[The vision of the four beasts]

1 In the 1st year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters.

The elevation of Belshazzar to power marked a great decline in the rule of Babylon. The restraints shown by Nebuchadnezzar consequent upon the revelations given him by Daniel were relaxed, and the nation declined sharply in morals. Belshazzar's reign terminated the dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar and the seventy year period allocated to it by Jeremiah (Ch. 25:11-12; 29:10). *

2 Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea.

Daniel ... expounded it to others, so that those of like mind could comprehend better the purpose of God.

Night... the darkness of Gentile times; as used by the Lord Jesus - John 9: 4-5.

Symbolically, a wind denotes an army on the march - Jer. 4:11-13. The four winds, therefore, represented the armies of the four world powers that successively struggled for the mastery. As the dream was given "in the first year of Belshazzar", Daniel most likely would have been considering the impending changes predicted by Isaiah (Ch. 45) and Jeremiah (Ch. 25: 12) requiring the overthrow of Babylon at the hands of Cyrus at the end of the seventy years captivity. *

Chapter 7 begins the great prophetic visions of Daniel himself, which now continue right through to the end of the book. They were all at the end of his life in the short reigns of Belshazzar and Darius and the first three years of Cyrus.

Chapter 7 is about the vision of the four beasts that parallels the image of Nebuchadnezzar's dream. But the symbolism here is much fuller and more striking. That was for a heathen monarch; this is for the servants of God. There the kingdom of men was as a great man-like image; here it is shown as savage destroying beasts.

Here we have the deeper details - of the little horn that prevailed against the saints, of the Ancient of Days, the Son of Man similitude of God-manifestation, coming with the clouds of heaven, the opening of the books of judgment, the ten thousand times ten thousand standing before him, and the saints taking the kingdom under the whole heaven. These were vast and mighty things for a mortal man to see and to carry alone in his heart. Daniel says (verse 28),

"My thoughts much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart."

The more terrible things were yet to be revealed to the man greatly beloved. He was to see the long centuries of the desolation of his people, the restoration, and then the destroying again of the city and the sanctuary, the cutting off of the long-awaited Messiah-visions and revelations that overwhelmed his spirit and caused him to lie sick many days.

Bro Growcott - Daniel, the man greatly beloved

3 And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.

Gentile nations are elsewhere symbolised as "beasts" (see Prov. 28:15; Jer. 12:9), tearing each other apart. Among them, Israel is represented as a sheep. Later, Daniel was told that the four beasts represented four kingdoms (v.17).

Like the metals on the Image they emerge as world powers one after the other. As each destroyed and absorbed its predecessor, it built into its own constitution forms of government and power that had proved successful in its administration so that the fourth unnamed beast became a combination of all those that went before it. It is so described in Rev. 13:2:

"And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion".

Whilst "diverse" one from the other, there was a common element of ruthless antiSemitism in all four, characteristic of Gentile power. *

There were certain important particulars to be revealed in connection with the empires and kingdoms of the Metallic Image, which could not be suitably expressed through a symbol of the human form. It became necessary therefore to introduce other representations, that would admit of appendages more in harmony with them. Wild beasts were selected to represent dominions instead of parts of a metallic figure; and as there were four different metals, four different animals were selected, according to the following order:

1. The head of gold, was illustrated by a LION;

2. The breasts and arms of silver, by a BEAR;

3. The belly and thighs of brass, by a LEOPARD; and,

4. The legs, feet, and toes of iron, by a FOURTH BEAST WITH TEN HORNS

Exposition of Daniel Ch 3.

Only the 4th beast spread across Europe. Of the 4 beasts the Roman empire was uniquely European.

4 The first was like a lion, and had eagle 's wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it.

The lion was the symbol of the Chaldean empires of Assyria and Babylon; the powers responsible for the scattering of the divided kingdom of Israel and Judah. Jeremiah declared:

"Israel is a scattered sheep; the lions have driven them away; first the King of Assyria hath devoured him; and last this Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon hath broken his bones" (Jer. 50:17).

It was a common national symbol in the days of the prophet. Archaeologists have unearthed many huge images of lions both at Nineveh and Babylon - Jer. 4:7. The lion is considered the king of beasts answering to the gold of the image, the most precious metal.

The huge out-stretched wings of the eagle symbolised the widespread, extensive territory of Assyria which incorporated most of the then known world. Statues of winged lions have been unearched by archaeologists.

As the central administration of Assyria weakened, the provinces of its realm, represented by the "wings" revolted against the domination of Nineveh.

This was caused by violent invasions of Scythians, and revolts on the part of Media and Babylonia. In Babylon, Nabopolassar grasped power, and not only asserted his independence, but ultimately dominated Nineveh so as to replace its power and influence. The "plucking" of wings suggests revolution by which this was brought about.

" it was lifted up from the earth" Its rule was transported from Nineveh to Babylon.

The Babylonian administration was more susceptible to humane considerations than was the brutal Assyrian. This is exhibited in the Book of Daniel by the way in which Nebuchadnezzar was influenced by the teaching of the prophet. Bro. Thomas comments: "So long as the government continued in the family of Nebuchadnezzar: which with all its faults was more humane than that which it succeeded" (Exposition of Daniel). **

...Egypt became a part of Babylon; the great Egyptian Dragon was abolished; and the power of "the old serpent" thus symbolized, transferred to the FIRST of Daniel's four Mediterranean empires; which under Nebuchadnezzar stood man-like upon its feet, with a lion's head, and the heart of a man (Dan. 7:2,4).

Hence, at this epoch, when the Seed of the Woman; of which Daniel, Ezekiel and Jeremiah were constituents, was heelbruised in Babylon, the wing-plucked lion-power was "the Great Dragon, the old serpent, surnamed the Devil and the Satan."

The Head of the old serpent, in this first beast manifestation, was the dynasty represented by Nebuchadnezzar, who had conquered Egypt, and plucked the wings of the Assyrian Lion. This dynasty was "the Head of Gold" - the cockatrice, or adder, which came forth out of the Egypto-Assyrian Serpent's root, whose fruit the world has found to be "a fiery flying serpent" (Isa. 14:29).

The Dragon under this dynastic form continued only seventy years. At the end of this period it was changed; and "Lucifer, son of the morning, who weakened the nations, was cut down;" and made to give way to YAHWEH'S "sanctified ones," the Medes and Persians; who, under the command of Darius and Cyrus, "took the kingdom" (Isa. 14:12; 13:17; Dan. 5:28,31).

Eureka 12.14.

The Beasts being substituted for the metals of Nebuchadnezzar's Image, they represent of course the same phases of the Kingdom of Men. We learn from Jeremiah that the powers of Nineveh and Babylon were each represented by lions. He says, "Israel is a scattered sheep; the lions have driven them away: first the King of Assyria hath devoured him; and last this Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon hath broken his bones" (Jer. 50:17).

The Ninevite Assyrian was represented to Daniel as a lion with eagle's wings. Many years before, the Deity had punished the King of Assyria and his land for scattering the Ten Tribes, by transferring the dominion over the Nimroudian empire from Nineveh to Babylon. This revolution is represented by the eagle-wings being "plucked" from the lion's back; while the lion itself was made to stand erect as a man, and to receive in exchange for its lion-heart, the heart of a man. Thus the Lion-Man became the symbol of the Kingdom of Babylon so long as the government continued in the family of Nebuchadnezzar; which with all its faults was more human than that which it succeeded.

Exposition of Daniel Ch 3.

5 And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs [Presidencies] in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.

The bear represented Medo-Persia which overthrew Babylon.

The vision was given in the "first year of Belshazzar" , that is at the epoch of Babylon's decline.

The impiety of this king was the cause of the down-fall of the nation. The conquest of Babylon took place approximately in the year 536 B. C. It was succeeded by the Medo-Persian Empire.

Next to the lion, he bear was the most feared animal found in the Promised Land. Strong, cruel, cunning and greedy, the bear is not as powerful, nor courageous as the lion, but nevertheless is to be avoided - 1 Sam 17: 34, 2 Sam 17: 8, Prov 17: 12; Hos 13: 8.

The bear is omnivorous, eating both vegetables and flesh. Whereas the lion is more predictable, the bear is more cunning, and can hide its intentions. The Medo-Persian rulers were more diplomatic and cunning than the Babylonians. They also were more greedy for prey, and extended their borders far beyond those of the Babylonian Empire.

"And it raised itself on one side" - The Medes preceded the Persians in government over the joint Medo-Persian realm. Cyaxares the Mede perfected his army and waged war on Nineveh. The Medes were noted for their efficiency and ruthlessness in war. Yahweh, through Isaiah, warned Babylon:

"I will stir up the Medes against them ... and they shall have no pity" (Isa. 13:16-18).

Median rulers dominated until Cyrus revolted against the Median tyrant Astyages, and seized power. Characteristically, once in control Cyrus acted diplomatically towards Astyages whom he had overthrown and captured. In The Medes and Persians, R. Collins writes:

"Contrary to custom, Astyages wasn't slain. Cyrus - great-great-grandson of Achaemenes and soon to become the noblest Persian of all- took the old man into the court and dealt with him sympathetically for the remainder of his life. It was an unusual touch of humanity for those savage times and a sign of better things to come" (p.31).

As Daniel reveals, even after Babylon had fallen, Cyrus diplomatically used the authority of the Medes to consolidate his power (Dan. 5:31), but it was not long before Persians controlled the government, and continued to do so for the long period of the Medo-Persian Empire.

"it had three ribs [Presidencies] in the mouth of it". The description illustrates the voracious appetite of a bear. An the Medo-Persian Empire proved to be such. When Cyrus rose to power there were three powerful rivals contesting for dominion. They were Babylonia, noted for its strength; Lydia noted for its wealth; and Egypt noted for its antiquity and culture.

United, they could have beaten Cyrus; but part of Cyrus' genius was his ability to divide and conquer. One by one he conquered these three powers until their bodies were bones in the teeth of the Medo-Persian bear.

Firstly he attacked Lydia in western Asia, and in remarkable circumstances this powerful and fabulously wealthy empire was brought under his control; then he turned his hand against Babylon, that most powerful of all ancient fortresscities, and by diverting the course of the River Euphrates that ran through it displayed his ingenuity and generalship; finally Egypt succumbed to his power. Cyrus dominated the civilised world.

