights of his See, and earnestly protested against the intended spoliation. This, however, did not prevent the entry of a French army, which took possession of all the strong places in the ecclesiastical territories. And this was followed by the annexation of Parma, Placentia, and Tuscany to the French empire; so that the kingdom of Italy was now guarded on every side by the empire.

After the lapse of some months, the Pope's protest was enforced by a sentence of excommunication against the authors and instruments of the act of spoliation. This was productive of new violence on the part of Napoleon, his "most dear son in Christ!" In 1809, the wrath of the fifth vial at length descended upon "the throne" itself. Its pontifical occupant, the Name of Blasphemy upon the Seven Heads of the Beast-Dominion, was arrested by his order, and brought as a captive to Avignon, in fulfillment of the saying,

"He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity" (ch. 13:10).

But this was not all. A provisional government was established in the ecclesiastical states; the Inquisition was abolished; many temporal and spiritual abuses were abrogated; and various civil and judicial reforms were introduced. Rome itself, wonder-fully improved and embellished in the hands of the Great Emperor, was degraded by decree from a sovereign to a subject rank.

It was declared to be the second city of the New Empire; and empowered to send seven members to the Legislative Body; and a deputation, arriving from thence at Paris, presented an address of homage, to which Napoleon replied in style and language of an emperor of the West.

... "The designs of Napoleon," says Ranke, "were now (in 1805) revealed. The Constituent Assembly had endeavored to emancipate it-self entirely from the pope. The Directory wished to annihilate his authority. Buonaparte's notion was to retain him, but in a state of absolute subjection; to make him a tool of his own boundless ambition".

After a while he was permitted to return to Rome. But, on his resistance to Napoleon's views, there followed in 1809, the outpouring of the wrath of the fifth vial upon the throne, originally given to him by the Dragon (ch. 13:3), in consequence of which the Roman State was abolished, and there was neither republic nor kingdom upon the Seven Hills.

....A hundred and fifty thousand worshippers of the Beast's Image were marched into the field of blood and fire, and began the campaign in the spring of 1809. The Tyrolese rose in rebellion; king Jerome Buonaparte was expelled by the Westphalians; Italy was wavering, and Prussia was only waiting a reverse in the fortunes of the Great Emperor once more to take up arms.

The campaign of the fifth vial commenced on the 18th of April. On the 22nd, the French and Austrians met in long and obstinate conflict at Eckmuhl. The slaughter was great, and the darkness of night alone rescued the Austro-Beast's forces from ruin. After this, Napoleon advanced rapidly upon Vienna, the city of the Beast's Dragonic Mouth (ch. 13:11; 16:13), the Imperial Aulic Council - into which, on the 10th May, he once more entered as a conqueror.

As Napoleon used to say, "the hand of God leads my armies . This was true; they were so led, until the mission marked out for him Apocalyptically was accomplished. 

Eureka 16.8.

Napoleon a type of Messiah

And the same hour there was a great earthquake (ch. 11:13).

This "same hour" is characterized as that in which the Two Tormenting Prophets, having risen from three lunar days and a half of years of political death, ascended to the possession of terrific power in the government, or heaven, in the sight of their enemies.

The three days and a half, and the 1260 days of their sackcloth prophesying, styled inch. 11:6, hen hemerais auton tes propheteias in their days of the prophecy, both ended together. The common terminus of these two periods was A.D. 1789-'90; and signalized the commencement of the "same hour," or twelfth part of "a time," equal to thirty years.

These ended with the beginning of the outpouring of the sixth vial, and the death of the "Man of Destiny," who had figured so gigantically in the ministration of the wrath of the third, fourth and fifth vials.

...The Hour of Judgment, in which "the Man of War" celebrated by Moses in his song, develops himself as the Man of Destiny, is characterized in its incipiency, by the preparation of a people to whom judgment may be given. This preparation, which is antitypical of that in 1789-'90, and at the termination also of a symbolic period of 1260 days, consists in a resurrection and ascension process.

This resurrection and ascension are greater than the resurrection and ascension of the two tormenting prophets; for the antitype and substance are always grander and more intrinsically important than type and shadow.

The earth is to be made to cast out, or bring forth, literally, the feeble; but poetically, the dead - aretz rephaim tapil (Isa. 26:19). These feeble ones all appear before the bema, or tribunal of justice; not before the thronos, throne or seat of dominion: and there, having been previously made capable of so doing, by the impressment of their identity, they every one give account of themselves to Christ, "the Judge of the living and dead".

...Napoleon's work in his hour, assisted by his talented generals, was the type, or shadow cast before, of the work yet to be performed by Christ, the Man of War, and his brethren in arms, upon the same Beast, under the Seventh Vial, and in the terrible hour of his judgments.

Napoleon and his marshals at the head of the French, was the shadowy representation in real life of the scene exhibited in ch. 19 of this prophecy, where Christ, the Faithful and True Warrior, is seen with his Brethren at the head of the Jewish white horse (Zech. 10:3), making righteous judicial war upon the same enemies, the worshippers of the Beast and his Image, that Napoleon scorched so effectively. And further, when his work was consummated, where among the Powers was the Papacy?

