JOB 33
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1 Wherefore, Job, I pray thee, hear my speeches, and hearken to all my words.

Entreaty - Elihu's intention is to help



4 The Spirit of El hath made me, and the breath of shaddai hath given me life.

'... as Moses testifies, the Lord God formed man, the dust of the ground, and breathed in to his nostrils the breath of lives; and man became a LIVING SOUL" (Gen. 2:7).

Now, if it be asked, what do the Scriptures define "a living soul" to be? -- the answer is, a living, natural, or animal body, whether of birds, beasts, fish, or men. The phrase living creature is the exact synonym of living soul. The Hebrew words nephesh chayiah are the signs of the ideas expressed by Moses. Nephesh signifies creature, also life, soul, or breathing frame from the verb to breathe: chayiah is of life -- a noun from the verb to live. Nephesh chayiah is the genus which includes all species of living creatures; namely Adam man, beme beast of the field, chitu wild beast, remesh reptile, and ouph fowl, &c. In the common version of the Scriptures, it is rendered living soul; so that under this form of expression the Scriptures speak of "all flesh" which breathes in air, earth, and sea.

Writing about body, the apostle says, "there is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body." But, he does not content himself with simply declaring this truth; he goes further, and proves it by quoting the words of Moses, saying, "for so it is written, the first man Adam was made into a living soul - ;" and then adds, "the last Adam into a spirit giving life,  (1 Cor. 15:44-5). Hence, in another place, speaking of the latter, he says of him, "now the Lord is the Spirit. And we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are changed into His image from glory into glory, as by the Lord the Spirit  (2 Cor. 3:17-18).

The proof of the apostle's proposition that there is a natural body as distinct from a spiritual body, lies in the testimony, that "Adam was made into a living soul;" showing that he considered a natural, or animal body, and a living soul, as one and the same thing. If he did not, then there was no proof in the quotation, of what he affirmed.

A man then is a body of life in the sense of his being an animal, or living creature -- nephesh chayiah adam. As a natural man, he has no other pre-eminence over the creatures God made, than what his peculiar organization confers upon him. Moses makes no distinction between him and them; for he styles them all living souls, breathing the breath of lives. Thus, literally rendered he says, "the Elohim said, the waters shall produce abundantly sherets chayiah nephesh the reptile living soul;" and again, "kal nephesh chayiah erameshat every living soul creeping."

In another verse, "let the earth bring forth nephesh chayiah the living soul after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth, &c.;" and to every thing creeping upon the earth which (has) in it living breath" (Gen. 1:20, 21, 24, 30), that is, breath of lives. And lastly, "whatsoever Adam called nephesh chayiah (the living soul) that was the name thereof" (Gen. 2:19).

Quadrupeds and men, however, are not only "living souls," but they are vivified by the same breath and spirit. In proof of this, I remark first, that the phrase "breath of life" in the text of the common version is neshemet chayim in the Hebrew; and that, as chayim is in the plural, it should be rendered breath of lives.

Secondly, this neshemet chayim is said to be in the inferior creatures as well as in man. Thus, God said, "I bring a flood of waters upon the earth to destroy all flesh wherein is ruach chayim spirit of lives" (Gen. 6:17). And in another place, "they went in to Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, in which is ruach chayim spirit of lives." "And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing, and every man; all in whose nostrils was neshemet ruach chayim BREATH OF SPIRIT OF LIVES" (Gen. 7:15-22).

Now, as I have said, it was the neshemet chayim with which Moses testifies God inflated the nostrils of Adam; if, therefore, this were divine particula aure a particle of the divine essence, as it is affirmed [by the majority of religion merchants], which became the "immortal soul" in man, then all other animals have "immortal souls" likewise; for they all received "breath of spirit of lives" in common with man.

Elpis Israel 2.1

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Now, when we turn to Genesis 1:1,we do not find Moses saying bara Yahweh, Yahweh created, but bara elohim, ELOHIM created, nevertheless Moses and Isaiah are accordant in their accounts. Moses introduces Yahweh in the second verse, but without giving Him that name. His words are ruach Elohim, "the 'Spirit' of Elohim moved upon the face of the waters." What spirit was this? The New Testament says, "there is One Spirit" (Eph. 4:4); and if we ask what is that one? Jesus replies "Spirit is Theos," or "God" (John 4:24). Then it was Theos who moved on the face of the waters. But concerning Theos or Ail, Agur says: "Who hath ascended the heavens, or descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fist? Who hath bound the waters in a garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is His name and what is the name of 'His Son' if thou canst tell?" (Prov. 30:4).

What is the name of that "one spirit," that moved upon the face of the waters? The answer is Yahweh. This was the "He" of the Elohim "that formed the earth and made it." Hence, the nominative to created, is not a plural of majesty, but a singular noun understood -- thus, "In the beginning (the spirit of) Elohim created the heavens and the earth"; and that spirit named himself Ehyeh, "I shall be," at the bush (Exod. 3:14; 6:3). If then, the question be asked, by what power did they, the Elohim, create and make all mundane things? The answer is, by the spirit, self-named Yahweh or Yah, whose sons, messengers, and servants they are.

Spirit radiant from the eternal centre of light and power embodied itself in them; and from them as secondary focal organisations, radiated into the substance of the earth and waters; by which radiation a collateral connection was established with "the free spirit" directly emanating from the Focal Centre of the Universe, permeating and pervading all atoms. Holding such a relation to all things, and energized by such a power, they could move heaven, earth and sea, and elaborated the six days' work of power with all imaginable ease.

The name Yahweh does not occur in all the first chapter of Genesis. All the works it there narrates are affirmed of Elohim. The Spirit is presented there as the power; but in the second chapter the style is changed, and Moses, to whom the Spirit had communicated His name at the bush, instead of saying "the Spirit of Elohim," says "Yahweh Elohim made the earth and the heavens"; "Yahweh Elohim formed man." A saying in Job 33:4, shows that "Yahweh" is synonymous with "Spirit." There Elihu says, "the Spirit of Ail hath made me, and the breath of Shaddai hath given me life."

The nishmath Ail Shaddai is the atmosphere or firmament which was elaborated on the second day; and not to be confounded with the Spirit. The Spirit formed the air with its appearances called "heavens," for the support of the vegetables and animal worlds He was about to form.

That the nishmath Ail is the air, is clear from Job 37: 10, which says: "By the breath of Ail, frost is given; and the breadth of the waters is straightened," or congealed.

Now from the consideration adduced, it is evident that the phrases, "and God said," and "God made," and "God created," occurrent in the first chapter, are equivalent to "Lord God"; or more properly, Elohim said, created, and made, are equivalent to Yahweh Elohim doing thus, as brought out in the second chapter-- "One Spirit in a plurality of Agents": not a single one in three, but One in hosts: and hence the title so frequently in Scripture, "Yahweh of Hosts" -- the Yahweh-Spirit in multitudinous manifestation.

Phanerosis - The Memorial Name



7 Behold, my terror shall not make thee afraid, neither shall my hand be heavy upon thee.

No malice - (unlike the satan of Ch 1.)



8 Surely thou hast spoken in mine hearing, and I have heard the voice of thy words, saying,

9 I am clean without transgression, I am innocent; neither is there iniquity in me.

The ongoing reproof is correct...no man is without sin/ innocent



32 If thou hast any thing to say, answer me: speak, for I desire to justify thee.

Elihu is seeking to save Job from a mistaken view of his afflictions ...his view that he was being destroyed 'without cause'.



33 If not, hearken unto me: hold thy peace, and I shall teach thee wisdom.

Job still had lessons to learn (Heb 5:8)