"And they said thus unto it" - "they"? ... the angelic "watchers" through whom Yahweh guided the course of history, and the destiny of nations. After the conquests of Cyrus there came the need to consolidate. Cyrus wisely delegated his authority. Over the threefold division of his Empire he appointed three "presidents" of whom Daniel was chief (Dan. 6:2). *

*The Christadelphian Expositor

Mede and Persian empire 127 provinces Esther 1: 1

These were distributed into "three ribs, "or presidencies, of which Daniel's jurisdiction was the first. The three ribs in the Mouth of the Bear are symbolical of these political divisions. Among the provinces of the Bear were Egypt, Armenia, Syria, and Asia Minor to the Bosphorus. 

These all came in due time to be annexed to the Dragon empire, or Daniel's Fourth Beast; so that the Bear became a constituent of the Dragon, and its four paws, armed with claws of brass, became the Sea-Monster's apocalyptic [13:1] ' with which it is yet in our future, "the last of the days," to "break in pieces, and to stamp the residue" (Dan. 7:19).

Eureka 13.11.

The lion was a very appropriate symbol for the Assyrian dynasty; and it was as well understood to represent it in the days of the prophets, as it is now that the lion and unicorn are symbols of the British power. Hence, speaking of the overthrow coming upon Judah by Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah says, "I will bring evil from the north, and a great destruction. The Lion is come up from his thicket, and the destroyer of the Gentiles is on his way. He is gone forth to make thy land desolate; and thy cities shall be laid waste without an inhabitant " (Jer. 4:6,7).

But in Daniel (Dan. 6:4), the Assyrian lion appears under different aspects. He is represented first, as a lion with eagle's wings, crouching; and, secondly, as a lion without wings, standing erect, human-like, and with the disposition of a man.

The lion in those two aspects represents the Assyrian monarchy in two phases; first, while Nineveh was its capital; and secondly, when by conquest the seat of government was transferred to Babylon.

Esarhaddon was king of Assyria while Merodach Baladan was king of Babylon, and both were contemporary with Hezekiah, king of Judah. Baladan, the father of Merodach-Baladan, was probably the founder of Nebuchadnezzar's dynasty. Merodach was doubtless an important member of the family; for Nebuchadnezzar named his son Evil Merodach, after him.

About 106 years elapsed from the embassy of Merodach-Baladan, to inquire after the health of Hezekiah, and concerning the bringing back of the shadow ten degrees by which it had gone down on the dial, to the first year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign; which was equivalent to the third of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. It was by the Merodach-Baladan dynasty, that "the wings of the Assyrian lion were plucked;" that is, the Esarhaddon dynasty of Assyria was superseded by the king of Babylon, as the destroyer of the Gentiles.

Before this revolution was effected, the Assyrian dominion was represented by a winged lion, having the form of a man down to the waist, and furnished with arms. This is satisfactorily demonstrated by Mr. Layard in his "Nineveh and its remains." In his excavations at Nineveh he laid bare sculptured lions, twelve feet high and twelve feet long. In one hand, a goat was held; and in the other hanging down by the side, a branch with three flowers. From the shoulder sprang forth expanded wings which spread over the back. The body was that of a lion with five legs, two on the fore-end, and three on the side. The head, breast, and arms were human, and as low down as the waist. A knotted girdle ending in tassels, encircled the loins.

But when Nineveh's dominion was transferred to Babylon by a conqueror, a change came over the Assyrian lion. Daniel [7:4] says, "I beheld till its wings were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth." In consequence of its eagle's wings being plucked, that is, of Armenia and Persia being subdued, the Assyrian dominion was prostrated to the earth; completely overthrown, but not destroyed; for Daniel says furthermore, that "the lion was made to stand upon the feet as a man" [Dan. 7:4].

Nebuchadnezzar was at once the conqueror and re-builder of the Assyrian monarchy. He made it stand erect, and gave it a more civilized constitution. Shalmaneser had destroyed the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel, and Sennacherib had blasphemed Yahweh, and the posterity of his son Esarhaddon had become effete: this was a dynasty which had become a pest, a plague spot upon the nations; but Nebuchadnezzar, though an idolator, was a man better suited to the purposes of God.

There was more of the man, and less of the wild beast, in him than in the kings of the dynasty he had overthrown. Therefore, when the Assyrian lion was made to stand erect upon its hind feet like a man, Daniel says, that "a man's heart was given to it".

Its golden, or imperial lion-head, was responsive to divine impressions, and gave utterance to sentiments, which were entirely alien from the heart of the kings of Nineveh. "I blessed the Most High," said Nebuchadnezzar, "and I praised and honored Him that liveth for ever, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and His kingdom is from generation to generation; and all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing; and He doeth according to His will in the army of heaven; and among the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay His hand, or say unto Him, What doest thou? I praise, and extol, and honour the King of Heaven, all whose works are truth and His ways judgment; and those that walk in pride He is able to abase." [compare Dan. 4:34, 35, 37 with Isaiah 36]

But this "man's heart," was not the disposition of Belshazzar, his son's son. Instead of praising, and extolling, and honoring the God of Israel, he defied Him; and "lifted himself up against the Lord of heaven; and out of the holy vessels of His temple, he, and his lords, his wives, and his concubines, drank wine; and he praised the gods of silver and gold, and of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose hand his breath was, and whose were all his ways, he had not glorified."

This was his offence, on account of which the Lord of heaven passed this sentence upon him:

"God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it; thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. And thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians." Nor was the execution of the decree long delayed, for

"on that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain. And Darius the Median took the kingdom" (Dan. v. 30-31).

Elpis Israel 3.1.

5 And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.

The lion dominion being overthrown, the dynasty of the Bear took its place when "Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans," in 542 before Christ.

It was a dominion to be extended by the sword, as particular expressed in the words addressed to the Bear, "Arise, devour much flesh."

In the symbolography, or description of the symbol, the prophet saith, that

"it raised up itself on one side."

Hence, one side was "higher than the other;" but, before it raised itself up, the higher side was the lower; therefore, the higher side acquired its more elevated position last. Compare this characteristic of the Bear, with what is said of the horns of the Ram (Dan. 8:3). The inequality of the sides of the Bear, represents the historical fact, that the dynasty of the Bear-dominion was mixed; that is, it was first Median and then Persian.

Darius was a Mede, and his successor Cyrus, a Persian. They were allies in the overthrow of the Chaldean kingdom. When the crown was to be assumed, the Mede preceded the Persian; but when Darius died, instead of the crown descending to a Mede, it passed to a Persian, whose race continued to wear it until the dominion of the Bear was superseded by the leopard. Thus the Persian side of the Bear was raised up last.

But the Bear had also "three ribs in the mouth of it, between the teeth of it." This indicates that in devouring much flesh, the result was that its prey was reduced to "three ribs," which had become firmly fixed to its head. In other words, that the Medes and Persians had made extensive conquests, which were reduced to three divisions for the better administration of public affairs. A rib of the dominion, then, represents an imperial presidency, or, as we should say, vice-royalty; each satrapy comprehending a number of principalities. This organization of the Bear is thus expressed by the prophet,

"It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom a hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom; and over these THREE PRESIDENTS; of whom Daniel was first: that the princes might give accounts unto them, and the king (or Bear's head) should have no damage."

By the reign of Ahasuerus, or Artaxerxes II, the dominion of the Bear extended "from India to Ethiopia over one hundred and twenty seven provinces." Though the principalities may have been increased in number, or extent, the presidencies remained the same. A dominion represented by the Bear, its dynastic branch by the higher side, and its three presidencies by the three ribs, were the principal points which distinguished the realm of the Chaldeans, under the Medo Persian sovereignty, from that of the Lion, or the Head of Gold. And it is worthy of remark here with reference to the image at the crisis of its fate, that the power which shall possess Persia in the latter days will be the Bear, and consequently answer to the breast of silver.

We have already in the heraldry of nations an intimation of the power destined to act the part of the bear, when the Four Beasts have "their dominion taken away." This power is the Russian whose symbol is a Bear. This is so well known, that the phrase "the Russian Bear" is as familiar as household words. Russia, which already comprehends some of the Persian territory in its bounds, is destined to conquer Persia, and to possess it from India to Ethiopia. This is not conjecture, but an absolute certainty; for God has declared by Ezekiel, that Persia in the latter days shall be a constituent of the dominion of Gog; and, that Gog is the autocratic dynasty of Russia will be seen when we come to treat of that prophecy in its proper place.

Elpis Israel 3.1.

6 After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it.

The Leopard is perhaps the most handsome of all the beasts of prey, as Greece is considered by many to be the most cultured of nations. As an animal, it is more adapable, and has a greater range of habits than most other beasts of prey.

The leopard is found in equatorial forests, burning deserts, low-lying swamplands and rugged mountain terrain. It is noted for its speed and the unexpectedness of its attack. It has been known, after stalking a prey for some distance, to leap upon it with incredible speed in a pounce some 40 feet (12 m.) long. It is tremendously strong and versatile, and has been known to climb the trunk of a tree carrying an antelope of 250 lb, to consume it in the safety of its boughs for a period of some days. *

"The Leopard is Macedonian, representing Alexander the Great's dominion and those of his four principal successors who divided it among themselves. The body of the beast represents the power before it was divided; and each head one of the subsequent divisions.

The wings represented the position of the Macedonian Heads relatively to the Holy Land."

The agility and ferocity of the leopard and its swiftness suggested by the wings were exemplified in the amazingly rapid and widespread conquests of Alexander the Great. Ascending the throne of Macedon at the early age of twenty, he had the whole civilised world at his feet ten years later; and it is said that he then "wept because there were no more countries to conquer"

"The beast had also four heads" - At the age of thirty-three Alexander the Great, the founder of the Macedonian (Grecian) Empire died in Babylon of a drunken orgy, and his widespread Empire which extended from Macedonia to India and as far south as Egypt, was divided into four parts by his successors who were the generals of his army: Ptolemy, Lysirnachus, Seleucus and Cassander.

"And dominion was given unto it" - ...a far greater dominion than that over which either Babylon or Medo-Persia ruled... the brass Kingdom ..."shall bear rule over all the earth" - Dan. 2:39.