It was nowhere. For about six years, the Papacy had no place in the Napoleonic Empire; neither in the antitypical dominion of Jesus and his Brethren will such a curse and blasphemy be tolerated. Napoleon effected a temporary abolition of it, and deprived Rome of its sovereignty for a while; but Christ Jesus, the king-breaker and king-maker of the fu-ture judicial hour, will abolish it forever, and sink Rome in the un-fathomable abyss of fire, to be "found no more at all".

Seven thunders, styled "Coalitions," were organized against the French by the Powers of the world. These, however, were not the Seven Thunders whose utterances John was commanded not to write. The former were only the shadows of the future coalitions that will be formed against the King of the Jews, for the like purpose for which they were formed against the Emperor of the French, as being

"the enemy and disturber of the tranquillity of the world, and hostile to its civil and social relations".

Napoleon and Jesus Christ are both chargeable with this hostility. The tranquillity of the Beast and his Image, and the perpetuity of their dynastic, civil, and social, institutions and relations, are doubtless highly desirable to all who profit by them. But, it is contrary to the Divine purpose that the wicked be at peace. The Deity hath decreed that there is no peace for them. It is only to the righteous that abundance of peace is promised.

He therefore raised up Napoleon, and strengthened him by His power; and hath raised and exalted Jesus, and made him strong; and will send him again into the world under the sixth vial, to take peace far away from the worshippers of the Beast's Image; and to destroy them and their institutions, by

"the energy whereby he is able to subdue all things to himself".

Coalition after coalition will, doubtless, be formed against him; but, they will only serve, as under the third, fourth and fifth, vials, to bring their hosts up to the field of slaughter; that they may be

"tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb".

...The parallel between Napoleon and Christ is still further remarkable in this, that they both were plebeian and poor in their beginning; and commanded by their wonderful works the attention and admiration of man-kind. They were both friends of Israel, and enemies of their oppressors; Christ was born to be a king, and therefore a military commander, which Napoleon became by extraordinary ability and success.

They both entered upon their career in youth, to the confusion of the wise and prudent. Christ is the Mediator of the Commonwealth of Israel; Napoleon was the legally constituted Mediator of the Helvetic Common-wealth.

Napoleon was king of Italy, emperor of Europe, and "Protector of the Church;" Christ is King of Israel, the destined Emperor of the world, and Protector of the Faithful in all future time.

Napoleon abolished the ancient dynasties, gave their thrones to his brothers and relations, and darkened the kingdom and throne of the Beast; Christ will abolish all dynasties, will give their thrones to his Brethren, and de-stroy finally the same kingdom and throne: Napoleon suppressed the Papacy; Christ will destroy it, and leave not a wreck behind.

Eureka 16.9.

...the "pains" and "ulcers" which tormented the inhabitants of all the countries of Papal and Protestant Europe, as they became in turn the scene of warfare. They were certainly terrific, and calculated to make the subjects of them "gnaw their tongues for the pain;" and, contemplated from a humanitarian standpoint, greatly to be deplored.

But when it is remembered, that they were worshippers of an imaginary ghost of a dead woman, they called "the Virgin Mary, and Holy Mother of God;" were Protestant Blasphemers of the Deity's Name; and the representatives of those who hunted from their homes their "heretical" friends and neighbours whom they burned to death, or drove from the haunts of men, to perish in the woods by hundreds, yea, by thousands, of hunger, nakedness, and cold - when we remember this, we can but say, that they were rightly served; and respond with the voice from the Altar,

"Even so, 0 Lord the almighty Deity, true and righteous are thy judgments!"

Eureka 16.10.

Blasphemous and unrepentant

We have seen in the ninth chapter of this work, that the first and second woes, executed by the Saracens and Euphrateans upon the Greek division of the Apostasy, though they were of intense severity, worked no repentance in the Latins.

They beheld Mohammedanism enthroned in the City of the Great Constantine; and the Trinitarian Superstition he had vindicated by the sword in conflict with the Dragon, trampled in the dust by the Moslem; yet in all this, they did not perceive the Deity's repudiation of Catholicism; or, if they did, they would not be instructed and corrected by it. Thus,

"the rest of the men who were not killed by these plagues," the Latin Catholics of the West, "repented not of the works of their hands" (ch. 9:20,21).

From the killing of the Eastern Third by the capture of Constantinople, to the resettlement of Europe by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, three hundred and sixty-two years had elapsed; and notwithstanding the terrible plagues of the past twenty-five years, the Latins, both Romish and Protestant, showed themselves to be as unrepentant of their "works" as ever.

These works and deeds are recited in ch. 9:20,21; such as idols or images of gold, silver, brass, stone, and wood, which their hands had made, as representatives of the demons, ta daimonia, the "disembodied spirits," they worshipped as guardians, intercessors, ministers of grace, and mediators between Christ and men. The deeds of

"the men who had the sign of the beast in their right hand, and in their foreheads,"

and who served as priests of these idols, vulgarly styled "the clergy", and of which they repented not, were murders, sorceries, fornication, thefts. And the people were like their priests.

They continued to uphold and sanction all these abominations with the blindest veneration and devotion, till the exhausted patience of the Deity gave place, in 1796, to the terrible outpouring of the third vial, at the hand of his servant Napoleon, who, as "his servant Nebuchadnezzar" on a former occasion, gave the worshippers of images "blood to drink", and "scorched them with great heat"

Eureka 16.10

The Outpouring of Wrath Upon Euphrates

12 And the 6th angel poured out his vial upon the great river <the> Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up that the way of the kings <who are from a sun's risings> might be prepared.


This was poured upon "the great river Euphrates", which directs our attention to the country possessing that river as its distinguishing river -- viz., the Turkish empire. While the events of the previous vials were in progress, Turkey was a great and formidable power -- so powerful that a writer on prophecy at the beginning of the present (nineteenth) century, perceiving that the downfall of the Turkish empire was meant, expressed his inability to conceive by what means it could be brought to the position of powerlessness and exhaustion to which the symbolism of the sixth vial pointed.

But the time had now arrived for the commencement of those events which would prepare the way for the appearance and power of the kings of the east, who should succeed tottering Papalism in universal empire. These have not yet made their appearance, but their way is prepared.

...So long as that [Ottoman] empire exist[ed], the way of the coming kings [was] barred; for the land of any king is his "way." Is there not, therefore, a manifest reason why Turkey should be dried out of the way, in preparation for the manifestation of the kingdom of God.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

In the days of Isaiah, the Assyrian power, which afterwards established itself in the Holy Land, was styled the Euphrates, and all the glory of that power, "the waters of the river." An invasion also of the country by the Assyrian is termed a

"coming up over all his channels and going over all his banks;"

so that when he came to stretch out the wings of his army over the breadth of Palestine, and to encompass the walls of Jerusalem, as in the days of Sennacherib, he is said by the prophet to "overflow and go over and to reach even to the neck." The passage is a beautiful and appropriate illustration of the scripture style in treating of powers and their invasions. It reads connectedly as follows:

"Behold, Yahweh bringeth upon them (the people who refuse the waters of Siloah-Israel) the waters of the river strong and many, the King of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: and he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach to the neck, and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O God with us!"

Now, to "dry up the water of this river" was to cause the evacuation of the Holy Land by the power that desolated it; so that it should again be confined by the Euphrates which was the frontier of its dominion. The transfer of this mode of speech from Isaiah to the Apocalypse does not at all alter its signification. The Euphrates there represents the power that fills the breadth of Immanuel's land contemporary with the outpouring of the sixth vial; and "the water thereof," all the glory of that power, and the "drying up" of that water the freeing the land from its accursed presence. Hence, John's prediction translated into unfigurative speech runs thus-

The sixth Angel poured out the wrath determined upon the Ottoman Desolator; and its power was totally abolished.

No prediction can be plainer than this; and it is one that every one who has any respectable acquaintance with the history of Turkey's last thirty-four years [since 1820], is fully assured is being fulfilled, Compare what Turkey was in power thirty years ago with what she is now in the Holy Land. Then its power was cruelly despotic and repressant; but now it exists there but as a shadow of its former self, mild and promotive of all internal improvements. What a change is this!

Still John's prediction is not fully accomplished. He saw it "dried up;" as yet we only see it drying up. An American now in Palestine says, "It is the decrepid and defenceless state of the peoples here that keeps them as peaceable as they are, rather than fear of the government.

They literally have little government to fear. All of government there is (and by this, I mean, that force is all the government that is of any use in the Turkish empire) is on the northern frontiers. This state of things throws open the way for all so disposed to make such depredations on whoever they may fall in with as they see fit. It is this, and nothing but this, that has put a stop to travel in this part of the country. There is no one to call the Bedouin to account for his depredations on foreigners that may be passing through his neighborhood.

Having then full assurance that the power of the existing Euphratean desolator is drying up, we might with propriety inquire, when will the process be complete? In answer to this question it may be said that the day and hour of his expulsion from the Holy Land, if fixed in the counsels of God, are not revealed. He is to alienate the land for a price or pecuniary consideration to a power from beyond the Euphrates and Tigris capable of protecting, or shadowing it with its wings, while it is growing into "a land of unwalled villages," rich in cattle and goods. When this alienation is accomplished, the Ottoman power in Palestine will be gone; and this will be the precursor to its overthrow in Europe and Constantinople.

It falls there to make way for the Russo-Greek, which is the last dynasty of the Little Horn of the Goat that will be permitted to reign there.

Herald of the kingdom and age to come, Jan 1855

The great river Euphrates, which flows into the Great City, has dried up greatly; that the way of these kings from the Sun's risings, may be prepared -- the power of the fourth, or Ottoman, angel is now only nominal; and the Gallic Frogs have well-nigh performed their mission: what, then, remains, but that Yahweh whom we seek should suddenly come to his temple, even the Messenger of the Covenant whom we delight in? (Apoc. xvi. 12-15; Mal. iii. 1) and having broken, as a thief, into the strong man's domain, bind him with chains and cause Babylon to fall, no more again to rise and curse the world with her cruelty and deceit.

Eureka 11.3.3.

The Ottoman Power being "the Great River Euphrates" of the symbolical Babylon, we have a subject before us capable of receiving, and as its sanguinary and earth-destroying history proves, well deserving, the indignation and wrath of Deity.