The Christadelphian Expositor 

Judea would not renounce her allegiance to Darius.

‭ ‬This brought upon them the wrath of Alexander [of Macedon called "The Great" - his dominion represented by the leopard body],‭ ‬who,‭ ‬having taken Tyre,‭ ‬marched to Jerusalem to wreak his vengeance on the Jews.‭

 ‬Upon his approach,‭ ‬and the report,‭ ‬as it is said,‭ ‬that he had crucified‭ ‬2,000‭ ‬Tyrian prisoners,‭ ‬the high priest Jaddua,‭ ‬and all the city,‭ ‬under dreadful apprehension,‭ ‬fasted and prayed,‭ ‬with the result,‭ ‬as it is said,‭ ‬that God in a vision directed the high priest to go in pontifical robes—attended by priests in proper habits,‭ ‬and all the people in white garments—to meet Alexander outside the city.‭

As soon as Alexander saw the procession moving towards him,‭ ‬with the high priest in front,‭ ‬he saluted him in a religious manner,‭ ‬alleging‭ (‬in answer to a question‭) ‬that he did so in regard to the God whose priest he was,‭ ‬adding that the high priest so habited had appeared to him in a dream at Dio,‭ ‬in Macedonia,‭ ‬assuring him of success against the Persians.‭

Jaddua conducted him into the city,‭ ‬and having offered sacrifices in the Temple,‭ ‬showed him the prophecies of Daniel concerning the overthrow of the Persian empire by a Grecian king.‭

Alexander,‭ ‬well satisfied with the reception,‭ ‬granted the Jews toleration of their religion,‭ ‬and an exemption from tribute every seventh year.‭ ‬This happened introductory to Alexander's overthrow of the Persian empire,‭ ‬which happened‭ ‬b.c.‭ ‬334.‭

The Christadelphian, Feb 1889

The beast had also four heads

 — At the age of thirty-three Alexander the Great, the founder of the Macedonian (Grecian) Empire died in Babylon of a drunken orgy, and his widespread Empire which extended from Macedonia to India and as far south as Egypt, was divided into four parts by his successors who were the generals of his army: Ptolemy, Lysimachus, Seleucus and Cassander.

The Christadelphian Expositor

First Head: The Kingdom of the South (of Dan. 11), comprehending Egypt. Lybia, Arabia, Coele-Syria, and Palestine, under the Ptolemies.

Second Head: The Kingdom of the North-West, including Thrace [To the ancient Greeks it was that part of the Balkans between the Danube River to the north and the Aegean Sea to the south, being bounded on the east by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and on the west by the mountains east of the Vardar (Modern Greek: Axiós or Vardárais) River - Britannica]., Bithynia [Turkey]. etc., or the Thraco-Macedonian, established by Lysimachus.

Third Head: The Kingdom of the North-East, comprehending the rest of Asia inclusive of Babylon and its provinces; and extending beyond the Euphrates to the Indus. India beyond that river, though allotted to this head, revolted; so that the Indus became its boundary. This was the Macedo-Babylonish Kingdom of the Seleucidae.

This Third Head is described as the King of the North in Daniel 11. Though suppressed during the Middle Ages, prophecy requires it to re-emerge at the Time of the End (Dan. 11:40) when the King of the North is again described as manifested in the political arena, ready to enact the invasion of Ezekiel 38. It is significant, therefore, that in recent times Russia (Ros) has invaded Afghanistan, bringing it into the arena of the King of the North.

Fourth Head — The Kingdom of the West, embracing Macedonia and Greece.

Exposition of Daniel

This beast represents the Macedonian dominion which superseded that of the Bear, as the belly and thighs of brass did the breast and arms of silver. The Leopard-dominion was more extended than its predecessors; for it embraced all that belonged to the Lion and the Bear, with the addition of that which had been established by Philip of Macedon, the predecessor of Alexander "the Great." "It bore rule over all the earth," or Image-territory, thus far subjugated to "civilization," such as it was at that era of the world.

In the year 301 before Christ, the Macedonian dominion in its divisions, and their relative position, is illustrated by the Four Wings of a fowl, and the four Leopard heads. Alexander ruled his conquests for the short space of six years, when he died in Babylon of intoxication. After a long period of war, his unwieldy empire was resolved into several kingdoms, of which the four principal ones are represented by the Four Heads of the Leopard. These were its mighty powers to which the others looked up, as the lesser states do now to the great military potentates of the age.

The four great powers, or heads, of the Grecian Leopard, were,

1. The kingdom of the south which comprehended Egypt, Lybia, Arabia, Coele-Syria, and Palestine, under the Greco Egyptian dynasty;

2. The kingdom of the North-west, including Thrace, Bythinia, &c.; or, the Thraco-Macedonian;

3. The kingdom of the North-east, comprehending the rest of Asia, and beyond the Euphrates to the Indus; India beyond the river, though allotted to this dominion, revolted; so that the Indus became its boundary: this was the Assyro-Macedonian; and,

4. The kingdom of the West, which embraced Macedonia and Greece.

Such were the heads. But, how was it to be determined that they should stand related to these four points of the compass? This was indicated by the wings of the Leopard; an interpretation made evident from the words of the prophet, saying, "the Lord shall gather Judah from the four corners (in Heb. the four wings) of the earth" (Isaiah 11:12; Dan. 11:4). The addition of the wings, then, to this beast, signifies that the kingdoms represented by the heads would be towards the east, west, north, and south, of Judea.

A Leopard is sometimes used to indicate the British power. During the war in the Peninsular, Napoleon and his generals often threatened to "drive the leopard into the sea;" by which they meant, that they would drive the British out of Spain and Portugal. Now, in Daniel (Dan. 8:5) the dominion of Alexander, which extended into British India, is represented by a Unicorn, that is, a goat with one horn. Hence, the Leopard, without additional heads, and without wings, represents the same dominion as the Unicorn.

Now it occurs to me, that the British Unicorn is a symbol representing a similar thing to the Aegean Unicorn of Alexander; and, therefore, identifies the British power with the Grecian Leopard. I do not say, that the mind which designed the heraldry of the British power had the part predestined for Britain to enact in the latter days before it, when it inserted the leopard Unicorn. But divine wisdom some times impels men to do things the import of which they very imperfectly understand; and the insertion of the Unicorn may have been an act of this nature. Be this as it may, there are indications which make the idea more than probable.

In the first place, the British power is the constitutional protector of the Ionian Islands contiguous to the Morea and ancient Macedonia; and secondly, it possesses a part of Alexander "the Great's" dominion in India, and is absorbing more and more of it every war it wages in the far east.

When the Bear pushes for Constantinople, it is not unlikely that the British Unicorn will make extensive seizures of the islands in the Mediterranean as an antagonistic compensation for the continental territory acquired by the autocrat in European Turkey.

Britain is bound to maintain a maritime ascendancy in the Mediterranean; not because she has any continental territory washed by its waters, but because of her vast interests in India, which would be greatly endangered by an uncontrolled military power in Anatolia [Turkey] and Egypt. When the power of the British Unicorn shall be fully developed in maritime Greece, Egypt, Palestine, the Red Sea, and India, a leopard dominion will again appear upon the stage of action, and be prepared for the catastrophy of the latter days.

Elpis Israel 3.1.

7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.

THE fourth beast of Daniel's vision; the ten-horned, and two horned, beasts; and the image of the sixth head of the ten horned beast, are so many different symbols, which represent the Sin-power in its European Constitution.

Elpis Israel 3.1.

...its formidable and frightening appearance, its insatiable and ravenous greed, and its brutal cruelty. Rome: political and ecclesiastical. It combined and added to the fearsome characteristics of all the beasts that preceded it (see ReN. 13:2). It therefore represented the legs of iron, and feet and toes of iron and clay

"Dreadful" - The Chaldean word dechal rendered "dreadful" signifies to slink as in fear or to crawl. ... not an upright or magestic animal as those that preceded it in the vision. Its fearsome appearance is calculated to cause fear in those who are threatened by it. The term is suggestive of the crocodile, rendered "the dragon of the sea" in Isa. 27: 1, and identifiable with the dragon of The Apocalypse (Rev. 12:9; 13:11). Therein the "Dragon" is representative of Rome in its military power. From the time of Constantine onwards, Constantinople became the headquarters of its military power.

"And terrible" - The word is from a Chaldean root signifying that which is burly, strong and mighty

"And strong exceedingly" - "strong as iron; but forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and - subdueth all things ... it shall break in pieces and bruise" (Dan. 2:40). ...Seven hundred and fifty-three years before the birth of Christ, the city of Rome is said to have been founded by Romulus, its first king. ... its power increased, so that it became "strong as iron" - Dan 2:40

**The Christadelphian Expositor

The Fourth Kingdom

The Fourth Kingdom is the Assyrian's "whose princes are altogether kings." It began with the Roman, and ends with the Assyrian, to whom the ten Toe-kingdoms belong—kingdoms which though on the Roman territory, were never subject to the Roman emperors; but not only so, they had no existence in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, nor in those of Augustus and Tiberius; no, not even for centuries after their reigns.

They do, however, now exist and will exist until the Stone-power puts an end to them for ever. Their kings, the last of the race, will witness with dismay the introduction and growth of the power of their invincible enemy, who will not only defeat them and bind them in captive chains, but seize their kingdoms and make a spoil of all they call "their own."

The fourth or Iron Kingdom is symbolized in the seventh of Daniel by "a Fourth Beast." The prophet has a vision of it in which it is presented to him under two aspects. He saw it first as having conquered all before it, and subsequently divided into Ten Independent Kingdoms, which he terms "horns."

In its second aspect, he sees it subdivided into Eight governments yet all one Beast or dominion. These Eight are seven regal and one imperial. He saw how this change of constitution was produced, namely, by war. Of the ten Toe, or Horn, kingdoms, the Imperial Power which arises after them, conquers three, thus reducing the ten to seven.

"He shall subdue three kings,"

says the interpreter; a subjugation which makes the victor imperial. This imperiality originates with Charlemagne, the founder of the "Holy Roman Empire, " which was temporally suspended in 1806, and renewed in the Austro-Papal in 1815.