As the fourth of the Euphratean Angels (ch. 9:15) loosed against the Greek Catholic division of the Babylonian Apostasy, it has judicially and terrifically executed its mission. In performing the part allotted to it, it has repaid justice the debt incurred by the demon-worshipping and idolatrous Greek Catholics, who, when they reigned in Constantinople, were more wicked, and less tolerant of truly good men, than the Turks.

The Osmanlis are not idolators. Their zeal was great against all such; hence their Contempt of Catholics, both Greek and Latin, and their greater tolerance of Protestants. Still, the Euphratean is only a Sin-Power, well and heavily laden with its own peculiar offenses.

One of its greatest offenses consists in the treatment Yahweh's land, and people Israel, have experienced at its hand. As the modern representative of the Little-Horn-of-the-Goat power, it has "parted his land" "for gain" (Joel3 :2; Dan. 11:39); and ruling over Israel, has made them to howl; so that His name continually every day is blasphemed (Isa. 52:5).

No man likes his property to be laid Waste, and his slaves to be abused. Of both these counts the Constantinopolitan Little Horn has been so intensely guilty in regard to Yahweh's inheritance, that it has acquired the Scriptural epithet of Shomaim, THE DESOLATOR (Dan. 9:27).

... Hence, the political Euphrates standing in this antagonism to Deity, it is for this, and not because of its severity upon the Greeks, that the wasting wrath of the sixth vial is poured out upon it.


The prophecy, then, doth not signify a drying up of population. The Euphrates represents a power of the Apocalyptic Babylon; and as the name is indicative of water flowing in a certain channel, "water must signify the power of the Euphratean empire, expressed, as governments ordinarily express it, by force and arms.

There is one other place, and one only, in the Apocalypse, where water is used in the singular; as, inch. 12:15, in the words,

"the Serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the Woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood".

In this place "water" signifies power incorporated in armies, Sent forth from government to sweep away, as by a flood, the objects of its displeasure. Hence, the water of the Great River Euphrates, in like manner, represents the military power of the Ottoman empire; which is dissipated by a process of evaporation, a drying up; a gradual exhaustion, so as at last to leave the channel of the river in the heart of the Great City, empty; and devoid of all power to impede, or interfere with operations developing in the south-eastern recesses of the empire.

...The military and political power of the Ottoman empire was to be dried up by the wrath of the Sixth Vial, that the way for a certain class of kings might be cleared of all hindrances and impediments to their enterprize in its be-ginning.



No sooner had the effects of the first five vials subsided in the pacification and re-settlement of Europe as the result of Waterloo, and in the death of Napoleon in St. Helena, than the destruction of the Turkish Empire began.

To realize the full nature and signification of the fact, you must go back to the days of the sixth trumpet, which brought the four Ottoman waves of conquest over eastern and southern Europe.

... Think of the power of the Sultans, who were the most exalted monarchs of their time: and think of their long and powerful reigns. A sense of those days will enable you to estimate rightly the great change that commenced A.D. 1820, in harmony with the symbolism of the sixth vial.

The symbol was a drying river. Therefore we must look for events of a gradual character, more internal than external, having the effect of exhausting the power of the empire, and opening the way for another power in her evaporated territories. Such has been the history of Turkey since 1820, till the present moment, when she is on the verge of dissolution.

In 1826 the Sultan accomplished the insane performance of destroying the select provincial soldiery, known as Janizaries. These were bodies of troops got up, and maintained, and officered by the provincial aristocracy -- the flower of the army and the prop of the empire. The reason of their destruction was the complaining and almost dictatorial attitude they had assumed in various military and political questions.

Having in vain endeavoured to conciliate them, the Sultan, with a purpose unknown to all; ordered them to the capital, and having marshalled them in a great square, he surrounded them with troops, to whom he gave orders for an indiscriminate massacre of the Janizaries. The orders were carried out, and thus, in one day, the core of the empire's strength was taken out; for these Janizaries were in the hands of the independent chiefs, who vied with each other in the efficiency of their corps and the general vigour of their administration.

After their destruction, the management of military and other matters in the provinces was left to government officials sent from the capital, who held their posts precariously at the pleasure of the central authorities, and consequently were more intent on using their position for their private enrichment as rapidly as possible, than for the efficient conduct of the public service.

The result was shortly seen in the neglect of the public works, the disrepair of roads, the languishing of agriculture, for want of means of communication, and for want of protection from the rapacity of the collectors sent from the capital. Along with these causes of decay, there was a succession of the appalling disasters of fire, famine, and pestilence, depopulating whole districts; while in her political relations everything went against her, and tended to the curtailment of her empire and the weakening of her power.

Greece (till then a part of the empire for 400 years) revolted, and was made independent by the action of the European powers. Egypt revolted, and was erected into a semi-independent country, owning vassalage to Constantinople, but still self-governing under a vice-royalty. Moldavia and Wallachia revolted, and were detached as autonomous provinces, as the result of the Crimean War, and afterwards united in one government under the name of Roumania which has since become independent.

Then Servia revolted, with a similar result. More recently, Bulgaria revolted, and the severe measures of repression resorted to by the Turkish Government roused European indignation, and led to the Russo-Turkish war, which further reduced the shrinking, and drying, and dying empire.

Bulgaria became a self-governing country under a prince; Bosnia and Herzegovina were sliced off, and annexed by Austria; Roumelia also became practically independent, and all that was left of European Turkey was Albania, Thrace, and Macedonia, which are all in the full throes of new insurrection, which bids fair to finish the Turkish dominion in Europe altogether.