...When the house of Hapsburg loses its dominion, the Imperiality of the Fourth Beast [some time later] will be Assyrian, the Head of which will receive the kingdom of the ten kings for one hour, even until the words of God shall be fulfilled; for they have one mind, and shall agree to give their power and strength to him until then.

Now, it is the kings of these ten divisions of the fourth beast or kingdom who will be contemporary with the Stone-power; for

"they shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall"

grind them to powder and bring them to an end, or "overcome them." It is "in their days even of those kings" the kingdom of God shall be established.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Jan 1852

As a consequence of this shaking of all the nations, the Great City is resolved into thirds, and haipoleis, the cities, or states of the nations fall They fall, because in the shaking, the Lamb and his staff with their army cast them down.

...In other words, the Lamb and they that were with him conquered the Ten Horns, and took possession of their kingdoms. The kingdoms of the world became Yahweh's, and His Christ's. As to the "three parts" into which the Great City Babylon is divided by the shocks of this great earthquake of nations, we are left Without positive information.

From the subsequent parts of the prophecy, however, it would seem that the Dragon might be reckoned as one third; the Beast, the Ten Horns, and the False Prophet, the second third; and Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the East, the third third. This eastern third would be the first to fall under the dominion of the throne in Zion:

"unto the daughter of Zion shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem".

Eureka 16.12.3

Daniel's nameless "dreadful and terrible" fourth beast is a contraction, or condensation, - of John's great fiery-red dragon, ten-homed beast of the sea, two-homed beast of the earth, image of the beast, and scarlet beast and drunken woman.

...A dragon is a kind of beast, and therefore partakes in the characteristics of beasts. These in prophetic writing are the well-known symbols of destroying monarchies or powers; and, where the people of the Deity are found sojourning under their authority, the persecutors of the saints. But, though the dragon is a beast, he is apocalyptically distingished from the beast of the earth, and the beast of the sea; nevertheless, possesses certain characteristics in common with then both: for are all found upon the same arena, though not contemporary in all they history.

The four beasts in Dan. 7:3, the winged lion, the bear, the winged leopard, and the anonymous fourth beast, are explained in verse 17, as representative of four kings or powers, styled kingdoms in verse 23. The less fourth beast, that is not named by Daniel, is styled by John diversely a dragon and a beast, according to the subject he maybe treating of.

The Hebrew tannin, and the Greek drakon, rendered in our English version dragon, it is evident from Ezek. 29:3, signifies a crocodile; the great scaly serpent-fish of the Nile, the symbol of the Egyptian power styled "Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers."

The dragon, then, whose force is in his tail, symbolized the power of the old Egyptian Polity. This, in the days of Moses, was the great enemy of Israel after both flesh and spirit. It embodied in its institutions all the filthiness, and superstition, and tyranny of human nature; and stood before the world as the great SIN-POWER of antiquity - "the Old Serpent, the Devil and the Satan."

But the empire of the Dragonic-Sin-power was westward. It did not remain enthroned in Egypt. Yahweh's servant Nebuchadnezzar transferred it to Babylon; whence in due time it migrated, and was at length found in the city of the Seven Hills. The power there, in the epoch of the sip, was the old Egyptian Dragon incorporate in the Graeco-Latin polIty, which possessed Egypt, Syria, 'and the East. Hence, the territory of the Dragonic fourth beast of Daniel is apocalyptically and "spiritually called Sodom and Egypt, where our Lord was crucified" (Ch. 11:8); "the great city Babylon."

... In Daniel's description of it no mention is made of more heads than one. "The ten horns that were on his head." This is all recorded of its head. Daniel says nothing about "seven heads" on any beast shown to him. He only saw one; but behind this one were concealed seven others, of which we should have no more knowledge than he, had not the Apocalypse brought them into view. In this, the seven heads are brought out conspicuously.

They are seen upon the Dragon, the Beast of the Sea, and the Scarlet-coloured Beast of the Wilderness. Tbough seen on different symbolic beasts, they are not different sets of seven; that is, one set of seven heads for the Dragon; and a set of different seven heads for the Marine Beast; and yet a different seven from either, for the Scarlet Beast of the Wilderness.

They are one and the same seven heads upon all three beasts; so that the signification of them in connexion with the scarlet beast, is their signification as the heads of the Dragon and the Beast of the Sea.

Eureka 12.10.

"And stamped the residue with the feet of it" -

There evidently was a pause between the Beast's action in "devouring and breaking in pieces" the animals, or empires, that preceded it, and the stamping of the residue with its feet. In fulfilment of what Daniel saw, it is of great significance to note that Rome never fully conquered Persia; indeed, in the epoch of Rome's power, Persia always remained a thorn in the side of the Empire, and time and again the eastern legions did battle with Persian warriors. 

The lines of communication between Rome and Persia were too long and the fruits that victory promised once domination was attained were insufficient to warrant .a full-scale attack on' that nation which could well have battered 'it into subjection. But Daniel observed that finally the "feet" of this Beast did do this. They "stamped the residue", or what remained of the previous beasts into subjection; and brought the Leopard (Persia) completely under its domination.

That has not yet happened, but ultimately will do so, for the Fourth Beast must be in evidence at the coming of the Lord to be destroyed by him. This the prophecy definitely requires (see Dan. 7:21-22). It is significant that in Rev. 13 this Beast is described as having "the feet of a bear", for it will be the Russian bear that will carry the Fourth Beast into Persia to fulfil the prophecy given to Daniel, as well as that seen by Ezekiel (Ezek. 38:7).

The Christadelphian Expositor - Daniel

8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

the dragon [the Roman and imperial power] gave power unto the beast - Rev 13: 4

This beast was to arise out of the Mediterranean territory as well as the others. The belligerent tempests on every side were to give rise to it; for, says Daniel, "the four winds of the heaven strove upon the Great Sea. And Four Great Beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another:" and, when he has finished the description of them, he states that "they are four kings (kings being used in scripture oftentimes for their kingdoms, and vice versa) which shall arise out of the earth;" which explains, that when he says "up from the sea," he means the countries of the Mediterranean, which in scripture geography is styled the Great Sea.

That this beast is identical in signification with the iron part of the image, and incorporates within its dominion the territory of the kingdoms of the brazen thighs, is indicated by "its teeth of iron and claws of brass." A beast of prey destroys with its teeth and claws. Like the iron kingdom of the image, this iron toothed dominion was to devour and break in pieces all that came in its way, and to stamp the undevoured residue with its brazen-clawed feet. It was "exceedingly dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly;" and, though not named by the prophet, may, by the aid of history and the apocalypse, be correctly termed, the GRECO-ROMAN DRAGON.

This fourth Beast was shown to Daniel for the purpose of representing certain things predestined to come to pass in connection with the ten toes of the image, which could not be suitably displayed in symbolic feet. The things to be Illustrated were

1. The eradication of the power of three toe-dynasties, or, royalties; and the subjection of their territories to an imperial dominion;

2. The peculiar character and constitution of this imperiality;

3. The part this militant power was to play in relation to the saints

4. The time the image's feet were to continue before they should be smitten by the stone;

5. The consumption of the militant power which was to precede the destruction of the image;

6. The personage through whom the destructive power of the stone should be manifested;

7. The giving of the kingdom to Him, and the saints; and,

8. The nature of the mountain which should fill the whole earth.

These eight points constitute a summary of the things designed to be represented by the Eleven Horns which made their appearance on the head of the Fourth Beast.

Elpis Israel 3.1.

...he saw an Eleventh Horn-Power, which, because of the smallness of its beginning, he styles "a Little Horn, " which he says, "arose after them." This Little Horn arrested his especial attention; because there was something peculiar about it, which the others had not.

"It had Eyes like the eyes of a man, and a Mouth speaking great things against the Most High; with a look more audacious than its fellow horns."

This is no other than the Papal Power-a power constituted, not of pure and simple Popery, but of the two abominations under which the Italians groan, the Imperial Military and the Pontifical.

The Imperial Military and Pontifical Powers in Italy united by Concordat, was shown to Daniel in the Little Horn before us. It comes up after the foundation of the kingdoms existing upon the Roman earth. Now, mark what the prophet says of its relation to three of them; and then look at the facts which obtain-

"Three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots before the Little Horn;"

and if it be inquired, "How?"-the prophet answers,

"The Little Horn shall conquer three."

In understanding this, we must keep our minds intent upon the Roman territory, that being the area of the Fourth Beast; and on the western division of it, that being the area occupied by the Saints of the Most High Ones in their conflict with the Little Horn. What then do we observe in the Roman West answerable to the prophetic scene?

We see Hungary "plucked up by the roots," and we see Lombardy "plucked up by the roots," whose iron crown Napoleon I. wore as King of Italy; here are two of the three horns "plucked up by the roots," but where is the third?

... Sardinia's present policy, which is anti-Austrian and anti-Pontifical, is preparing her for a day of judgment, when she also will be "plucked up by the roots" by the power she now defies under the protection of the Anglo-French alliance.

....the destiny of so much of Italy as is comprised in the Lombardo-Venetian, Sardinian, and Pontifical States, with the Duchies dependant on Austria. This, in truth, is all Italy save the kingdom of Naples, and the little Republic of San Marino

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, July 1856

9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire.

As a consequence of this shaking of all the nations, the Great City is resolved into thirds, and haipoleis, the cities, or states of the nations fall They fall, because in the shaking, the Lamb and his staff with their army cast them down.

...In other words, the Lamb and they that were with him conquered the Ten Horns, and took possession of their kingdoms. The kingdoms of the world became Yahweh's, and His Christ's. As to the "three parts" into which the Great City Babylon is divided by the shocks of this great earthquake of nations, we are left Without positive information.

From the subsequent parts of the prophecy, however, it would seem that the Dragon might be reckoned as one third; the Beast, the Ten Horns, and the False Prophet, the second third; and Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the East, the third third. This eastern third would be the first to fall under the dominion of the throne in Zion:

"unto the daughter of Zion shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem".

...Yahweh Tz'vaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance" (Isa. 19:23-25).

Eureka 16.12.3

10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: 1 000 thousands ministered unto him, and 10 000 times 10 000 stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

The Effluent Manifestation of the Eternal Father in the Cherubim

The first place where "Cherubim" occurs, is in Gen. 3:24, which we translate thus:

"And He caused to dwell at the east of the Garden of Eden the Cherubim, and the flame of destruction (lit. of the sword) turning itself to guard the way of the tree of the lives."