Concurrently with these political and geographical evaporations, various other causes of decay have been in active operation (such as living on borrowed money, etc.), which have reduced the Turkish Government to a state of extreme poverty and impotence.

The facts are so glaring, and so widely known, that it is unnecessary to do more than thus briefly allude to them as illustrating the full progress of the sixth vial, in the evaporation of the political Euphrates, in preparation of the way of the kings of the East.

13 Lectures on the Apocalpypse

The Sun of Righteousness

The rays of his power shine forth with creating and formative energy. Men and women are created in the earth, and projected from it. At this stage of the wondrous operation, they have "not the bodies that shall be;" but "come forth" (John 6:29), With bodies corruptible, without honour, weak, soulish, and earthy; for, that which is, "out of the earth, is earthy," ek ges choikos.

Each one is the Sun's rising, because the Sun of Righteousness is "the resurrection" (John 11:25); and so long as he is below the horizon, there can be no springing forth. But those people who have sprung forth into existence, "must all," both good and bad,

"be made manifest before the judgment seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things through the body, according to what he hath done, whether good or bad" (2 Cor. 5:10).

That which makes manifest is light (Eph. 5:13). The light thrown upon the case of each individual is his account of himself to the Deity; "for we shall" not only "all stand before the judgment seat of Christ;" but

"every one of us shall give account of himself to the Deity" (Rom. 14:10,12).

This self-rendered account manifests the character of the reporter, and determines his case for better or worse. If he be approved by "the Judge of the living and the dead," he is recognized as "the blessed of his Father," and being quickened, is authorized to "inherit the kingdom prepared for" such as he; to sit with him in his throne; and to exercise power over the nations (Matt. 25:34; Apoc. 2:26; 3:21).

Now, he that inherits a kingdom, sits upon a throne, and rules nations, is "a king;" and such a king, who was once dead, and sprung forth from the earth by the power of the Sun of Righteousness; and was selected from a crowd of people newly born of the earth, is

"a king from, or out of, a Sun's risings".

But, though there is "healing in the wings of the Sun of Righteousness," all are not healed who spring forth from earth, by the potency of his formative and life-imparting beams. "Many," saith Daniel,

"dust of the ground, shall awake from sleeping; some for living ones of the Olahm (the Millennium) and some for the objects of reproach and contempt of the Olahm" (ch. 12:2):

an arrangement in the resurrection-state endorsed by Christ, who, in John 5:28, saith,

"the hour is coming in which all who are in the tombs (mnemeios 'retained in memory' there) shall hear the voice of the Son of Man, and shall come forth; they who have done the good things, for a resurrection of life; but they who have practised the evil, for a resurrection of condemnation."

All these whose destinies are so diverse, are "risings of the Sun;" but, we see, that they do not all attain to the kingdom; for none can possess this, who, having come forth", are condemned. The condemnation leaves them corruptible, without honour, weak, soulish, and earthy; and such, Paul testifies, in 1 Cor. 15:50,

"cannot inherit the kingdom of the Deity".

They are repudiated by the Judge; and consigned to a common fate with the Beast and the False Prophet; who are subjected to the sword and burning flame by "the Kings" "chosen" "out of the risings of the Sun;" to prepare whose way, the wrath of the sixth vial is drying up the power of the Euphratean Ottoman Dynasty of the Goat's Little Horn.


Cyrus, and the "sanctified ones," his Medes and Persians, were typical of Christ and his Kings in "the way prepared," through the drying up of "the Great River Euphrates" by the sixth vial. Cyrus was named by Deity, and mentioned by name, about one hundred and sixty years before the capture of Babylon. His name and office are both representative as well as his mission.

The name given was Coresh, which some interpret by the word sun; on the ground that the Greek writers affirm that the name in Persian signified the sun. Gesenius says, they were correct. But, should we go to pagan Greeks and Persians to learn the meaning of a Hebrew name conferred upon a man whom the God of Israel intended to raise up to accomplish a work upon Babylon, which was to find its antitype over 2400 years after?

My answer is, no. Coresh in Hebrew does not signify the sun, which is there represented by shemesh. Coresh is a proper name compounded of caph, like, and yoraish, the participle of yarash, which signifies, to seize, to take possession of, to occupy, mostly by force. Hence, Yoraish comes to signify one who takes possession of his inheritance by conquest.

This definition of Cyrus' Hebrew name accords with the facts of his history. The Deity had predetermined, that he should inherit the Babylonish Empire, which included the Holy Land; and that he should take possession of it by conquest. He therefore made Yoraish a part of his name; and, as he intended his career to be typical of His own Son's, Whom he hath constituted "the Heir of all things" terrestrial; and who is also to acquire possession of his inheritance by conquest; he added the letter caph, and condensing the three syllables into two, named him Coresh, or Koraish, signifying Like the Heir.

Now, let the reader note What occurred before Cyrus and Darius, with their "sanctified ones" (Isa. 13:3), the kings of the north, could take possession of Babylon. It was necessary, that "the Great River Euphrates," which flowed into and through the city, "should be dried up; that the way of Yahweh's Anointed Shepherd and his flock, might be prepared" (Isa. 44:25; 45:1).