From this and the context, we learn, that the dwelling place of the Cherubim was eastward in Paradise and contiguous to the tree of lives, to which none could approach who were unfaithful and disobedient. This is the teaching of Moses, who though acquainted with the Egyptian dogma of "immortal souls" in the mortal bodies of all men, women, and babes, taught there was no immortality for faithless and wicked men. In this, Moses and all the prophets, Jesus and the apostles, are all agreed.

Men must become Cherubim, they must dwell in Paradise and there eat of the tree of life, as the condition of an interminable existence. All others are obnoxious to "the flame of destruction," styled by Daniel

"a fiery stream that issues and comes forth from before the Ancient of Days; in whose presence minister thousand thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand stand."

In this, Daniel exhibits the allegorical signification of the Mosaic narrative respecting the devouring flame. It issues and comes forth from before the Ancient of Days and his thousands, at which time, Daniel testifies, "the judgment sits, and the books are opened."

The Eden Cherubim, and Daniel's Ancient of Days and company, are doubtless allegorical, the former of the latter; for Moses wrote not only of the literal, but of that in such a way that he intended something else than is contained in the words literally taken. His writings are therefore both literal and allegorical; and to understand them in their allegorical sense we must pay strict attention to their literal significance, which is "the form of the knowledge and the truth." The literal narrative is "the form"; the "knowledge and the truth" the allegorical signification of that form.

Daniel's Ancient of Days and the ten thousands that surround him in judgment, are equivalent to "the holy messengers and the Lamb," in Rev. 14:10, where we find fire and brimstone before them tormenting their enemies -- the full allegorical development of the Eden Cherubic flame that guarded against all approach to the "tree of lives" by the unfaithful and disobedient.

"Whosoever was not found written in the Book of Life, was cast into the lake of fire burning with brimstone" (Rev. 19:20).

Phanerosis - Yahweh Manifested in the Cherubim

Whence came all these thousands of the fiery stream?

They are all the Sons of Power: Spirits born of the Spirit; Israel's Elohim, or Mighty Ones; who were once Jews and Gentiles in unprofitable flesh: sinners under sentence of death, but justified by an intelligent and obedient faith. These are the Elohim of the Sh'ma Yisraail, the hypostasis of whom is the ONE YAHWEH -- the One Eternal Spirit multitudinously manifested in the Sons of Eternal Power. When these become apparent,

"at THE ADOPTION, to wit, the redemption of the Body" (Rom. 8:23)

-- the "One Body" -- then will be revealed the Mystical Christ -- the seed of Abraham -- the

"Son of Man clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the breasts with a golden girdle; his head and hairs like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes as a flame of fire; and his feet like unto fine brass, as if glowing in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters" (Rev. 1:13-15)

-- the voice of the redeemed of all kindreds, and nations, and peoples and tongues.

Such is the hidden mystery of the Sh'ma Yisraail, revealed in the Nazarene proclamation of the Moses-like prophet and his apostolic associates.

Hear, O Israel, the Eternal Spirit, who has surnamed himself 'Ehyeh,' or Yahweh, because He will be for a Starry-Multitude of Sons of Power for Abraham, is nevertheless, but One Eternal Father, and they in Him are One! "To us," then,

"there is but one POWER, 'the Father,' out of whom are all, and we for Him; and one Lord Jesus Anointed, on account of whom are all, and we through him."

All this development: of an earthborn family of Sons of God, who shall take their stand in the universe as Seraphim and Cherubim of Glory, is through and on account of Jesus Christ. He is the foundation, the chief and precious corner stone of this new manifestation of the Father-Spirit.

Truly, as Moses says, it is a "Glorious and Terrible Name --Eth-Yahweh Elohekha--

'the I shall be thy Mighty Ones, O Israel'."

...We have seen that Moses did not teach three persons, three essences, or three anythings in One Godhead. By Godhead is meant the source, spring, or fountain of Deity -- the Divine Nature in its original pre-existence before every created thing. He teaches that this Godhead was a Unit --a Homogeneous Unit, undivided into thirds, or fractions.

Phanerosis - Elohim developed from the seed of Abraham


Nebuchadnezzar's Image was the aggregation into one symbolic man, of a multitude of powers contemporary with many generations; so this one powerful [rainbow - Rev 10.] angel is an aggregation into One Body, named Yahweh Tz'vaoth, of all saints accounted worthy of co-operation with the Lord Jesus in the execution of "the judgment written."

"Judgment," says Daniel, "was given to the saints;" and this rainbowed angel is their symbol, representing their aspect in the possession of judicial power, and ready to

"destroy them who corrupt the earth" (xi. 18).

This, then is the "ALL-POWERFUL LORD GOD, who is, and was, and is to come" (xi. 17); in "the Omega" and terminal manifestation of the Eternal Spirit. This manifestation is yet in the future -- it is "to come;" and therefore, it is spoken of in Apoc ch. xvi. 5, as one that "shall be;" for "Shall be is his name" -- Yahweh shemo.

The symbol of these "hosts" is styled "an angel," because the Spirit incorporate in them has a mission; which is to

"take the kingdom, and to possess the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven" (Dan. vii. 18,27); or, as it is expressed in Apoc. xi. 15, "the kingdoms of this world," that they may be the kingdoms of this powerful angel, styled there, "our Lord and his Christ" or YAHWEH ELOHIM.

12 As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.

The dominion of the Assyrian Lion, and the Medo-Persian Bear, in the East has to be taken away, as well as that of the Four-Headed Leopard of the West-Dan. 7:12.

And this the great Captains of Yahweh's Invincibles are to do. Judgment is given to them for that purpose.

"They shall fly (as birds of prey) upon the border of the Philistines towards the West (the Leopard) and together spoil the sons of the East (the Lion and Bear;) they shall lay their hands upon Edom and Moab; and the sons of Ammon shall obey them" -Isai. 11:14.

In this oracle it is revealed, that "the Ensign" unfurled before the nations shall be borne on to the conquest of Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, Persia, Central Asia, and Western Asia, by which the independence of the Holy Land shall be established and secured; and that those who are found in posession of Edom, Moab, and Ammon at this crisis, "the Merchants of Tarshish," or Anglo-Indians, shall acknowledge their supremacy, and yield obedience to their sway-

"The coasts shall trust in me; but the ships of Tarshish foremost, to bring thy sons, O Zion, from far, their silver and their gold with them, unto the Name of Yahweh their Elohim, even to the Holy One of Israel" - Isai. 20:9.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, March 1856

Thus, he will not only deliver Judah from the Assyrian when he cometh into their land, and treadeth within her borders; but the Rainbowed Angel will also take away the dominion of the first three beasts of Daniel.

But, though deprived of dominion, they will still exist as national organizations; for "their lives shall be prolonged for a season and a time," or a thousand years. Their kingdoms will become the Rainbowed Angel's, and they will be blessed in the new administration of their affairs. While Yahweh inherits Judah his portion in the Holy Land, and dwells in the midst of Zion, these nations are joined to him, and become his people (Zech. ii. 10,12).

The regeneration of Egypt, Israel, and Assyria becomes complete. His right hand is established in the rivers, and his left in the sea; and he is already higher than the kings of the earth (Psa. lxxxix. 25-27): and by his prowess he has changed the face of the east, having wrested those fair and luxuriant countries from the destroyer; and made the land that was desolate, the enchanting Paradise of God (Ezek. xxxvi. 35; Isa. li. 3).

"In that day there shall be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the land, whom Yahweh T'zvaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance" (Isa. xix. 23-25).

But the vindication, or avengement, of the Holy Land (Dan. viii. 14 -- we-nitzdaik kodesh) and the conquest and regeneration of Egypt and Assyria, do not consummate the work of the Rainbowed Angel; they only serve to

"place his right foot upon the sea;"

and to prepare him for setting

"his left upon the earth."

He has conquered the lion, the bear, and leopard: he has taken away their dominion, and placed them under his own: but there still remains that

"dreadful, and terrible, and exceedingly strong fourth beast,"

which came up out of the same sea as the others.

This is not simply to lose his dominion, and yet continue as a body politic to exist like the others 

"for a season and a time."

The contrary of this, would be the continuance of the European commonwealth as now constituted in church and state, but without human government, for a thousand years. This however, can never be.

The decree of heaven has long been on record for its utter and total destruction. The decree is this:

"Because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake; I beheld till the beast was slain and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame" (Dan. vii. 11).

This is the grand catastrophe of the apocalypse -- the slaying of the Latin Catholic Beast, and the destroying of its body politic by the Rainbowed Angel -- by the Spirit manifested in the saints. His "pillars of fire" march through the countries of Europe with the destruction of a "burning flame;" the result of which is "judging among the nations, filling their countries with dead bodies, and the bruising of the Head over an extensive region" (Psa. cx. 6).

This exposition, then, of "the mystery of the Deity as he hath declared the glad tidings to his servants the prophets," defines the position of the Rainbowed Angel; and brings him up before us as a colossus prepared to bestride the world.

By his right foot being placed upon the sea, it plants his left foot, of course, upon daemonial and idol worshipping Spain, brings before him all the countries of the Latin and Greek churches, as Spain, France, Belgium, Holland, Britain and Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Prussia, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, the Pope's temporality, Turkey, and Greece.

In this enumeration there are protestant countries; but they all belong to the Fourth Beast dominion, being

"the Harlots and Abominations of the earth"

which all acknowledge the Church of Rome as their common "mother" -- "the Mother of all the Churches."

Such is the commonwealth or body politic to be destroyed root and branch, by the saints when judgment is given to them, and they proceed to

"prophesy before many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings" (x. 11).

Then will the high praises of AIL (the Eternal Power -- THE FATHER) be in their mouths; and

"a two-edged sword in their hand; to execute vengeance upon the nations, and punishments upon the peoples; to bind their kings with chains, and their honorable ones with fetters of iron: to execute upon them the judgment written: this honour have all his saints. Praise ye YAH" (Psa. cxlix. 6-9).

Eureka 10.6.

18 But the saints of the most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.

'..."during the age, and during the age of the ages"

'...at the end of which, perfection being attained, the constitution of the kingdom will be altered to meet the improved condition of the world. Thenceforth, all things will be permanent, and generations will cease to come and go. The unrighteous will have been exterminated; and the earth will be inhabited by immortals only, who will have attained to immortality upon the condition of believing heartily what God has promised and taught in His word prophetically and apostolically ministered; and of doing what He there requires to be done.

A kingdom having the Invisible One in all for its king; the Anointed One and his brethren for its princes; and the redeemed from among Israel and the nations during the previous thousand years for its nation of immortals, will be our globe's "New Heavens and Earth" that shall never wax old nor vanish away. Its times, therefore, will be interminable...'. -

Exposition of Daniel

19 Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet;

Daniel's fourth beast system of powers has its sun, moon, and stars, as well as the polities by which it was preceded. Under its pagan constitution, the authority and power vested in the imperial and senatorial orders were the sun of the Roman orb; its moon, the priestly orders of the state; and subject kings, nobles, and magistrates, its stars and constellations.

When the pagan constitution that hindered was taken out of the way, the aerial, or political expanse, transmitted the rays of the same lights, only that they emitted influences less intensely heathen than before. The sun, moon and stars which continued to shine had become "catholic." They radiated the malign influences of the Laodicean Apostasy, and were essentially, though not professedly and in detail, as devilish as of old.

Eureka 8.9.1.

The Fourth Beast

Its "nails of brass" show that it is connected with the dominion of the "brazen-coated Greeks," as they styled themselves

...The iron element is banded round the stump of the Babylonian tree, and identified with the legs, feet, and toes of the Image, and therefore with the ten horns of the Fourth Beast, and with its teeth, to indicate the strength, not the racial characteristics, of the symbols. This appears from the words of the text,

"And a fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron; because that iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all; and, as iron, for the breaking of all these, it shall break in pieces and divide. * * The kingdom shall be divided; and the strength of iron is to be in it."

So it reads in the Chaldee of Dan., 2:40, 42. That is, there was to be power in the fourth system of states for the breaking, or subduing, or incorporation of the first three; and for dividing without itself falling to pieces, and for continuing to the end.

Now this iron strength of the "fourth kingdom" has been developed through different races, of which the Latin or Italian is but one of several; and at the present time any thing but the iron of the fourth kingdom for strength. The horns, seven of which are iron, are Teutonic, and conquerors of the Romans.

The term "Roman," however, is admissible in connection with the beast, if in the use of it, we do not exclude other elements from it which have imparted strength to it, though not racially Roman.

We may term it the Roman Beast on the ground that the history of the Roman Empires, "pagan" and "holy," constitutes a large proportion of the history of the beast.

But in the prophecy, it is nameless. We have there the lion, the bear, and the Leopard; but that which appeared last in simply termed "the fourth." Its history thus far connects it with Greeks, Italians, Goths, Franks, Germans, Turks, &c., as its racial rulers; and before it shall have been destroyed by the Stone Power, Muscovites will flourish in their day, as an element of its political constitution.

All the oppressors of Israel until the end of the oppressing powers, were styled

"a yoke of iron."-Deut. 28:48. "Iron shall break the northern iron and the steel."-Jer. 15:12.

That is, the Stone Power with a rod of iron shall break the kingdom strong as iron in the day of Israel's redemption. And in Mic. 4:13, concerning Zion, it is said,

"I will make thine horn iron, and thy hoofs brass; and thou shalt beat in pieces many people; and I will consecrate their gain unto Yahweh, and their substance to the Lord of all the earth."

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Aug 1857

Nothing is more striking in the European retrospect than the fulfilment of these prophetic foreshadowings. The history of Europe has been an ecclesiastical history. The work of the apostles has been inwrought with it, in a nominal form. A church has been founded at Rome professedly on their principles, but conducted in violation of them in every particular.

The names of the apostles are on all their buildings, but the doctrines of the apostles are absent from their systems, which is mainly a structure of tradition and fable.

As the crowning feature of this false church's organization, visible to all the world for ages, has been a titular head, reputed infallible, assuming the name of God (Holy Father), and exercising an oppressive secular jurisdiction in all countries for centuries, either direct or through tools, working particularly against the saints of God, whom in all ages it has described as heretics.

Here is this notable prophecy now all a matter of history, and proclaimed to all the world as a fulfilled prophecy by this unmistakeable circumstance, that the power to make war with the saints has departed from the Pope within the lifetime of the present generation [1848-1898], after having been possessed by him, directly or indirectly, just 1,260 years since it was accorded to him by imperial decree.

But the world has no ear for such matters. Its foolish heart is "overcharged with the surfeiting and cares and pleasures" of this fleeting life. Consequently, this crying fact of the dispensation makes no impression upon it, although so far as the logic of facts is concerned, it is proclaimed with the tongue of the trumpet.

Seasons 2.88

20 And of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more stout than his fellows.

The Son of Perdition

This king, or Imperial Power, and its foreign god, are presented in Dan. 7:8,20,24,25, under the symbol of a Little Horn, in which were EYES like the eyes of man, and a Mouth speaking very great things. In this, the Eyes and the Mouth are representative of the foreign god; while the Little Horn itself is significative of "the king," or power, that glorifies him.

This remarkable constitution of Church and State did not obtain in the days of Paul and John. The former in 2 Thess. 2 predicted its manifestation as the result of apostasy from the faith; and that when that apostasy was well developed, the power would be revealed. Not, however, in full manifestation at the beginning.

The power had to receive its birth, and to grow to manhood, or maturity; so that when it had fully established itself above all, it might be in a position to set up its foreign god.

Paul styles the power, "the Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition: " and foreseeing the extraordinary arrogance of the spiritual element of the power, he speaks of it as one "who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called a god, or an object of reverence; so that he as a god sitteth in the temple of the god, showing himself that he is a god. "

This is the god Daniel styles "a foreign god;" and by John in Apoc. 13:2,5, "the Mouth of the Beast as the mouth of a lion, and speaking great things and blasphemies;" and in verses 14,15, "the Image of the Beast," which received life and ability to speak from the Civil Power.

Eureka 12.17.

The eyes Daniel saw were "like the eyes of a man." And not only so, but they were representative of a man; for, speaking of the glare, or fierce piercing look, of the eyes, he says,

"whose look was more stout than His fellows."

They represented a human power, whose function was preeminently that of supervision over certain styled "his fellows." His official state, therefore, was that of an episkokos, or a BISHOP. His look being "more stout" than his fellows of the episcopal order , he would , therefore, claim superiority over all spirituals; and to be entitled above all to the veneration and homage of mankind . 

Such an OVERSEEING NAME [of blasphemy Rev 13.1] as this would be, within the sphere of his jurisdiction, a Bishop of bishops, such as Constantine claimed to be when he assumed headship over all the catholic churches of the Dragon empire.

But this Nomen Latinum, or Latin Name upon the Seven Heads, was not only a Supreme Bishop, but it was also a Name of Blasphemy. It was itself a blasphemy, and an utterer of blasphemy. A power claiming to be what it is not, is a blasphemy. Thus, certain of the synagogue of Satan in the ecciesia at Smyrna claimed to be Jews, when they really were not. This false claim is styled "their blasphemy" (Apoc. 2:9): because, being false, it injured the fair fame and reputation of those in Christ who were Israelites indeed.

Eureka 13.10.

The Little Horn's character has been more obvious to interpreters than its constitution. In certain respects it is like the other Ten Horns. These were all secular dynasties. If they had individually possessed "eyes and a mouth," they would all have been episcopal and speaking horns, like the Little Horn. But they possessed neither. They were simple horns, evincing power, secular, and not spiritual, in their operations.

When eyes look more stout than existencies around them; and their mouth speaks blasphemies against God, angels, and the saints, they become symbolical of ecclesiastical power; and inserted into a horn, they present a symbol which represents a CONJUNCT DYNASTY; that is, a dominion whose executive is imperial, and which is constituted, either of an imperial pontiff and a secular emperor, or of one Head in whom is vested the imperial administration both of secular and ecclesiastical affairs, as was the case with the pagan Roman emperors.

The Little Horn of the Greco-Roman Dragon, or fourth beast, is a two-fold dynasty, or dominion. Its eyes and mouth represent one horn; and the rest of the horn, another. The former is the over-seeing and blaspheming horn; the latter, the secular, or military horn, which co-operates with it, and does all the fighting.

Hence, when we find the little horn fully developed, we may expect to discover TWO PERSONAGES, who, through subsequent ages, are conspicuous as imperial chiefs of the western world. These, it is almost needless to add, are the pope and the emperor.

Elpis Israel 3.1.

21 I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints [1 260 years], and prevailed against them;

The saints [v22] leading quiet peaceable lives separate from all politics and earthly institutions. The two witnesses the secular fighters and religious groups taking up arms against Catholic rule.


When the little horn appeared among the ten horns, Daniel was particularly struck by his blasphemous talking, and enmity against the saints of the Most High. The mouth of this horn is evidently the same as the mouth of the ten-horned, and two horned, beasts, of the apocalypse (Rev. 13). It was the mouth of a lion because of its roaring for prey, seeking whom it might devour; as well as for its Babylonish affinities.

"It spake as a dragon,"

with the ferocity of the old pagan emperors against the saints. Describing this mouth, John says,

"it spake great things and blasphemies against God, to blaspheme His name and His tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven."

These blasphemies Daniel styles "great words against the Most High," which of course were very offensive to the servants of God, and aroused their indignation. They

"contended earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints"

against its blasphemies; and advocated the liberty of the truth, the equality of the faithful, and the fraternity of the children of God. This brought down upon them the hatred and revenge of the popes, who stirred up all the horns of the beast against them, as it is written,

"he made war upon them, and overcame them, and killed them."

Elpis Israel 3.1.

22 Until the Ancient of days [Atik Yomin] came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High [kadoshim Elyon]; and the time came that the saints [kadoshim] possessed the kingdom.

That the saints shall rule over and upon the earth is so plainly asserted in Scripture, that it is only by the usual artifices of spiritualizers, that this divine conception has been obscured. A spiritualizer will sooner annihilate the Word of God than give up his favorite prejudices.