"A drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up;" "I will dry up her great river eth-yammah; and make her springs dry" (Jer. 50:38; 51:36). This was literally accomplished by Cyrus, who turned the Euphrates from its course; left the channel of the river dry; marched his troops along the dried way in the night into the very heart of Babylon; and, coming upon the king and nobles "as a thief," put them without discrimination, or mercy, to the sword.

Such was the practical representation of the entrance into the Apocalyptic Babylon by Yahweh's Anointed Shepherd, the all-conquering Heir of the World, and the Kings, whom he will have raised to consubstantiality with himself (1 John 3:2), and constituted his co-operators, and companions in arms. He has been, so to speak, besieging Babylon, and inflicting upon her all the miseries of a besieged city, by the forces engaged in the execution of the plagues of the first five vials; but, as in the typical operations of Cyrus, "the sanctified ones" of the Eternal Spirit have not come into the possession of the Apocalyptic Babylon by direct assaults.

The Divine purpose required that the European Babylon should be entered by a coup de main, or unexpected attack. Cyrus entered thus. Since the commencement of the sixth vial, Christ Jesus has been, by his agents, drying up the Great River of Babylon, the Ottoman power; which, undried, would have been an inconvenience, and an embarrassment, in the development of those judicial household-arrangements, which must precede the manifestation of "the kings of the Sun's risings", to the world.

Before the outpour of this vial, the Ottoman was a power, overshadowing Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Syria, in great force. It could have concentrated its armies upon any of these provinces in great numbers; and with powerful and embarrassing effect, upon any un-warlike crowd that might be convened for the purposes of judgment, organization, and legislation, the necessary preparation for all great enterprises in a world like this.

It is true, that the Deity could destroy them all, however numerous and powerful, as He did the army of Sennacherib, in the reign of Hezekiah: there is here no question about what He could do; He can do what He pleases: but it is not according to His revealed plan of operations in the work of manifesting His sons, to have that judicial and preparatory work interrupted by battle, and the burial of a host of corpses.

To prevent this embarrassing inconvenience, He deemed it necessary to dry up from those countries the overflowing power of "the Desolator" - to diminish it, and hold it in check by other jealous powers whose mutual distrust should reduce "the Sick Man" to a nullity.


But, shall it be said, that the wrath of the sixth vial was designed to dry up the great Turkish power, in order to put in its place a stronger and greater power, the Muscovite, before the coming of Christ and the manifestation of his Kings?

The sixth vial is in part to remove Gentile Power to a convenient distance - to diminish, not to increase it, in the region of Sinai, and Teman, and Mount Paran (Hab. 3:3; Deut. 33:2): but, to substitute the Russian in Constantinople for the Turk; and to give the Czar dominion over the Ottoman empire before Christ comes; would render nugatory the drying up process of the past forty-eight years.

My present conviction therefore, is, that the gathering together of the national armies against Jerusalem (Zech. 14:2) is after the appearance of Christ in the South; that is, in Teman; where he begins his career as "THE KING OF THE SOUTH(*) Dan. 11:40); and before he appears upon Mount Zion.

Hence, we have not to wait the advance of the Russian Gog against Constantinople, and his overflowing and passing over, and stretching forth his power over Egypt, and the Holy Land. This will certainly come to pass; but it will all be consequent upon, not antecedent to, the appearing of Christ in Teman. The Great Euphratean Ottoman Power is not dried up to prepare the way of the greater power of Gog; but,

"that the way of the Kings out of the Sun's rising might be prepared"


13 And I saw <out of the Mouth of the Dragon, and out of the Mouth of the Beast and out of the Mouth of the False Prophet, three Unclean Spirits like to Frogs;>

3 Unclean spirits

... Those influences are symbolized by three unclean spirits, like frogs, which John saw emanate from the three European centres. ... France... is exhibited as exercising at the time of the drying of the Euphrates an influence so potent as to emanate frog-like, or in French shape, from the mouth of the dragon (CONSTANTINOPLE), beast (VIENNA), and false prophet (ROME).

...Under Napoleon III France became a disturbing element among the European powers, with the effect of rousing them from the military dormancy into which they had sunk with the close of the stormy career of the first Napoleon. A nearly forty years peace had made militarism almost obsolete.

....The mysterious policy of Napoleon III -- preceded as it was by the coup d'etat -- set a process of reciprocal arming into motion which no one could stop.

This process was greatly accelerated by the wars into which Louis Napoleon from time to time dragged the nations of Europe. These wars were in the very order of the frog-like emanations of the symbol.

First there was the Crimean war, which commenced with a declaration of war from CONSTANTINOPLE (the mouth of the dragon), inspired distinctly and directly by Louis Napoleon, as afterwards transpired in diplomatic documents. This declaration of war, therefore, issuing from Constantinople, was palpably a frog-like or French-like spirit coming out of the mouth of the political dragon.

Next, from VIENNA, came the declaration of war by the emperor of Austria, in 1859, against Sardinia (backed by France) -- a declaration which a study of the events of the time, will show you as distinctly traceable to the operation of French policy on the Austrian government as in the case of the Constantinopolitan declaration.