"The kingdom and dominion under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High Ones"

Such are the words of Daniel. And surely "under the heaven" cannot mean above it. If the saints were only to reign in heaven, or, were there no earth for them to govern, it would in that case be said that the dominion should be given to them in the heavens, or above the heaven; but not under the heaven.

Nor, again can this be applied to the spiritual reign of Christ, for it happens to be found in Dan. 7., which expressly describes the coming of the Lord to judgment. And what is still more remarkable, the same passage which describes the judgment informs us that the first three empires of Daniel are to continue even after the coming of the Lord.

It is, therefore, self-evident that this prophecy cannot relate to the end of the world; since the first three empires are still to exist even after the judgment. Nor can it refer to a supposed "heavenly" jurisdiction of the saints since it expressly foretells that dominion shall be given them "under the whole heavens" of the Four Beasts, to say nothing of what is beyond.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Aug 1856.

The Fourth Beast of Daniel chapter 7

The little horn that grows up on the head of the fourth beast verse 8.

That little horn is still there when the Lord Jesus Christ comes verse 21

" I beheld and the same horn made war with the saints and prevailed against them until the ancient of days came and the judgment was given to the saints of the most high".

The fourth beast, the Roman, extends down through time says Daniel 7 until the Lord Jesus Christ returns - there is never a fifth one.

The Babylonians advanced as far westwards as the Mediterranean coastline.

The Medo Persians extended further across Asia Minor, across the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles into the European continent.

The Grecian empire in terms of the dominion of Alexander the Great reached further into Europe.

The fourth and last beast [the Roman] spreads right out across the heartland of Europe itself.

This fourth beast continues till the time of the end - which tells us that the theatre of operations for Bible prophecy in the latter days includes a focus on Europe aswell as the land of Israel.

The beast of Daniel 7 becomes the red dragon of Revelation chapter 12. And the red dragon of Revelation chapter 12 is going to become the beast of the sea of Revelation chapter 13 before being transmogrified into the beast of the earth of Revelation chapter 13 and

subsequently to be seen in another manifestation in the Scarlet beast of Revelation chapter 17.

But of course these beasts are all successive stages of the fourth beast. The Roman Empire and its central religion the Roman Catholic Church in its successive stages of manifestation spans the centuries of time from the apostles of the first century to our own time with modern Europe under the influence of the papacy.

The land of Europe - the territory of the sons of Japheth - that's where the beast lives.

Bro Roger Lewis - The Sons of Japheth

23 Thus he said, The 4th beast shall be the 4th kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.

The vision was communicated to him with special reference to this Incongruous fourth beast. It had a head, and upon his head Eleven Horns, and claws of brass, and teeth of iron. Daniel saw it arise in a stormy period out of the Great Sea; and he perceived that it continued until the Ancient of Days came, when, judgment having been given to the Holy Ones, or Saints of the Most High Ones, they destroyed it with fire and sword.

This simple statement of facts identifies the Fourth Beast of Daniel with the Scarlet-coloured Beast of John in Apoc. 17:3,11. ... the nameless beast he saw had Eight Heads. John's Scarlet Beast 'goeth into perdition." Daniel saw this consummation; and John saw the perdition inflicted by the same agents - by the Lamb, and his called and chosen, and faithful companions-the Saints (Ch. 17:14).

... this succession of heads, and development of horns upon the imperial head, implies the subjection of the Fourth Beast to successive revolutionary changes.

...When the Son had received them of the Father, he sent his messenger and signified them to John in Patmos. Among the signs exhibited were the Great Fiery-Red Dragon, the Catholic Dragon, the Beast of the Sea, the Name of Blasphemy, the Beast of the Earth, the Image of the Beast, and the Woman-Bearing Scarlet-Beast. All these apocalyptic signs are contained in Daniel's Fourth Beast. They are a symbolical analysis of this beast, which they exhibit in its chronological, geographical, and constitutional relations at different periods of its long and eventful, or its "dreadful and terrible," career.

...Thus, Daniel's Fourth Beast commences its career with the Foundation of Rome, B.C. 753, and does not finish it until after the advent of Christ and the resurrection.

Eureka 13.1.

I have said that behind the head seen by Daniel there were seven other heads which he did not perceive. This is equivalent to saying, that the head seen by him was an EIGHTH HEAD. This is the truth. The beast he saw was headed with this eighth head contemporary with its destruction by the saints.

Eureka 12.11

24 And the 10 horns out of this kingdom are 10 kings that shall arise: and another [11th - but by its eradication of three of the ten horns, whose territories it annexed to its own, it became the eighth horn of the fourth beast] shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.

In the days of John the offices of Emperor and Pontiff were united in one man called Cæsar; but at the termination of the eclipse of the Roman luminaries, A. D. 794, the offices of Emperor and Pontiff were filled by two men, Charlemagne and Leo.

Charlemagne, though crowned in Rome "emperor of the west," resided at Aix-la-Chapelle, a city now on Prussian territory; while Leo and his papal successors reigned as the Imperial Pontiff of the west in the city of the Seven Mountains. Hence the Majesty restored to Rome was an eleventh horn having

"eyes like the eyes of a man, whose look was more stout than his fellows; and a mouth speaking very great things;"

but by its eradication of three of the ten horns, whose territories it annexed to its own, it became the eighth horn of the fourth beast—Dan. 7:8, 20—one Dominion in a two-man manifestation; one man reigning in Rome; and the other man, the proprietor of the city and of Italy, reigning in Aix-la-Chapelle; but in after ages, as at this day [1859], in Vienna.

The body of the eighth horn symbolizes the civil and military elements of the power, while the eyes and the mouth represent the episcopal or pontifical element; still by concordat they are but one horn.

Now this eleventh horn made its appearance in the Latin West after the ten horns; as it is written, "the ten horns out of the fourth kingdom are ten Kings" or powers; "and another shall arise after them" and "among them."—Dan. 7:24, 8. As we have said, this little eleventh horn became the eighth of the system, by the subjugation of three of its predecessors.

Charlemagne, who represented the secular element of the horn, was proprietor by conquest of France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and Hungary. These constructed the new Roman empire of the West A. D. 799; and because of the Bishop of Rome being the Imperial High Priest of this body politic or beast, it is styled, "the holy Roman Empire;" the civil head of which is called, "his Royal Apostolic Majesty," and its spiritual, "his Holiness the Pope."

The history of this dominion extends over more than a thousand years. Its fortunes have been various, which cannot even be outlined here at present. Suffice it to say, that in A. D. 962, after seventy four years of intense confusion, the sovereignty passed from the family of Charlemagne.

Otho I, king of Germany, restored and appropriated the empire. At the head of a victorious army, he passed the Alps, subdued Italy, delivered the Pope, and fixed the imperial crown in the name and nation of Germany. "From that memorable era," says Gibbon, "two maxims of public jurisprudence were introduced by force and ratified by time.

1. That the prince who was elected in the German Diet, acquired from that instant, the subject kingdoms of Italy and Rome.

2. But that he might not legally assume the titles of Emperor and Augustus till he had received the crown from the hands of the Roman Pontiff."

In a note to this the historian says, "the Italians, Muratori for instance, only reckon the princes who have been crowned at Rome.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Sept 1859

25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

It was to be expected, therefore, that, when the pope's claims of being Christ's substitute on earth, and arbiter of all doctrinal affairs, should be legally established, the saints would find themselves in the hand of a roaring lion ready to devour.

He now claimed to be the constitutional and lawful shepherd and bishop of their souls; but the saints disputed this blasphemous pretension, and refused to accept him in any such capacity. They denounced him as the Antichrist, and lawless usurper of the titles and honours which belong to Christ alone, and declared that they would die rather than be numbered among his flock, or submit to his usurpation.

Thus, the issue was formed between them: and there was but one alternative for them, submission or death. Hence, the power of the Universal Bishop was more "dreadful and terrible" than that of the Saracen Apollyon, who offered all catholic idolators, conversion, tribute, or the sword. But, tribute would not redeem the life of a saint; the ravening lion of the Seven Hills must have absolute and abject submission to his pontifical supremacy, or he would mercilessly drink their blood, and destroy all that belonged to them with fire and sword.

... It mattered not what country of the Horns the saints might reside in, the Lion-Mouth upon the Seven Hills, with his chasm' odonton, his gaping jaws of iron teeth (Dan. 7:7,19) could seize and devour them on the spot; for the catholic priests and secular orders of the states, the hyenas of his kingdom, were jealous in executing his ferocious mandates, to revel with him in the blood of the slain. Thus, the Catholic Woman became

"drunken with the blood of the Saints, and with the blood of the Witnesses of Jesus"

(Apoc ch. 17:6).

Eureka 13.18.

Trial is the order of the House of God; and in our day, when the sword is taken out of the hand of the magistrate, it is necessary, if we are to belong to this House, that we be put on a par with our brethren of past ages, by having trials in a form adapted to our time of freedom and privilege.

A right view of the case will make us welcome these when they come. Paul said, in the view of the meaning of his sufferings:

"I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ's sake."

A spiritual view of our affairs will lead us to entertain a similar sentiment with regard to those things we may be called on to endure through our identification with and our service of the one faith. They are far from agreeable: if they were agreeable, they would not answer their purpose, which is, that by the mental exercise induced, we may become partakers of the Father's holiness. Pleasure would not exercise us in this direction, but contrariwise.

Bro Roberts - Breaking of bread

The longest period in the apocalypse in reference to the affairs of the saints is 1,260. It is transferred from the book of Daniel, ch. vii. 25, and xii. 7, where it is given in the formula "a time, times, and the dividing of time." This formula is itself reproduced in Apoc. xii. 14, as representative of the period during which the Fugitive Woman was to be nourished in the two wings of the Great Eagle.

The question, how should these "times" be expressed in figures? is answered in the sixth verse of this chapter, where the period of the nourishing or feeding is stated at 1260 days. This, therefore, gives us certainty, that "a time, times, and the dividing of time" is a period equal to 1260.

This 1260 is a whole number constituting the numerical expression of the aion or cycle pertaining to the saints, in their hostile relations to that blasphemous power into whose hands they were to be given (Dan. vii. 21-25; Apoc. xiii. 6).

The shorter times of the apocalypse are proportional parts of 1260; which is itself the half of 2520, or SEVEN TIMES, allotted to "the Kingdom of Men," styled by Paul, "the powers that be."

Between these and the saints in Christ Jesus, there was to be war. The saints were to be overcome till their aion expired; and then they are to conquer, and their conquest will be complete, when the aion of "the Powers that be," the 2520, shall be full (Dan. iv. 16,23).

The apocalypse has to do with the second half of the 2520; the former half in the first six centuries and half of it pertaining to Israel according to the flesh exclusively; and in its last six centuries, to the faithful in Christ in their conflict with paganism and catholicism before the legal and constitutional establishment of POPERY.

The second, or latter, half of the 2520, is the aion of the saints running parallel with popery; and terminating with the manifestation era of the Ancient of Days, or Time of the End, which ends with the end of the 2520.

But, what are these Seven Times of 2520? Are they so many of what the Gentile speculators term "literal days" of twenty-four hours each; or literal years? When we consider the subject of which the 2520 is the aion, or cycle, we shall see that it can only be a cycle of years. It is the Cycle of a Tree representing the loftiness and extension of the Kingdom of Men. This umbrageous dominion existed in great glory; and was symbolized by the majesty of Babylon, styled, in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, "the house of the Kingdom."

Nebuchadnezzar being the reigning monarch, was the representative for the time then present of this Tree-Dominion, as was Cyrus after him; and Alexander the Great many years after Cyrus. Over this kingdom 2520 were to pass in the line of its gold, silver, brass, iron, and clay dynastic constitutions. What happened to Nebuchadnezzar was typical of what should happen to the Tree. He was hewn down from his loftiness, deprived of reason, and made to herd with the beasts for 2520 "literal days," or seven times of days. This was the sign, or type; and a sign, in its times, persons, actions, &c., always represents something, analogous indeed, but different from itself.

According to the sign, then, so it was to come over the kingdom of men, at that time overshadowing the nations to the end of the earth, like a tree whose height reached to heaven, and the sight thereof to all the earth. Its loftiness was to be hewn down, as it was by Cyrus; but it was not then to be uprooted: the stump of its roots was to continue in the earth, banded with iron and brass; and 2520 was to pass over it.

Now the Kingdom of Men undeniably exists in our time; and has continuously existed from the days of Nebuchadnezzar, who began his reign over it about 2478 years ago. It is now the stump banded with a Greco-Latin band; and will continue so banded until it shall have been completely eradicated by Christ and the saints at the end of 2520.

The reader will perceive, then, that the Kingdom of Men being the subject to be passed over by the 2520, the limitation of this period to "literal days" is out of the question. It can only signify 2520 years; and this being so, the 1260 of the apocalypse, being the latter half of it, must be years also.

But this apocalyptic aion of 1,260 years is expressed in months as well as days. Divided by 30, the number of units in the twelfth of a time, the product is 42. These, in Apoc. xi. 2, and xiii. 5, are termed "forty-two months," during which the saints, or Holy City, are trodden under foot by the Gentiles of the unmeasured court, and symbolized, in their civil and ecclesiastical constitution by the Beast of the Sea and his Mouth

Eureka 8.2.

Is the Observance of the Sabbath Binding on Believers?

Dan. 7:25, which predicts that the Little Horn would change times and laws, is referred to for the purpose of shewing that it was the Papacy which changed the day of worship from the seventh day to the first day, and not Jesus or his apostles.

The Papacy, it is said, established the Pagan institution called the Sun's Day, or Day of the Sun. How this can be, in view of the fact that the Little Horn did not spring up until long after worship had been practised on Sunday, it is difficult to perceive.

Not to speak of the Constantinian enactment, it is well known that it had, for a long time previously, been the custom of the early Christians to meet together for the breaking of bread on the first day of the week, called by the Pagans, Sunday.

Justin Martyr, who lived in the first half of the second century, gives the following testimony on this point:

"On the day which is called Sunday, there is an assembly in one place of all who dwell either in towns or in the country, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as the time permits. Then, when the reader hath ceased, the president delivers a discourse, in which he reminds and exhorts them to the imitation of all these good things. We then stand up all together and put forth prayers. Then, as we have already said, when we cease from prayer, bread is brought, and wine and water; and the president, in like manner, offers up prayers and praises with his utmost power; and the people express their assent by saying Amen. The consecrated elements are then distributed and received by everyone."

By meeting to break bread on Sunday, it is alleged that the Pagan worship of the sun is sanctioned. If this day were selected with a view of paying homage to the sun, there would be force in such a charge. But, as no such thought enters the mind, there is no ground for condemnation.

The worship of the sun by the Pagans and the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the first day of the week, is a mere coincidence. There is nothing evil in the day itself. It only assumes an evil form when false ideas are associated with it. Although the brethren of Christ meet on this day, they do not countenance any of these false ideas. The only sun they honour on the Sunday is the future Sun of Righteousness.

Bro J. J. Andrew.

The Christadelphian, July 1872

27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.

Consider then that these immortal sons of God shall be the captains of mankind, who shall govern without error, without partiality, and without fear; whom no rebel can successfully oppose; no stratagem surprise; no accident kill, and no disease lay low. For mankind how unspeakable a good is this: for the rulers themselves, how great a salvation. What greater could there be?

Seasons 2.29

It is manifest, therefore, that the destiny of all colonies, and republics, and empires, upon the American arena, has long since been decreed; and that destiny is unquestionably glorious and blessed -- that of being delivered by judicial power from the debasing tyranny under which they now groan; and of becoming the flourishing and happy provinces of an imperial dominion, co-extensive with the globe, under which life, liberty, and property, will be secure;

"mercy and truth meet together, and righteousness and peace embrace each other;"


"glory will be to the Deity in the highest heavens, over the earth peace, and goodwill among men" (Psa. lxxxv. 10; Luke ii. 14). "Hitherto is the end of the matter" (Dan. vii. 28).

The wars of the Angel of the Bow culminate in the conquest of a peace, which extinguishes all belligerent conflagration in the earth for a thousand years.

Eureka 10.8.

The kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom

For this cause, therefore, in the ascription of thanks to YAHWEH AIL Shaddai, the four belligerent Living Ones are withdrawn from the figuration; and the four and twenty elders only are in prostration before the Everliving One. The reader is aware that the saints are symbolized both by the Four Living Ones and the Elders, only in different relations.

The Four represent them in their militant antagonism to the powers that rule the nations; while "the elders" represent them as victorious kings and priests in the glorious and peaceful possession of their conquests. When "the war of the great day of AIL Shaddai" is over, and peace obtains in all the earth, there is no more premillennial work for the saints to do as the "Four Living Ones full of eyes." As militants they have

"gotten the victory,"

and their community is wreathed with the coronals which "they cast before the throne." These are cast there when the cause of thanksgiving, rejoicing, and prostration has been developed. Hence, ch. 4:10, is parallel with ch. 11: 16.

The saints, no longer belligerent, give thanks because YAHWEH AIL-Shaddai has acquired great power on the earth and reigned. When this thanksgiving was dictated to John in Patmos, it was the revelation of a purpose - an end which Deity had predetermined. The "great power" had not been taken, nor the reign commenced, when the apocalypse was given to John. Nor have they yet; nor will they be till the end of the seventh trumpet.

Eureka 12.2.

Daniel speaks of "the saints" and of "the PEOPLE of the saints." [Dan. 7:27] I apprehend that there is the same distinction to be drawn here, as between "a Jew inwardly," and "a Jew outwardly."

"The saints" is a term which includes them both; even as "Israel" includes both the natural, and believing, seed of Abraham. Because a person is one of the saints it does not therefore follow that he is a righteous man. This is clear from the fact, that the twelve tribes as a company of nations are termed "the Lord's witnesses;" concerning whom he says,

"this people have I formed for myself; they shall show forth my praise."

They are styled "a holy nation," or a nation separated from all other nations by a divine constitution by which they are made the people of God. Now this "holy nation" has proved itself to be "a stiff necked and perverse race; " nevertheless it is "holy," or separate, on the same principle that the temple, Jerusalem, the land, &c., are holy. But pagan nations are sometimes termed holy, or sanctified. Hence, the Lord says,

"I have commanded my sanctified ones, I have also called my mighty ones for mine anger, &c. They come from a far country, from the end of heaven, even the Lord and the weapons of His indignation to destroy the whole land."

This is from a prophecy against Chaldea. These saints are declared to be the Medes and Persians who were pagan nations associated together in the overthrow of the Babylonian dynasty.

"I will stir up the Medes against them, who shall not regard silver; and as for gold they shall not delight in it. Their bows also shall dash the young men in [to] pieces; and they shall have no pity on the fruit of the womb; their eye shall not spare children (Isaiah 13:3, 17, 18).

A class of persons separated in the providence of God to execute any work for Him are his sanctified ones, irrespective of their moral relations to the gospel.

They are designated in scripture by various names. They are styled witnesses, prophets, olive trees, candlesticks, as well as saints; because they are exercised in these several capacities. They may have to bear witness for civil and religious liberty; to preach against the lion-mouth and his clergy; to stand forth as a lamp before God to enlighten the nations of the earth, &c.; they may discharge all these functions, and yet be neither believers of the gospel of the kingdom, nor even "pious" as the term is.

This class of people may be found figuring largely in the history of all European nations.

They are the hostile party to the beast in all "religious wars," and wars for liberty against the despotism of popes, emperors, kings, and priests.

In these sanguinary wars their uniform has been sackcloth; yet they have devoured their enemies with fire and sword, and smitten the earth with all the plagues of war as often as they pleased. With various fortune have they combatted with the tyrants of the world.

Cromwell "tormented them who dwelt in" [the royalists] England and drew the sword for the "right divine of kings to govern wrong;" he struck terror into those in Ireland who worshipped the beast, and devoured them with fire and brimstone from the cannon's mouth. In France, the Hugenots did good service against the beast.

They shut up the political heaven, and suffered not the rain of peace to descend upon Piedmont, and the south, where the blood of Albigenses, and Waldenses, was crying out from the ground, like Abel's, for vengeance upon those who dwelt upon the earth. But, however successful for a season, they were destined to succumb for a while; as it is written, in Daniel,

"the little horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them: UNTIL the Ancient of Days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High: and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom."

Elpis Israel 3.1.