Finally, in ROME, there was the Papal war, in which the Pope, energized by the French, who sent troops to his aid, made war upon the revolutionists. This also was a frog-like emanent from the mouth of the false prophet. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of the sixth vial.

You may be aware that this is not an interpretation invented after the things happened, but one that was published in 1850 by Dr. Thomas, before the events transpired. The occurrence of these wars afterwards, in the very order of the symbols, is all the more to be noted as a confirmation of the Divine character of the whole prophecy, and pre-disposes the mind to consider the import of the wonderful parenthesis:

"Behold, I come as a thief; blessed is he that watcheth."

What is this but the coming of the Lord? The time of its occurrence is indicated in this general way. It is when the Euphrates is dried, and the nations are armed and ready for the Armageddon conflict, that Jesus steals into the world to resume his work, and to carry it on to the glorious issues displayed in subsequent parts of the Apocalypse.

The sixth vial is nearly fulfilled, and Jesus comes under the sixth vial, but exactly at what stage of it is not revealed. We are therefore in the position described by Christ, that

"we know neither the day nor the hour."

His first work is a work of judgment on his own house, as indicated by the words,

"Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments."

His next work is work of public participation in the wars that will ensue. The armies of the nations are (providentially) gathered to Armageddon, that is, to the mountains of Israel (Ezek. 38:6-16), where they are overthrown with great slaughter, and the kingdom of God established in nucleus form in the land of Judah. Then comes the era of public tumult, depicted in the 7th vial.

13 Lectures on the Apocalypse

He is styled a false prophet, because his utterances, or prophesyings, are mere fraud, deceit, and vanity; because the signs, and lying wonders wrought in the presence of the Beast-authorities by him, are an imposture, and his preaching, allocutions, decrees, and so forth, the falsehoods of a lying oracle, by which they are deceived who have received the mark of the beast, and who worship his image (Apoc. 19:20).

Eureka 13.12.

15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.

This is the warning in the midst of the Sixth Vial, of the Apocalypse of the Son of Man, like a thief in the night, catching many unawares and unprepared spiritually (Mtt.25), blinded by the burdens and petty preoccupations of their own little lives, so that they cannot discern the signs of momentous developments in the political heavens heralding the imminent apocalypse of the Lord Jesus Christ, Israel's Messiah, to seize the sceptre from man's evil grasp and give it to those who are worthy (Lk.21.34- 36). They say in their hearts "the time is, not yet," (Hg.l.2).

Thick darkness reigns. The Apocalypse of Christ, in reality, is the climax of the book, so named, since all the Seals and Trumpets and Vials havebeen unfolding and tending to this very conclusion at the end of times; when the dramatic denouement of the plot is brought to fruition, namely the Apocalypse or unveiling of Christ in all power and glory, and with all his holy angels (Mtt.25.31), to render vengeance upon his enemies, and salvation to the faithful remnant of the Woman's Seed, who have held fast to the original faith, and earnestly scanned the political horizons for his return, who have contended earnestly for the faith (Jde 3), and

shared the vision of Enoch (Jude. 14.15), repudiated Apostasy, and delighted in the joyful prospect of Pslm 149 .

The Lord, has journeyed from the right hand of the Majesty on high back to the earth, to unlock the mystery of his mission, exhaust the wrath of God, and give a blessing to those who have watched and prepared, and endured to the end, when the love of many hath waxed cold (Mtt.24.13): 'Then, will the earth and its people tremble at the visible presence of Christ back in the earth (Isa 64.2-4) Hallelujah (Pslm, I 50). Then will he redeem his people Israel.

'And keepeth their garments' (unspotted by the evil world).

Keeps them pure, clean and white, which is the righteousness of the saints (Rev. 19.8), and not defiled by women (apostasy) (Rev. 14.4), or any other pollutions, grovelling in the lusts and desires of the flesh, rolling in the mire of filthiness, like the washed sow (2Pet.2.22).

The priests wore white linen garments down to the foot, whilst they ministered at the Altar (Ex.28), as long as they upheld the law and did not degenerate into Apostasy and idolatry (Isa 66, Jer.l- 7).

Their garments became spattered with blood from the sacrifice, self sacrifice in our case,

so that this will qualify a faithful disciple of Christ to wash their garments in the blood of Christ's enemies: Who is this that cometh from Edom with dyed garments? Yahweh of Armies mighty to save (ls.63.1-6, ls.34, Rev.1.13-16).

'Lest he walk naked and they see his, shame'.

Nakedness is symbolic of sin in Yahweh's eyes. The nakedness of sin's flesh of Adam's race (Lev.18, 19). There must be a divinely appointed covering, a purging of sin (1 Tim.2.5,6). A person loses this covering when there is no development of the divine character, or when there is pursuit of a sinful worldly way, or apostate embracing or fellowshipping of heresy, that which defiles and pollutes the sanctuary of Yahweh (Titus 3.10). Brethren and ecclesial elderships have a duty to uphold divine Truth, the pioneer faith, and repudiate apostasy (Acts 20.29,30,Mtt.7.l5,16).

The Temple Guard.

The most difficult watch was the Morning Watch, when tiredness prevailed, and the Temple guard would come round to check if awake Pslm.130.5,6. This can be rendered "my soul waiteth for God-like night guards for the morning." He is anxious for the morning to relieve him of his vigil, and the Temple guard find him asleep on his watch. Yahweh is the eternal watchman (Ps 121.4)

The Apocalyptic Messenger, Aug 2018



There are four words for "watching" in the New Testament, and they are interesting. The principle, most common one is gregoreuo (gray-gor-yoo'-o). The name Gregory means watcher. This is the word here in this verse. Its literal derivation is to be awake, and its meaning is vigilance.

The second word for "watching" is tereo (tay-reh'-o). That is the word in this verse translated "keep," as it usually is throughout the New Testament. But sometimes it is translated "watch." This word means to keep the eye fixed upon something, as to guard something valuable or to follow a guide carefully.

The third word is agrupneo (ag-roop-nee'-o), and literally it means to chase away sleep, from agreo, to chase, and hupnos, sleep, from which we get the word hypnotism. It implies forcing the mind and the senses to be alert, despite strong physical desire for rest and relaxation. This is a very instructive word. It is the one Jesus used when he said, in Luke 21,

"Watch, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy."

If we don't, we won't. And Paul of his tremendous labours, "in watchings often." (2Cor. 11)

The fourth is nepho (nay'-fo), which literally means to abstain from wine, and therefore, to be sober, to be clear-minded.

"Watch thou in all things, and endure affliction" (II Tim 4). "Let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith" (I Thess 5).

The "wine" to be abstained from are the things of this life-anything that takes our mind from eternal reality, that gives a temporary false sense of well-being and pleasure, that affects our judgment and discernment and stability.

...The watching required is not so much the external watching for the Lord's return and for the signs of it, rather it is the watching of one's self and one's own duties and responsibilities, so as to be ready and acceptable, whenever the Lord returns. A watching, too, for the welfare of the ecclesia and of the Body, and for individual members' needs, both natural and spiritual. Christ will ask each one of us at his return,

"What have you done for me and my little ones?"

All that we do, all day and every day, must be consciously done in the light of his return, and with a view to its being a joyful occasion, bringing approval and blessing and eternal love and communion. This requires a constant watching-a constant self-reminding and redirection of the mind and actions.

Bro Growcott - Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments

As a thief

...describes the relation of the advent to the nations of the earth, who when it occurs, are mustering for "the war of the great day of God Almighty," and who will be unconscious of the presence of Christ in the earth, till made to feel it in the adversities of war

TC 02/1870

Keepeth his garments

Scripturally, clothing is used symbolically with five varieties of applications. First, covering of the natural and fleshly, which is nakedness and shame. This is the sense in the passage before us in Revelation 16.

...a covering of nakedness, of the flesh, of sin. Here, there are two aspects - our own duties and responsibilities, and the covering provided in Christ. We must perceive both, and the harmony between them.

To depend wholly on the first is to make the mistake of the Jew-seeking righteousness through works of law and personal accomplishment. To depend wholly on the second is to make the mistake of the churches of the world - the delusion that Christ has done everything, and we, not only need not, but cannot do anything to contribute to our own salvation. We can, and we must do much with God's help.

...We cannot earn salvation. Our very best and fullest efforts are utterly inadequate and powerless in this respect. It is wholly of God's grace, and love, and mercy, and gift, or none would attain life. BUT, our efforts will determine whether or not we receive and retain that grace and gift and mercy.

...The second part does not cancel the first, but intensifies it. If God is graciously doing His promised part within us, or willing to, we certainly must do that part commanded us. Both aspects are essential and inseparatable. We are not saved by works, but the best works of obedience that we can render are necessary to being saved, because that is the specified condition upon which God makes His gracious gift. And it is a very reasonable condition.

Christ supplies the garment of righteousness to cover our natural, naked, sinful fleshliness, but only - only on the condition that we will repudiate and energically fight that fleshliness. That's works.

It is we who must put the garment on-works. And keep it on-works. And keep it clean-works. And this is only done by the most intensive effort of careful obedience, constant prayer, and seeking of cleansing through forgiveness. Because of the weakness of the flesh, there is a continuous defilement, and there must, therefore, be a continuous cleansing that at any given moment the raiment may be in God's sight pure and spotless, or we cannot stand before Him.

In this life, we shall never be perfect, either in quality or in quantity of service and obedience. But perfection in both quality and quantity must be the continuous goal and the object of continuous effort. For we must be accounted perfect to be accepted. And we certainly shall not be accounted perfect in Christ, if we are not at least striving with all our might to be perfect. Perfection will not at the end be forced upon us, if we do not value it, and realize its urgent importance, and strive continually for it.

The king in the parable of the marriage supper came in to see the guests and found one without the required wedding garment (Matt. 22). He was cast forth unto outer darkness. The man had failed to put on the covering garment, or having put it on, he had failed to keep it on. The method of putting the garment on is clearly specified.

"He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved." (Mark 16). "As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ" (Gal. 3).

"Put on" here is literally clothed with, and is so translated elsewhere, as "clothed with camel's hair" (Mark 1).

Christ himself is the glorious garment we must put on. It is a very living, personal relationship, and must be very real to us. Putting on Christ is not the mere ritual of baptism, essential as that is, as God's only appointed doorway to salvation. Putting on Christ is putting on his character and his total God-centered love and submission and life-long service.

Bro Growcott - Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments