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Chapter 11 is still part of the sixth trumpet, for the seventh does not sound until the close of this chapter 11.

Verse 1, of chapter 11 - (We go back now to the West.) John is given a reed like a rod to measure the temple of God. The rod is clearly a measurement of affliction, as verse 2 shows, "They shall tread the holy city under foot 42 months," which is 1260 day-years.

Verse 3 - Two witnesses are to prophesy in sackcloth, which represents affliction and mourning, for 1260 days: A downtrodden temple, sackcloth witnesses, and a period of 1260 years. Verse 7 - At the end of that period the beast kills the witnesses. Verses 8 and 9 - They lie dead but unburied in the street, or broad place, of the great city, rejoiced over (verse 10) by the followers of the beast. Verses 11 and 12 - After 3 ½ days they rise and ascend to heaven. Great fear falls on those who see them. Verse 13 - There was a great earthquake, and the tenth of the great city fell; seven thousand names of men are slain, the remnant gave glory to God.

Again, history fits perfectly. The Catholic Church came to imperial power under Constantine in 312 AD. Immediately, the false brethren, now in political power, began to persecute the faithful who kept separate from the apostasy, and tried to force them into line. This began a 1260-year sackcloth witnessing against the Man of Sin - the god of the earth.

1260 years from 312, when Constantine came to power, is 1572 - the Saint Bartholomew Day Massacre of the Huguenots - the opening gun of a concerted war to stamp out parsonism in the Papal dominion. The Pope commanded a great jubilee and had medals made to commemorate the bloody victory of Catholicism over the Huguenots. France was the central scene of this war. 

France is the street, or broad place, of the great city. Rome being the great city (verse 8) and there was also the tenth of that city, that is the outstanding tenth, out of the ten divisions of the Roman Empire - the primary tenth. Ever since Charlemagne, king of the Franks in the ninth century, defended the Pope and reestablished his authority in Europe, France was considered the eldest son of the church - the chief or principle tenth of the great city. And in this period France fell; that is, fell as far as Catholic power is concerned.

History is not, of course, always clear-cut in sharp breaks from one period to another. But certain dates are typical, significant, and major turning points. In 1685, the Edict of Nance, which had given certain rights to the French Protestants, was revoked. This marked the death of the witnesses. In 1687, just two years later, a Huguenot, a Bible student, Peter Jurieu, writing on the Revelation, identified this as the death of the witnesses, and predicted that France, as the tenth of the great Papal city Rome, would break away from the Pope, and lead the period when the king of the earth would turn against the Papacy and greatly torment it. This is exactly what happened as we see in the vial. This is another very powerful confirmation of the basic soundness of the historical interpretation of the Revelation, because this man foresaw from the Revelation the general outline of what was to come.

There were two witnesses. This indicates a distinction - two classes. They were the true woman and the earth, which helped the woman. The Brethren of Christ, who held the Truth and kept separate from the world, on the one hand, and on the other all in the world, who for various reasons-social, political, or religious-opposed the Papacy and sought liberty. It is the latter class-the outer shell, which appears in history. The Huguenots were of the outer witness. They entered politics and war.

The witnesses were to lie dead three and one half days (verse 9). Peter Jurieu thought this would be 3 ½ years, which is a natural assumption. But history reveals it to be 3 ½ months of years. 3 ½ months is 105 days, and the period of their death turned out to be 105 years, until 1790-the French Revolution, the greatest turning point of European history. The ministry of the Papacy and Rome, the great enemy in the Revelation, before and after the French Revolution are two completely different worlds. Again within three years of the French Revolution, in 1793 an English Bible student named Bicheno had the clue, and identified the 105 years from 1685 to 1790 as the death period of the witnesses. This is another very strong evidence of the soundness of the basic framework.

Verses 11, 12, and 13 - The witnesses were given life, stood up, and a great voice called them up to heaven; fear fell on all that saw them, and there was a great earthquake, and seven thousand names of men (note the middle margin) were slain, and the tenth of the city fell.

Since 1685, the revocation of the Edit of Nance, the Catholic monarchy, clergy, and nobility had ruled France with an iron hand, but increasing disorder and bankruptcy cause Louis XVI in desperation to summon the national assembly. This was the ascension of the witnesses to heaven. The time was right, and events soon snowballed into the execution of the king, the abolition of the nobility, or names of men, confiscation of all church property, and end of all church power, and the terrible blood bath, known as the Reign of Terror. Out of this came Napoleon, with the vials of God's wrath against the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire that we shall see later in chapter 16.

Bro Growcott - Review of the Apocalypse

v 1-13 - From A.D. 312 to A.D. 1794, a period of 1482 years.

1 And there was given <to> me a reed like a rod: and the angel stood, saying, Rise <up>, and measure the <nave of the Deity>, and the altar, and <those worshipping in it>.


In this we find John in a like situation with Zechariah. They are both in the presence of an angel, and both asleep. That John was lying down asleep appears from a voice saying to him, egeirai, awake, or rise up! ....he was prostrate in symbolic death, from which he was commanded, not by the angel, but by the voice of the power that develops the angel, to "Awake," or "Rise up."

The angel is placed there...as the representative of the One Body in the post-resurrectional period; as indicated by the symbolical resurrection of John, who, when awake or risen up, sees him standing -- "the Angel stood."

...The literal resurrection of the dead saints develops the angel he saw standing when he opened his eyes to see. The things revealed in this eleventh chapter ultimate, as any one may see, in the resurrection of the saints, and the establishment of their kingdom.

Eureka 11.1.ii.1

Reed - Measure of faith: rod 1260 affliction

"Rise up," said the voice of the Spirit, "and measure the nave of the Deity, and the altar, and them that worship therein."

When we consider the things to be measured, it is clear that the reed must be a rule of faith, a rule of practice, a rule of time, or all of these; not a material rule, such as a builder would use. It was "a reed like unto a rhabdos."

In writing to the saints in Corinth. Paul says to them: "What will ye? Shall I come unto you with a rhabdos or with love, and a spirit of meekness?" (1 Cor. iv. 21). This shows that a rhabdos is something different from love and meekness in expression. The use of it in this chapter of the apocalypse is evidently representative of the same idea as in Paul's inquiry. The scope of the prophecy shows this; for the two olive trees are to "prophesy 1260 days, having been clothed in sackcloths" (ver. 4,3); and to be overcome and denied a burial (ver. 7,9).

Eureka 11.1.ii.2.

The Altar

The altar in the text is the altar of sacrifice.

Had it been the altar of incense it would have been specified, as in ch. viii. 3, "the golden altar before the throne." The altar John measured was the altar under which the saints lie, who are slain for the word of the Deity, as in ch. vi. 9.

In this place, the symbolic souls are represented as "crying with a loud voice, saying, How long?" But the measurement of this was not revealed. They were told that it was "for a little season;" but the number of days contained in this short period was not measured off for their information.

Not so, however, in John's measuring. He gives in symbolic days the period of altar-worshipping; that is, the period during which the saints would be liable to death at the hand of their enemies because of their testimony. In all "their days of the prophecy they were an afflicted people.

As the Spirit had foretold in Dan. vii. 21, the Little Horn with Eyes and a Mouth of blasphemy was to make war upon the saints, and to prevail against them till the Ancient of Days came. The saints being in Christ Jesus, the altar, they "worship therein," and are "partakers with the altar" in altar-sufferings; in other words, "they are partakers of Christ's sufferings; that when his glory shall be revealed, they may be also partakers of that, and be glad with exceeding joy" (1 Pet. iv. 13; v. 1).

But, was this altar to be deluged with the blood of victims in all the period elapsing from A.D. 70 to the coming of the Ancient of Days? John's measuring answers this question in the negative.

Eureka 11.1.ii.3.

2 <And> the court which is <outside of the nave cast away> out, and measure it not; for it <has been given> to the <nations>: and the Holy City <they shall trample> forty two months.

Outside of the nave:

All not of the "One body" Excommunicate

Trampling period AD 608-1868 approx

John's measuring was restricted to the One Body, the mystical body of Christ, the saints. He was expressly commanded to excommunicate all the Gentiles not of the One Body. "The Court," said the Spirit-Voice, "that is outside of the nave, ekbale exo, cast away out, and measure it not;" and the reason given for this excommunication is, "because it hath been given to the nations."

Hence, the apocalyptic court is the Court of the Gentiles; and the antitype of the Court of the Gentiles under the Mosaic constitution. It may be remarked here, that in Solomon's building there were three courts; first, the outmost court of all, into which the Gentiles might enter; next, the Court of Israel, for native Israelites, if clean according to the law, otherwise admission was denied even to them. See more 1 Kin 6: 14

...As we have seen elsewhere, these temple arrangements have been incorporated into the structure of the Apocalypse.

...... Israelites and Gentiles not of the One Body, are constituents simply of the unmeasured court. Their position in relation to the Nave and the Golden Altar, and the Altar of Sacrifice, is that of excommunicate outsiders. In the aggregate, they are "the court outside of the nave cast away out, and not measured." They are therefore, without remission of sins, and consequent right to the tree of life; they cannot offer acceptable prayer and praise to the Deity; nor have they any intercessor within the veil.

Their court is wholly occupied by Daniel's Fourth Beast. There is not a foot of its area which is not so occupied; so that there is room within its limits for no other beast; for this beast is resolved, apocalyptically, into the dragon, the beast of the sea, the beast of the earth, the image of the beast, and the scarlet colored beast and its rider. In other words, the Unmeasured Court is Christendom, so called, in its civil and ecclesiastical constitution "Babylon the Great."


In this Court of the Gentiles, "the spirituals of the wickedness in their high places" are rampant revellers in tradition and blasphemy. Their court is illustrated by one great "Name of Blasphemy" (xiii. 1); which towers in pride and arrogance ("its look more stout than his fellows", Dan. vii. 20) above all the other blasphemous "Names and Denominations," of which it is so "full" as scarcely to afford space for novelty in this department of iniquity, transgression, and sin (xvii. 3).

These Names and Denominations of Blasphemy fill up the Court; a fact expressed in the text quoted, by the words, "a scarlet-colored beast, full of the Names of Blasphemy." Those of them in alliance with the civil powers of the court, are styled "Harlots;" these can be counted upon the fingers; as, the Church of England and Ireland, the Church of Scotland, the Lutheran Church, the Calvinian Church of Switzerland, and the Gallican* Church.

These are the Harlots, who have sold themselves for gain to work the will of them who keep them. They are ecclesiastical incorporations of "all that is in the world, the" sanctimonious "lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life;" and therefore "not of the Father" (1 Jno. ii. 16).

Their diversities are but the diversities of mere human speculation and views of expediency. The same substratum of blasphemy and scripture-nullifying tradition, pervades them all. They teach nothing aright; for their divinities and theologies, are the mere fleshly thinkings of the natural man. Though their spirituals claim to be "ministers of the gospel," and "ambassadors of Jesus Christ," and "successors of the apostles;" their claims are stamped spurious and their high pretensions ignored, by the command given to John [Rev 11: 2] not to measure their court, but to "cast it away out."

They are a denounced apostasy, as far removed from the One Body as the east from the west. Ministers of the gospel indeed! How can men minister that of which they are profoundly ignorant in letter and spirit. If ministers of anything, it is of "the wisdom from beneath; which is earthly, soulish, and demoniac." By their fruits they are known to the One Body which alone has spiritual intelligence to discern their true character.

This measured community knows, that they are a base counterfeit that can only be made to pass current among those who are ignorant; and who mistake brass for the fine gold of the temple. The spiritual institutions of their unmeasured and excluded court, have no vitality in them; and can therefore save no one. Their way is the way of death -- the wide gate and the broad way leading to destruction.

These Harlot-Churches of the Court are the leading novelties of modern times. They had no place in the Court four hundred years ago. Then the court was wholly occupied by Greek and Latin catholic idolatry; the Latin section of which they ignorantly acknowledge as the true church; and the common "Mother of All Churches." This is true. The state churches are all her bastard progeny, begotten of her adulteries with the kings of the earth (xviii. 3). Hence, her apocalyptic name, "MOTHER OF HARLOTS."

But, besides these harlot daughters, whose presence in the court she is too drunk and feeble to prevent -- "drunk," not so much with wine as with folly, and "with the blood of the saints and witnesses of Jesus" (xvii. 6) she has a multitudinous brood of young serpents, styled "All the Abominations of the Earth." These are the Anti-State churches of the Court -- churches, not allied to the state, but holding dogmas, which are a mere dilution of the traditions of the Harlot Mother of Christendom.

They pervade all the British isles and possessions, under the general denomination of "Protestant Dissenters;" and all the original United States, north and south. In the American section of the Court of the Gentiles, as there is no Harlot "by law established" with privileges from which her sister-prostitutes are excluded, "the Abominations" are not styled "Dissenters" and "Nonconformists." In this section of the court they are all equal before the world's law; but not equally respectable and orthodox in the world's esteem.

Wealth, classical (or pagan) scholarship, and numbers are the criteria of their relative respectability and orthodoxy. The rulers and politicians of the "Model Republic," players all upon the world's boards, are the honored members or patrons of "all the Abominations of the Earth;" so that from the stage to the pulpit, and from the pulpit to "the floor of the House," there is no wider step than from the sublime to the ridiculous and profane.

The legislators and executives of the protestant sections of the Court are the incarnations of the profanities and blasphemies inculcated by the spiritual craftsmen who live by "the Abominations," or "Denominations" of the earth. Hence, their legislation and rule are devilish and oppressive; and calculated to bring down upon them catastrophe and judgment, as at this day, but more intensely and generally hereafter.

..."the Angel stands" prepared to "finish the mystery of the Deity as he hath announced the good to his servants the prophets" -- to break up the court, and to level the Great Mountain of human dominion and corruption, with which it is filled.

There will then be no more Court of the Gentiles, and no more apocalyptic altar-worshipping for the One Body. All "the Abominations of the Earth," mere lies, vanities, and "things which are of no profit," will then be swept away with the besom of destruction; and nothing will survive, but the victorious and glorified community, symbolized by Zechariah as the Seven Branched Lightstand, and Olive trees. These will then burn the golden oil in the kingdom of their Father; and enlighten the subject nations with their glory.

Eureka 11.1.ii.4.

The Holy City

"Ye are come to Mount Zion, and unto the City of the Living Deity, the Heavenly Jerusalem," "the Mother of us all" (Heb. xii. 22; Gal. vi. 26).

In the apocalypse, the Holy City occupies a conspicuous and interesting position. The Holy City measured by John, and the Holy City measured by the Angel, are the same Holy City in two different states in the pre-resurrectional; and in the post-resurrectional, states.

...The true believers in the present altar-worshipping state are collectively the Holy City, the Municipality elect, and divinely appointed to rule in the restored Jerusalem, when it shall have been delivered by the Angel of the Bow from the Serpent-Power of the unmeasured court by which it is now "trodden under foot."

Eureka 11.1.ii.4.

The Holy Polity Trampled Forty-two Months

The Holy Body Politic is measured -- the period of its down-treading by Gentile barbarism is measured. The Court of the Gentiles will continue to exist a longer time than their trampling of the Holy City. Not being measured, it does not appear how much longer it will continue; but as the Holy Polity is to destroy the Court and its sin-powers, it follows necessarily, that the altar-worshipping and sackcloth prophesying of the Body, must come to an end before judgment is given to it.

This limit of tribulation had been revealed to Daniel in the words of the oracle:

 "The Horn shall make war upon the saints, and prevail against them until the Ancient of Days come, and judgment be given to the saints" (vii. 21,22); and in verse 25, "they shall be given into his power until a time and times and the dividing of time." 

In other words, at the end of this period the Ancient of Days will come; and then the saints will no longer be prevailed against, or "the Holy City be trodden under foot."

...Now he comes "as a thief" under the sixth vial, while the Franco-Frog power is in active operation (xvi. 12-15)

Eureka 11.1.ii.5

Birth of the "god of the earth" - The 42 months begins

"Forty and Two months" of symbolic time are as many years as they contain days. Forty and two months are 1260 days; so that, on the principle of a day for a year, as in chap. 9, the Holy City is trampled to the end of 1260 years.

...There are no data in the first and second verses of this eleventh chapter to show at what epoch these "forty and two months," or 1260 years of trampling begin.

... But, the same Spirit told Daniel, that the time was the period of the saints being in the hand of the Little Horn with Eyes and Mouth; if, therefore, it can be ascertained when they were turned over by authority to the ecclesiastical horn-power, the commencement of the "forty and two months" will be determined.

The words of the oracle, are, "they shall be given into his hand. This implies a giver -- one having power, by which he would be able to place the saints under the jurisdiction of him who should "wear them out, and think to change times and laws" (Dan. vii. 25). This powerful giver was unquestionably the Sixth Head of the Dragon; or

 "the king that shall do according to his will, and shall honour a god whom his fathers knew not."

The throne of this dragon-king is Constantinople. It was removed here from Rome by Constantine "the Great;" a removal, that prepared the way for the manifestation in Rome of this new god, who would speak great things against the Most High. The principal bishop of the catholic idolatry in Rome was developed into "the God of all the earth" by the legislative favour of the imperial Constantinopolitan power. This development was legislative and circumstantial, and therefore progressive.

He was no meteoric upstart in the Seven-hilled city; but a bastard deity, who had been begotten in the Roman Mother by the adulterous embrace of the imperial power. Rome was pregnant with this blasphemous deity during a gestative "set time" of two hundred and eighty years -- nine months and ten days being the physiological period of human incubation.

From A.D. 324 to A.D. 604-8, was this "god of guardian saints" in the embryo, or foetal state. He was quickened into political life as a future imperial element of the fourth beast dominion of the Court, by Justinian's Code, A.D. 529, and his Decretal Epistle, A.D. 533; which affirmed the Roman Bishop's universal supremacy in spiritual affairs.

Seventy-five years after this quickening, he was born God of the Roman earth by Phocas, the Dragon emperor, acknowledging the supremacy of his See, A.D. 604; in grateful commemoration of which, and other benefits, the New Deity caused to be erected by the exarch of Italy a Corinthian fluted column of Greek marble, standing on a pyramid of eleven steps, on the top of which was a gilt statue of Phocas.

The date of the pillar was A.D. 608; and the occasion of the honour is stated in the inscription to be, "Pro innumerabilibus Pietatis ejus Beneficiis, et pro Quiete procurata Italiae, ac conservata Libertate." Surely, the birth of "the God the earth" was an event to be celebrated in grateful honour upon the imperial creator!

Perhaps a baser wretch than Phocas never wore the dragon-crown; but the baser the more worthy in the estimation of the new god. By the murder of the imperial family, the usurper had given absolute liberty and supremacy to the Roman bishop; besides bestowing liberal donations upon the Roman churches. He was therefore entitled "His Piety;" and the pillar was erected "For the innumerable benefits of His Piety, and for the quiet procured to Italy, and the preservation of liberty."

Eureka 11.1.ii.5.

Column of Phocas

Built in honour of Emporer Phocas, he elevated Boniface III to universal bishop of the catholic church and so began the 1260 years of prophesying in sackcloth for the 'Holy City' in its pre- resurrectional state.

Boniface sought and obtained a decree from Phocas which restated that "the See of Blessed Peter the Apostle should be the head of all the Churches". This ensured that the title of "universal bishop" belonged exclusively to the bishop of Rome.

3 And I will give <to> my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy 1 260 days, <having been> clothed < with> sackcloths.

My two witnesses prophesy clothed with sackcloth 

Witnessing period AD 312-1572

The Donatists...the epoch which initiated the 1260 years of their sackcloth-witnessing against the apostasy.

Their characteristics described:

... "uncharitable" exclusiveness, and "bigoted" devotion to the primitive apostolic faith, was the truly christian spirit of the woman and her seed...

...abhorrence of the apostasy

Du pin - "They did not teach anything that was contrary to the (apostles') creed that thus the [apostolic faith] was only found among themselves they [reimmersed] such as had been [immersed] by the Catholics... the [ecclesia] ought to be made up of just and holy men, or at least of those who were such in appearance; ...This was spuing the apostasy out of their mouth... flight into the wilderness necessary to her preservation.

Mosheim - avoiding all communication with other churches from an apprehension of contracting their impurity and corruption. ...This erroneous principle was the source of that most shocking uncharitableness and presumption (poor Dr. Mosheim!)

If such only was "the crime" of the persecuted Donatists, had I lived in their day, I should have been guilty of their "shocking uncharitableness and presumption" too.

Eureka 11.3.

The Spirit styles them "my two witnesses." They are therefore the Witnesses of the Spirit, styled in ch. xvii. 6, hoi martures Iesou, the witnesses of Jesus -- of Yah the Saviour. A witness is one who gives testimony to the truth at the hazard of liberty, estate, and life. The Spirit's witnesses are witnesses of this kind. They testified to "the truth as it is in Jesus," in opposition to "every high thing that exalteth itself against the Deity's knowledge;" consequently, they were conspicuous in testifying against the catholic worshipping of the daemonials and idols; and all the other abominations they encountered in the Court of the Gentiles.

Many of them incurred the loss of all things -- "they loved not their lives unto the death" (xii. 11); therefore they are described in "the time of the dead," as "the souls of them who were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of the Deity, and who had not worshipped the Beast, neither his Image, neither had received the mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands;" and to show that these witnesses are the Saints, it is added, "and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years" (xx. 4).

To these witnesses something was given -- "And I will give to my two witnesses," saith the Spirit. What was this that was given? It could be nothing else than the gift of prophecy; for it is immediately added, as the result of the gift received, "and they shall prophesy."

Now, the nature of the gift is determined by what, as prophets, they were to accomplish. They were to devour their enemies by fire bursting forth out of their mouth; to shut the heaven that it rain not; to turn the waters into blood; and to smite the earth with every plague (verses 5,6).

...For this reason it is, that the saints are said to "prophesy," when they state, illustrate, and prove the truth. "He that prophesieth," saith Paul, "speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort" (1 Cor. xiv. 3); and "he that prophesieth edifieth the ecclesia" (ver. 4); therefore he saith in another place, "despise not prophesyings."

...The ancient prophets and apostles received the subject matter they proclaimed by revelation direct from Deity; while the apocalyptic prophets receive it by hearing expounded, and reading the writings in which the direct revelation is contained.

...For this reason it is, that the saints are said to "prophesy," when they state, illustrate, and prove the truth. "He that prophesieth," saith Paul, "speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort" (1 Cor. xiv. 3); and "he that prophesieth edifieth the ecclesia" (ver. 4); therefore he saith in another place, "despise not prophesyings."

...The ancient prophets and apostles received the subject matter they proclaimed by revelation direct from Deity; while the apocalyptic prophets receive it by hearing expounded, and reading the writings in which the direct revelation is contained.

...Thus were organized in the unmeasured Court of the Gentiles two powerful antagonisms -- civil and religious despotism, on the one hand; and civil and religious liberty, on the other. The adherents of the despotisms, in their civil and ecclesiastical organization, were the Dragon, the Ten Horns, the God of the earth, the Great Harlot, her Daughters, and the Abominations of the earth -- a blind, corrupt, and cruel host; while opposed to these, were the One Body and its unconscious instrument, "the Earth" -- unconscious that it was the divinely appointed and divinely energized agent for the aid, nourishment, and vindication of the Spirit's witnessing prophets against their enemies.

Here, then, were two cooperative organizations against the Catholic Apostasy of the Court. Without any treaty of alliance offensive and defensive, and without any direct mutual understanding, the ages and generations of the past found them standing side by side in witnessing and prophesying with tormenting effect against the blasphemies and abominations of

"them who dwell upon the earth."

Each witness had its own speciality. Christ's brethren testified the gospel, and laid before the Court the way of salvation. They showed men what they must believe and do for the remission of all their past sins; and for the obtaining a right to the tree of life in the Holy City, when it shall be measured by the angel of the golden reed (xxi. 15; xxii. 14).

In doing this, they did their utmost to neutralize the teaching of the Jeromes, Augustines, Ambroses, and Martins, of the apostasy;

...But, when this "Name of Blasphemy, speaking great things," had received political life; and had been set up as a living Image of Imperial Power, styled "the Image of the Beast" in ch. xiii. 14; a change for the worse came over the situation of affairs. "All, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond," were commanded to worship this image upon pain of death; and

"to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their forehead; and that no man might buy and sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name."

This pressed with great hardship upon the One Body; and upon those who were pledged to the antipapal principles of civil and religious liberty. Multitudes preferred death to submission to this decree; and determined to draw the sword in defence of "conscience and the rights of man," thus violently assailed by the new "god of all the earth."

This Moloch of the Seven Hills was not backward in affording them scope for the development of their prowess in all the nations of the court. He proclaimed crusades against them; and called upon his worshippers to gather their hosts, and to take the field against them, and to slay them with utter and exterminating slaughter. "The Earth," the Spirit's other witness, embraced the conflict, undismayed by the power and ferocity of the foe.

Eureka 11.2.

The Woman's Protector

...relatively to the Spirit's witnessing prophets, "the earth" is used in a more restricted sense. "The Earth that helps the Woman" is all those upon whom her testimony or principles, or both, have made a favorable impression.

Though they may not at all be influenced by her moral and doctrinal precepts for salvation, they incorporate her principles of "civil and religious liberty," and what they call "the rights of man," which were abolished by the edicts of the Imperial Dragon, when he subjected the nations of his dominion to the absolute sovereignty of the Episcopal God of the earth, A.D. 529.

No one imbued with the principles of civil and religious liberty could forbear to testify against arbitrary power in Church and State; and when natural men become impregnated with such principles, they become impetuous and impatient of oppression, which is said to drive even a wise man mad; and in their fury organize resistance, and seek the overthrow and destruction of the oppressor.

Such an "earth" as this did not exist in the ages and generations of Rome pagan. The Woman then had no Earth devoted to religious liberty to interpose itself between her and the arbitrary ferocity of "the great red dragon;" the whole brunt of this sanguinary despotism fell directly upon her unprotected self.

It was not till after the establishment of that worse than pagan superstition -- that "dreadful and terrible" blasphemy, surnamed the Holy Catholic Church, that "the Earth" in its witnessing relations appeared upon the arena. When aroused to action in the unmeasured Court, it was a terror of the oppressors of the saints. It tormented them with all the plagues of war; and devoured them with fire and sword, as its own peculiar testimony against "the God of the earth," and the Sin-powers that sustained him.

An arrangement of this sort was absolutely necessary for the preservation and protection of the One Body, witnessing for the truth against "the worshipping of the daemonials and idols," in the midst of the nations, and "before the God of the earth;" the weapons of whose warfare were civil disabilities, and the infernal tortures of anti-heretical crusaders and inquisitions.

Eureka 11.2.

The beginning of the witnessing clothed with sackcloth

As the Holy City was to be trampled forty and two months by the Gentiles; and as these were to trample it under the inspiration of the Antichristian Mouth of the Beast, the power given him for this purpose by the Dragon-Emperor was to be operative for the same length of time, which, in order to show this relation between the Mouth and the Holy City, is also expressed by the same formula of "forty and two months" (Apoc. xiii. 5).

And, for a somewhat similar reason, that is, to connect the sackcloth witnessing of the Holy City community with the fugitive woman and the earth that protected her by its help (Apoc. xii. 6,16), the things affirmed of the woman in relation to her feeding are expressed in the same kind of time as the duration of the witnessing -- 1260 days; and, furthermore, to show that 1260 symbolic days are equivalent to "a time and times and the dividing of a time" (a formula which occurs nowhere else in the Apocalypse, and pertains exclusively to the measurement of the Holy City) the 1260-feeding of the woman by the earth, in the fourteenth verse of the twelfth chapter, is styled her nourishing

"for a time and times and half a time;"

for to feed and nourish her are the same idea; so that the one statement of the duration of her feeding, is expository of the duration of her nourishing.

This view of the matter which I believe is the only correct one, helps us greatly in determining the commencement of the saints witnessing after the sackclothes had been put upon them by their enemies.

This beginning carries us back to the epoch of the Woman's flight into the wilderness, or two wings of the Great Roman Eagle. Her flight, by which she turned her back with contempt upon the honors and riches of the world; which she left to the leaders of the Catholic Apostasy -- the Eusebiuses, Lactantiuses, Ariuses, Athanasiuses, and Chrysostoms of the day -- her fugitive separation from these, by which she became a witness for the truth against their worldliness and traditions, occurs after the birth of the Man-Child of Sin -- that sanguinary Cain, who, as the Antichrist, in the power of his manhood and impiety, afterwards slew the Abel of the Faith, whose blood cries for vengeance against him from the ground.

......The birth of this imperial child of the woman occurred in the enthronement of Constantine in Rome on his defeat of Maxentius at the battle of Saxs Rubra, A.D. 312.

This introduced a remarkable epoch in the history of the woman, this was the epoch of her deliverance from pagan persecution by the celebrated edict of Constantine published at Milan, A.D. 313; and of her introduction to an acquaintance with the worse than pagan persecution, which sought to exterminate her in the after years of Catholic ascendancy.

Constantine delighted to style himself "THE DELIVERER OF THE CHURCH." He was truly the deliverer of the Catholic Church; but he was also the first to inflict persecution and death itself upon those,

"who kept the commandments of the Deity, and retained the testimony of Jesus Christ."

The edict of Milan, the great charter of toleration, had confirmed to each individual of the Roman world, the privilege of choosing and professing his own religion. But this inestimable privilege was soon violated; with a smattering of truth, the woman's child imbibed the maxims of persecution, and the Dissenters from the Catholic Church were afflicted and oppressed by its political triumph over Paganism.

Constantine easily credited the insinuation that the HERETICS, as they were called, who presumed to dispute his opinions, or to oppose his commands, were guilty of the most absurd and criminal obstinacy; and that a seasonable application of moderate severities might save those unhappy men from the danger of an everlasting condemnation.

Eureka 11.3.

flight of the woman clothed in sackcloth

After a preamble filled with passion and reproach, Constantine absolutely prohibits the assemblies of "Heretics," and confiscates their public property to the use, either of the revenue, or of the Catholic Church. Some of the penal regulations were copied from the edicts of the pagan emperor Diocletian; and this method of conversion was applauded by the same bishops who had felt the hand of oppression, and pleaded for the rights of humanity.

But Constantine was not the only oppressor whose tyranny bore heavily upon the woman. His imperial colleague, Licinius, also within the limits of his jurisdiction, made her to groan with anguish. "Those who had done no evil," says Eusebius, "were led away to punishment without any pretext, just like murderers and assassins.

Some also endured a novel kind of death, having their bodies cut into many small pieces, and after this savage and terrible spectacle, were thrown as food to the fishes into the depths of the sea. Again the worshippers of God began to flee; again the open fields, the deserts, forests, and mountains, received the servants of Christ."

The fleeing of the woman was the reduction of her to a state of humiliation and tribulation, far removed from the exaltation and haughtiness characteristic of the region of imperial grace. The gates of this clerical paradise were closed against her. She has nothing to do with emperors and courts. These are only for the votaries of fashion, and parasitic spirituals, who hold the persons of rulers in admiration for the sake of gain.

Bishops, cardinals, archbishops, and other princes of the church, flourish in regions of imperial sunshine; but for the woman and her seed, the farther off they flee from such a heavenly, the clearer will they see the truth, and the better able will they be to "keep the commandments of the Deity," and to testify with the approval of Jesus Christ.

Thus, then, the woman in flight is related both to state and place. She fled because she was persecuted by "the angels of the Dragon" officials in power, both imperial and magisterial. The interval from the birth of her child, A.D. 312, to the conquest of the East by the overthrow of Licinius, A.D. 324, was occupied in ecclesiastical legislation in favour of the Catholic Church, and against Dissenters; and in carrying off her son unto Deity, and the throne thereof. Here was an epoch of twelve years.

At the end of this, that is, A.D. 325, he sat as a god, a presidential episcopal god, in the Council of Nice, exhibiting before the world the type of that full grown Man of Sin, who should be worshipped by all the nations of the unmeasured Court as "the Deity of the earth."

Now, it was at some point in this epoch of twelve years, that the 1260 years of witnessing began. As the woman's seed in their sackcloth witnessing were to "stand before the deity of the earth" in the sense of testifying against him, it is reasonable to refer the commencement of the witnessing period to the time of the formation of an issue between him and them.

Eureka 11.3.

Two Witnesses 

1. civil and ecclesiastical - 'the earth' and 'the woman'..

2. Holy City - The Lamb's Bride

The prophecy of the two witnesses is concerning two great parties in the ten horned beast's dominion, which antagonize it in its civil and ecclesiastical policy. One party is purely secular, and styled "the earth," or democracy; the other party is "religious," and termed "the woman.''

The mission of these is to make war upon tyranny, and to take vengeance upon it, and finally to be the means, or occasion, of breaking it up in its ten-horned and papal constitution. "The earth," or secular witness, is the helper of "the woman," or religious witness. They have co-operated since the reign of Constantine more or less intimately until the present time; their co-operation consisting in a determined hostility to state-churchism, and to its monarchial allies. They are both more or less republican in their principles. "The earth" especially is animated by a hatred of oppressors. Its spirit in all ages has shown itself in a terrible form. It is ferocious as the tiger, but it is a ferocity which is required by the nature of the work assigned it. The civil and ecclesiastical tyranny it has to combat, which is itself horribly terrific and blasphemous against God and his truth, must be encountered by a spirit as fierce.

In history, we see it exhibited in the Circumcellions of the first century of its operations, in the men of Munster of the sixteenth, the Camisards of the seventeenth, the Terrorists of the eighteenth, and the Red Republicans, socialists, &c., of the nineteenth. Like God's "sanctified ones, the Medes," the heart of "the earth" is steel, and its eye unpitying. It is ready to dash out the brains of sucklings, to spoil the property of the rich, and to reduce the social fabric of the Beast to its elemental chaos. Its political representative in Europe is ''THE MOUNTAIN" in the French legislature; a body of men who are the abomination and terror of the Jesuit priest-party throughout the world.

"The woman" is constituted of heterogeneous sects. "Dissent" and "non-conformity" are terms which define the religious witness in this country. In France she is styled "Calvinist." Her tendencies are republican, as illustrated in the Cromwellian commonwealth, and in the constitution of the United States of America, which was the conjoint work of "the earth" and "the woman." This great religious witness is made up of an infinite variety of factions, whose contempt of popes, emperors, kings, priests, and aristocrats, is profound; yet, with all their hatred, they conscientionsly repudiate the excesses of "the earth," or secular witness. These two witnessing parties, however, are of one theory, which is death to tyranny, if not to tyrants; and in some sense, or other, rally around the standard of "liberty, equality, and fraternity;" three principles which are utterly destructive of the dominion of the Little Horn, and its less audacious fellows of the Roman Beast.

But there is a third party which, although it has the deep rooted enmity of truth against every form of Satanism in church and state, papal and protestant; and wishes success to the Two Witnesses in their war with civil and ecclesiastical tyranny, yet it is distinct from them both. It is that party described by the apostle in the passage above quoted. It is composed of the saints of God in the highest sense of the word. It is the One Body of Christ, having the one faith, the one hope, one Lord, one spirit, one baptism, and one God and Father (Eph. 4:4-6).

It is styled "the holy city"

Elpis Israel 3.1.

Of the witnesses and holy city, without discriminating them, REINERIUS, the inquisitor-general, who shed their blood, writes thus concerning them as a whole. "Among all the sects which are, or have been, there is not any more pernicious to the church (i.e. of Rome) than that of the Leonists. And this for three reasons. The first is, because it is older; for some say that it hath endured from the time of Pope Sylvester (fourth century) others from the time of the apostles. The second, because it is more general, for there is scarce any country wherein the sect is not. The third, because when all other sects beget horror in the hearers by the outrageousness of their blasphemies against God, this of the Leonists have a great shew of piety; because they live justly before men, and believe all things rightly concerning God, and all the articles which are contained in the creed; only they blaspheme the church of Rome and the clergy, whom the multitude of the laity is easy to believe."

"The causes of their estrangement, says Acland from the Roman church are thus stated. 'It is because the men and women, the young and old, the laborer and the learned man, do not cease to instruct themselves; because they have translated the Old and New Testaments into the vulgar tongue, and learn these books by heart, and teach them; because if scandal be committed by any one, it inspires them with horror, so that when they see anyone leading an irregular life, they say to him, the apostles did not live so, nor should we who would imitate the apostles: in short they look upon all that a teacher advances, unsupported by the New Testament, as fabulous."'

Elpis Israel 3.1.

4 These are the two olive trees, and two < lightstands which have stood> before the god of the earth.

In the fourth chapter of Zechariah there is a very remarkable symbolic prophecy concerning Zerubbabel and the "great mountain."

The apostles have also taught us that the Spirit-Lightstand, or one light-bearing body, is constituted of two classes of mankind, which are fitly represented by Two Olive Trees; the one, "a wild olive tree," and the other, "a good olive tree". see Rom 11:24

...the One Body is destined to flourish in two states. The Zechariah-symbolic group represents it in the state inaugurated by the resurrection. John saw it in this state, as "a Son of Man in the midst of Seven Lightstands," invested with all the attributes of omnipotence (Apoc. i. 12-16).

Being in the midst of the seven, he occupies the same relation to the light-irradiating ecclesias that the seven tubes of Zechariah's group do to the golden bowl, and the seven horns do to the Lamb (v. 6). The whole group of John and Zechariah is symbolical of the Omniscient and Omnipotent Spirit in post-resurrectional corporeal manifestation -- the "One Body" perfected and glorified in all its members.

But, before the One Body thus symbolized can stand in the presence of the nations to "enlighten the earth with his glory" (xviii. 1), it must pre-exist in all "the times of the Gentiles;" that is, in the interval between the breaking off of the natural branches of the good olive tree, say from A.D. 70, to "the time of the dead when they should be judged, and a reward given to the prophets and saints" (xi. 18).

This state of being, Paul styles, "the present evil world;" we term it commonly, "this world," and "the present state," in contrast with "the future state," or "the other world," or "the world to come." Seeing, then, that the One Body, a great multitudinous unity, Jesus and his Brethren, is related to these two states, it is interesting to know --

I. What position it occupies in respect to the nations of the earth?

II. What its mission while so placed? and,

III. How long is that position to be held?

Eureka 11.1.2.

...the two olive trees are not united by pipes into one lightstand, as in Zechariah... In the first chapter, there is only one Lightstand with seven burners; but in the text before us, we have "two lightstands" with a tree to each.

...A wild olive branch and a lightstand are symbolical of "the Earth" -- the anticatholic and antipapal champion of civil and religious liberty, and the rights of man, standing defiantly "before the god of the earth," and the other branches of the wild olive tree. Fed by the revolutionary principles of wild olive liberalism, the earthy lightstand shone with light amid the deep and universal gloom of "the dark ages."

...There was another lightstand and a good olive branch. These symbolized the One Body, witnessing the truth. This lightstand shone with the light of the word, "Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light to my path" (Psa. cxix. 105). This was "the golden oil" of the good olive, by which the lightstand burners were fed. It was "the unction from the Holy One by which they knew all the things" they witnessed; and by which they were taught, "and is the truth" (1 John ii. 20,27).

Eureka 11.2.1.

The God of the Earth

Now, it is expressly said, that these "two witnesses," "two olive trees," "two lightstands," and "two prophets" "have stood before the god of the earth." This was to be their position. This god is not to be mistaken for the Eternal Creator. Though he made the earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein; and claims them all as his, He is not styled in this prophecy "the God of the earth." His title in this chapter is "the God of heaven," to whom glory is ascribed at the concluding act of the second woe (xi. 13).

It is true, these witnesses in a certain sense stand before the Creator; but in the sense of giving testimony against, they do not; and that enopion, before, is to be understood in the sense of against, is evident from the effect of their testimony which "torments," and stirs up the powers to destroy them (verses 7, 10). These two witnessing classes of antipapists confront the representatives of the papal deity in all the nations of the abyss; and in so doing, they stand in a hostile attitude before the God of the earth.

Eureka 11.2.2.

The earth (wild olive branch) helps the woman

...The one faith was intrusted to the apostles that they might go forth, and publish it

... The firm of Luther, Calvin, Knox, Cranmer and Company, knew nothing of this; yet they were highly useful in their day. They were Satan casting out Satan, whereby his kingdom was greatly weakened. They fought their master with his own weapons, and prevailed and became the founders of Harlot-Superstitions, which flourished in power and worldly glory, while the Spirit's Witnesses were lying dead and unburied in the breadth of the Great City, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified" (xi. 6,9).

In this breadth, plateia, they still flourish in all pomps and vanities of sin and folly. They are useful antagonists to the power of the Antichrist, while they are themselves but antichristian fellowships inimical to the truth. But, the Deity of the heaven, in his providence, educes good out of evil to his saints,

"for whose sake are all things."

The antagonisms of Satan so neutralize his power, that his Deity in Chief can no longer torment them unto death.

...The birth of this imperial child of the woman occurred in the enthronement of Constantine in Rome on his defeat of Maxentius at the battle of Saxs Rubra, A.D. 312.

This introduced a remarkable epoch in the history of the woman, this was the epoch of her deliverance from pagan persecution by the celebrated edict of Constantine published at Milan, A.D. 313; and of her introduction to an acquaintance with the worse than pagan persecution, which sought to exterminate her in the after years of Catholic ascendancy.

Constantine delighted to style himself "THE DELIVERER OF THE CHURCH." He was truly the deliverer of the Catholic Church; but he was also the first to inflict persecution and death itself upon those,

"who kept the commandments of the Deity, and retained the testimony of Jesus Christ."

The edict of Milan, the great charter of toleration, had confirmed to each individual of the Roman world, the privilege of choosing and professing his own religion. But this inestimable privilege was soon violated; with a smattering of truth, the woman's child imbibed the maxims of persecution, and the Dissenters from the Catholic Church were afflicted and oppressed by its political triumph over Paganism.

Constantine easily credited the insinuation that the HERETICS, as they were called, who presumed to dispute his opinions, or to oppose his commands, were guilty of the most absurd and criminal obstinacy; and that a seasonable application of moderate severities might save those unhappy men from the danger of an everlasting condemnation.

Eureka 11.2.3.

5 And if any <will to injure> them, fire <bursts forth out> of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any <will to injure> them, <in this way must he be put to death>.

This is prophetic of the wars that would be waged against the forces raised by the antichrist for their extermination. The Deity of the heaven did not require the members of the One Body to stand and be murdered by their enemies without help. If persecuted in one city they were to fly to another; but "the Earth," not believing in non-resistance and passive obedience to ecclesiastical tyranny, stood their ground, and devoured their enemies, after the introduction of gunpowder in war, at the cannon's mouth.

In this way "the Earth" performed their part. This was their mode of prophesying against the Antichrist; which, "in all their days of the prophecy," was very effective in the preservation of civil and religious liberty, and the rights of man; and in perpetuating them to succeeding generations.

...The right exercised by the Antichrist he derived from the Dragon Imperiality of the East, styled by Daniel the Little Horn of the Goat; a right afterwards recognized by that other Little Horn, which came up in the midst of, and after, the Ten Horns of the European Commonwealth.

"The Dragon gave him his power, and his throne, and great authority" (Apoc. xiii. 2);

and it is by virtue of this, which is mere right based upon might, the right of brute force, that "the Devil and his Angels" -- Antichrist and the Sin-Powers of the Court -- have sought to force men, thus given into their hands, to worship what they call God according to their dictates.

Now, it is in opposition to this blasphemous assumption, and in the negative sense already defined, that the witnessing prophets of the Deity of the heaven, champion civil and religious liberty and the rights of man. The enemies of these are their enemies; for if the spiritual and temporal Sin-Powers were to deprive society of these, their testimony or prophesying would inevitably be suppressed also. The conflict, therefore, which raged for ages in the Court of the Gentiles was one of life or death to the witnessing existence of the One Body, and the defensive self-devotion of the Earth.

This conflict of ages was long and bloody for all concerned. The saints of the Holy City fell by thousands under the savage and merciless hand of the Roman God. His Spouse of Babylon became red and drunk with their blood, which, like the righteous Abel's, still cries for vengeance upon the ruthless harlot that sits upon the beast (Apoc. xvii. 3).

The Earth valiantly helped her, but could not destroy the murderess. It gave her papistic myrmidons frequent and signal overthrows. It gave them blood to drink, and smote them with the plagues of war; so that, if they were determined to trample the Holy City of the Faith, they should not be permitted so to do with impunity.

Eureka 11.2.4.

6 These have power to shut <the> heaven, that <rain may not fall in their days of the > prophecy: and <they > have power over waters to turn them <into> blood, and to smite the earth with <every> plague, as often as they <may have willed>.

To shut up any sort of heaven that rain might not descend upon those who lived under it, is figurative of divine wrath upon the sufferers.

This appears from Deut. xi. 17 --

"And Yahweh's wrath be kindled against you, and he shut up the heaven that there be no rain."

This shutting up was the effect of divine displeasure. The shutting up of a heaven is never significative of blessing upon any people, but always of calamity of some sort. The genial, refreshing and fertilizing character of the administration of human affairs by the Mystical Christ -- Jesus and his Brethren -- is compared to an opened heaven from which rain descends in gentle showers upon the grass newly mown: as,

"There shall be a ruler over mankind, a Just One, ruling in the righteous precepts of Elohim. And as the brightness of morning, He shall rise the Sun of an unclouded dawn shining forth after rain upon tender grass out of the earth" (2 Sam. xxiii. 4).

...when the heaven is shut, the reverse of this obtains -- the righteous do not flourish, but are "in sackcloth;" and there is no peace.

Eureka 11.2.4.

But in process of time their power of resistance was diminished. This was attributable to the testimony of the One Body being enfeebled by the admixture of traditions which had crept in, and, in so far, rendered it ineffectual. The pastors, whose business it was to keep the lightstand well supplied with golden olive oil of truth, were deteriorating in faithfulness and aptitude for teaching.

Hence, the light grew dim and smoky, and men did not see their way as in former years. In consequence of this enfeebled perception, their christian virtue became too easy and tolerant of the traditions of the apostasy, until at length their individuality converged towards, and was finally lost in, the indefiniteness and confusion of the Lutheran and Calvinistic novelties of the sixteenth century.

This fatal termination of their labours is styled in the prophecy, the finishing of their testimony. Their word having lost its power, the energy of their ancient helper, the Earth, was enfeebled likewise.

When men's hold upon principles is relaxed, they lack that enterprize and force which is necessary for their preservation in this evil world. A worldly and "charitable" spirit generates indifference, by which the pointedness and sharpness of the truth are destroyed. The word handled in a worldly spirit is always "charitable" or tolerant of traditions, which make it of none effect.

The word being ministered thus, the power of energetic resistance, and of a bold and valiant advocacy of their ancient principles, was wanting, and deprived both classes of witnesses of their efficiency.

Hence, the spirit had no longer any use for them; for the protestantized testimony they were now only able to give, was not of that brightness necessary to constitute them the Golden Oil Light of the world.

Men may testify against the Roman Antichrist, and denounce both him and his co-religionists as idolators, which is unquestionably true; but such a testimony leaves the Court as much in the dark as to what must be believed and done for remission of sins, and for obtaining a right to eternal life, as though nothing had been said. This is Protestantism.

It protests truly, that the pope is a blasphemous impersonation of the Christ; but it cannot delineate Christ Jesus according to the prophetic and apostolic testimony. It is, therefore, simply a negation; it denies every thing, but can scripturally affirm nothing. Such a witness as this is of no account in the premises; its doctrine and institutions are devoid of all power for the salvation of the soul.

Eureka 11.2.4.

Their days of the prophecy

...the days of the prophecy are of much longer measure than the days of the witnessing against the Antichrist. These days are the 1260, and therefore they are emphatically and specially "their days" the portion of time appropriated to the One Body and its Helper

And these "their days" neither begin nor end with the days of the prophecy. They began, as I have shown, in the three years' epoch of A.D. 312-316, and would consequently end A.D. 1572-76; because 1260 + 316 = 1576.

Thus, their [1 260 years] sackcloth-witnessing had its beginning and ending, long before the deliverance of the Holy City from its "forty and two months" of subjection to the Gentile governments.

Eureka 11.3.1.

7 And when they < may> have finished their testimony, the beast that <ascending out of the abyss will> make war <with> them, and overcome them, and <put them to death>.

Put them to death

...this at the end of "their [1 260] days of the prophecy" was a special war, resulting as no previous wars had hitherto done, namely, the putting of them to death in the symbolic sense of the prophecy.

This war was to supervene upon their finishing their testimony hotan telesosi, "when they may have finished their testimony" for Jesus Christ, and against the Antichrist. The testimony concerning the faith was silenced first; afterwards, that against the Antichrist, and for civil and religious freedom.

"The Earth" maintained the conflict longest, having been energized by the accession of new life from the antipapal rebellion of the Lutherans and Calvinists.* These not being of the Holy City, but advocates of a reformed national system of religion, were prepared to draw the sword against the papal powers with potent, though not universally subversive results.

After a lapse of twelve hundred years, these sturdy combatants arose to disturb the peace, in which the worshippers of the Roman God were glorifying themselves greatly.

They fought valiantly, but did not conquer: and, though in Germany, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Britain, they established governments independent of "the God of the earth;" yet, in all the Breadth of the Great City [v8] -- epi tes plateias poleos tes megales, which is allegorically styled Sodom and Egypt, -- in Rome, Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, the Austrian states and Poland, "the witnesses were overcome and put to death."

*Swiss and German Protestantism in those days, was a powerful antagonism to popery, it had no affinity in faith and practice to the ancient apostolic religion, of the primitive age.

It is an unbaptized speculation, which no true Christadelphian, or Brother of Christ, can fellowship without incurring the crime of apostasy from the faith.

This was the position of the witnessing prophets in A.D. 1576. "Their testimony," with which for 1260 years they had tormented their adversaries, "was finished." "Their days of prophecy" were now expired. They could no longer teach others "the great salvation" by which they might escape the guilt and condemnation of sin unto eternal life in the kingdom of the Deity; and as for protesting against "the God of the earth," the Lutheran and Calvinistic antipapists, with whom they had fraternized, were effective enough for that.

Eureka 11.3.1.

The terminal epoch

Exactly 1260 years from the birth of the Imperial Man-Child of Sin (who, they testified had no more to do with the church, than christians with kings, or their bishops with courts); that is, in the year 1572, the first of a terminal epoch of four years, a dreadful calamity befel them in Paris and other cities of France.

This was the celebrated papal massacre of "St. Bartholomew's Day," as the 24th of August is termed by the worshippers of the saints. The murderers ravaged the whole city, and in three days butchered above ten thousand lords, gentlemen, presidents, and people of all ranks. From Paris the massacre spread throughout the whole of France.

... It burst forth upon them most unexpectedly in that section of the plateia, or breadth, of the Great City, styled in the thirteenth verse, to dekaton, the tenth -- one of the Ten-Horn-Kingdoms of the Beast.

...In this Tenth of the Papal Breadth they still amounted to over 1,500,000; many of them wealthy merchants, skilful manufacturers, able sailors and soldiers. The question with the Antichrist and his "eldest son" Louis XIV, was, should such a sect be permitted to exist; and whether their power was not now able to subdue it, and extirpate the heresy?

The king believed that God had raised him up and prospered him for this very thing. The season seemed to them favorable.

There was none of the European States that could protect them. ... Other states were awed by her power, and however willing to support the Huguenots, dared not to provoke so mighty and unrelenting a foe as the GRAND MONARQUE.

He was therefore free to essay their conversion to Romish idolatry, or to exterminate them from his kingdom. He accordingly began this great work of putting to death the witnesses by revoking the Edict of Nantes granted by Henry IV, April 1, 1598. The revocation was decreed October 23, 1685.

... This was putting them to silence, or killing them as witnesses against Romish idolatry. So long as their mouths were closed they were unable to testify; so that as witnesses they were literally dead, though not therefore buried.

...When the remnant ceased to "contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints," "the earth" began to fail in its efforts to establish civil and religious liberty in the countries where "the remnant of the woman's seed" [Rev. 12:17] had witnessed for the truth so long. The reactionists on the side of arbitrary power began to prevail against both classes of witnesses, and the holy city; and to succeed in re-establishing what they call "order;" that is, such a state of society as existed in France from A.D. 1685 to 1789, or in England under Charles II.; or of which we have more recent illustrations in the case of France under Louis XVIII; and Charles X.; and of Italy under Austria and the pope, &c., in 1815!

It is the "order" established by Satan, when he triumphs over the rights of men, and the truth and righteousness of the untraditionized gospel of the kingdom of God. Satan's adherents sigh for that "order" in church and state, which will enable them to increase their power, augment their earthly treasures for the gratification of their lusts, and perpetuate their grinding and debasing tyranny over the nations.

Elpis Israel 3.1.

The saints are marshalled on the side of the woman; and their persecutors on the side of the serpent. The war has been long, fierce, and bloody; but the saints' victory is certain, and the destruction of the beasts and their image inevitable and sure.

In the previous chapter I have briefly sketched the cruelties practised by the Ten Horns, the-Little Horn, and the ecclesiastical image, upon the witnesses and the holy city (called the saints in the aggregate) in all the countries in which they have appeared. France, and the "bloody house of Austria," have been pre-eminent in the strife. They are dyed in infamy of every kind, which they have enacted on the most virtuous of the human race. In all their deeds of fiendishness, they have been applauded by the archdemon of the papacy, who styles them his beloved sons, and the mercenary instruments of his cruelty, his "dear children."

Does the reader suppose that the just and merciful Father of the Lord Jesus Christ, and of those who keep His commandments and have His testimony, has looked on the fiendism of the sin-power with indifference; and that He will permit their wrongs to die unavenged? if he does, he has greatly mistaken God's character, and knows nothing at all of the awful judgments He has decreed against those who "bruise the heel" of His beloved.

Did He judge Egypt for oppressing Israel though at the time idolators; did He sink Sodom into the volcanic abyss for its crimes; and did He punish Judah with pestilence, famine, sword, and scattering for eighteen centuries, because of unbelief of "the truth as it is in Jesus," and for killing his servants -- and will He not avenge His elect whom He hath chosen upon the demoniac powers which have continued to crush them?

The scripture saith, "Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His saints and "precious shall their blood be in His sight." If the blood of the murdered Abel, crying from the ground, was heard of God and avenged, what shall be said of that exceeding great and piercing cry, which upon the same principle, ascends to his throne from that ocean of blood which has been poured out like water from the hearts of his slaughtered saints? Doth it not cry aloud to heaven against popes, emperors, kings, hypocritical and blaspheming priests, and their hordes of mercenaries; and against all ecclesiastical abettors of arbitrary power in church and state?

Yes, that voice, though unheard and unheeded by those who worship the beasts and their image, continually ascendeth, and hath "entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth," saying, "How long, O Lord, holy and true dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?" (Rev.6:10).

The hour has come, and the death-knell of the destroyer has sent forth its clangor throughout the dominion of the Roman beast. As in the case of Sodom, though unseen by the eye of the flesh, God has "come down to see if they have done altogether according to the cry." He has found it even so. "Their sins have reached unto heaven," therefore, He will reward them double for all the evil with which they have afflicted His saints.

Such, then, is the case before us. The great national crime has been committed, and perpetuated, of converting the truth of God into a lie, of blaspheming His name, and of bruising the heel of his saints. All nations are guilty of this, and as national offences can only, and must necessarily, be punished, by national judgments, retribution is pouring out upon them according to the word of the Lord.

Elpis Israel 3.2.

8 And their <corpses> shall lie <upon the breadth> of the Great City <styled> spiritually Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.

Corpses unburied (awaiting resusitation)

The execution of this decree [revoking the edict of Nantes] was terrible, and its consequences most deplorable. Many were cruelly tortured and put to death; many were imprisoned or sent to the galleys; dragoons, "the basest troops of the kingdom, fellows that would stick at nothing," were quartered upon them, who insulted and pillaged them, in order to force them to change their religion.

Terror and dread marched before them, and the cruelties of 1572 were enacted over again.

"Die or be catholics!"

...A million of them are said to have emigrated into other countries; and to have carried with them two hundred millions of money, besides their skill in arts and manufactures. The flame was smothered, but the embers remained, yet again to be fanned into a terrible and consuming conflagration. But for the present they were prostrated, as "corpses upon the breadth of the Great City spiritually styled Sodom and Egypt."

Such, then, was the war by which they were overcome and put to death. It continued with intermissions during a period of a hundred and thirteen years from A.D. 1572. But although their testimony was silenced, and they were as dead "among the peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations," upon which the Great Harlot sits in reeling instability, "drunk with the blood of the saints AND with the blood of the witnesses of Jesus" -- their inanimate polities did not suffer dissolution.

Eureka 11.3.1.


Now Jerusalem as a daughter of Sodom, is illustrative of the moral condition of the Great City in whose breadth the witnesses were slain. It is spiritually called Sodom, because its rulers and people are the moral counterpart of the Jews in their worst condition, upon whom that name was imposed because they were even worse than "the cities of the plain" (Matt. xi. 23,24).

There is nothing affirmed by Isaiah of Jerusalem as a spiritual Sodom, which is not literally descriptive of the uncleanness and filth of the Antichristian city and dominion. It is spiritually, or allegorically, styled Sodom, because of its moral likeness thereto, and because, being destitute of even "a very small remnant," the like fate is decreed against it.

The original Sodom suddenly went down crashing into hell; so, when the Angel of the Bow, Yahweh Elohim, shall judge the Great City, "as a great millstone cast into the sea," she will go down surging and plunging into her subterranean abyss, and "be found no more at all" (Apoc. xviii. 21).


But, the Great City is also allegorically styled "Egypt". It is the great "House of Bondage" in which Israel after the flesh, and the "very small remnant," not of the city, but trampled in it, "the Israel of the Deity," are sojourning, and waiting for deliverance. It is also spiritual Egypt because of its moral likeness to the literal land of Mitzraim.

Its superstition, its ignorance of Yahweh, its hatred and oppression of his people, its hardness of heart, its sorcery, adulteries and murders, its darkness that may be felt -- transcend the infamy of Pharaoh and his hosts in these abominations. The Great City is, therefore, well and truly styled Egypt.

But it is also thus allegorized, because the plagues of Egypt await her; and because, the Eternal Spirit will judge her to an overthrow, as terrible and effectual in the judgment as when he judged the Egyptians by the hand of Moses.

... Christ was crucified by Rome without the walls of Jerusalem. He was, therefore, crucified in a province of the Roman empire; for the Jews then inhabiting Palestine earnestly testified that they had no other king than Caesar (John xix. 15). Hence, the Great City is the empire of Rome, whose frontiers were decreed by Caracalla to be the limits of the city.

The empire and city, then, are coextensive; in other words, they are the same. In this Great City, three thousand miles in one direction, and two thousand in another, the personal and mystical Christs were both crucified, or put to death by violence of the Fourth Beast power -- Jesus in Palestine; and the witnesses of Jesus in the plateia, or western breadth thereof -- the special jurisdiction of Antichrist.

Eureka 11.3.3.

The 'Great City' also called Babylon Rev 17: 5

The Great City Babylon

...Thus did the Spirit select three of the most infamous centres of iniquity among the ancients by which to allegorize the Great City, upon the arena of which has been developed and matured the great Greek, Latin, and Protestant apostasy. It is "spiritually," or figuratively, called by these names, Sodom, Egypt, and Babylon, because of its striking resemblance to them in their beastiality, superstition, blasphemy, oppression of God's people, and fate.

Hence in Sodom, in Egypt, and in the Great City Babylon, "our Lord was crucified;" not in his own person only, but in that also of his witnesses; for what is done unto the least of his brethren, is done also unto him (Matt. xxv. 40); therefore in crucifying, or putting them to death, after their testimony was finished, he was again crucified with them in the Great City, they having been massacred in the noble service of witnessing for him against the deified usurper of his sovereignty and rights.

Eureka 11.3.3.

9 And they <shall see their corpses among the peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations > three days and an half, and <they> shall not suffer their <corpses> to be put <into tombs>.

Their corpses remained entire. Communities of them still were seen in "the breadth of the Great City" awaiting "spirit of life from the Deity" to break in upon them for their resuscitation.

Eureka 11.3.2.

Falling down of the anti catholics

The ptomata, in this text rendered corpses, are so called because they had fallen down from their former position of "standing before the God of the earth."

They were to be in this prostrate condition until something providential should occur to cause them to "stand upon their feet;" when, of course, they would no longer be corpses.

The text before us, then, informs us, that the witnessing prophets having finished their tormenting testimony, were silenced. When witnesses are put to silence, they are symbolically dead; and so long as they are compelled by authority to keep silence, they are in the death-state: and though they may continue associated into bodies, yet being forbidden to assemble, and to propagate their principles upon pain of death, as by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, they are to all witnessing intents and purposes, dead bodies, or corpses.

...they had turned the waters into blood: but this they were now no longer able to do, for they had fallen down from their standing in their midst; and the time was come for these "waters upon which the Great Harlot sits," to rejoice over them in this the day of their prostration.

Now, when people are dead, it is usual for the living to put them out of sight, or to bury them, as soon as possible; but, in the case of these corpses "they would not suffer them to be entombed." Who would not suffer it? Their enemies? Or some others friendly towards them? Certainly not their enemies; for these did their best to destroy them, and to blot out the remembrance of them for ever.

It was the protection afforded them in the Protestant States that prevented their burial and decomposition. The refugee witnesses that fled by hundreds of thousands from the presence of the Deity of the earth and his regal adherents, settled in Holland, Britain, Protestant Germany, and America; where, under the protection of the laws, they existed as corporate societies, but bearing no testimony as of old.

Some of these governments remonstrated in their behalf which was not without influence in staying the destroyer's hand. Hence, an unburied remnant of them was permitted to remain in the breadth of the Great City -- a prostrate remnant, no longer able to testify, but waiting in silence for their resurrection to life and power.

Eureka 11.3.4.

10 And they <who> dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and <be exultant: > and <they> shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them <who>dwell <upon> the earth.

The massacre with which they were overwhelmed at the outbreak of the war against them in 1572, and which was then supposed to have entirely ruined them, when known in Rome was a cause of great joy to their enemies in that city.

...In the evening, the cannon of St. Angelo were fired to testify the public joy; the whole city illuminated with bonfires; and no one sign of rejoicing omitted that was usually made for the greatest victories obtained in favour of the Roman church. In addition to this medals were struck commemorative of the joyous event.

A copy of it is before me in Elliott's work, taken from Sir. W. Cockburn's work on the Massacre. It is about two inches and five eighths diameter. On one face is the bust of the Roman deity, Gregory XIII; and on the obverse a winged angel with an uplifted cross in the left hand, and a drawn two edged sword in the right, symbolizing the papal destroyers of "the earth" in France.

Men, women, and children are before the angel dead, dying, falling, and about to fall by his sword; while in the background is a woman, with uplifted arms supporting a mantle, and looking complacently upon the massacre, symbolizing the Catholic church. On the margin is the legend, "Ugonottorum Strages, 1572" -- The Massacre of the Hugonots, 1572.

Eureka 11.3.2.

A writer on prophecy has well remarked, that "there is no nation existing which, first and last, has produced such a number of faithful witnesses against papal corruptions, and tyrannies, as France.

No people have so long a list of martyrs and confessors to show as the Hougonots of that country; and there is no royal family in Europe which has shed in the support of popery, half the blood which the Capets have shed. Who deluged the earth with the blood of the Waldenses and Albigenses that inhabited the southern parts of France, and bore testimony against the corruptions and usurpations of Rome? The cruel kings of France slew above a million of them.

Who set on foot, and headed, the executioners of the massacre of Bartholomew in 1572, which lasted seven days, and in which some say near 50,000 Hougonots were murdered in Paris, and 25,000 more in the provinces? The royal monsters of France. A massacre this, in which neither age nor sex, nor even women with child, were spared; for the butchers had received orders to slaughter all, even babes at the breast, if they belonged to the Hougonots.

The king himself stood at the windows of his palace, endeavouring to shoot those who fled, and crying to their pursuers, 'kill them, kill them!' For this massacre public rejoicings were made at Rome, and in other papal countries. A medal was struck at Rome commemorative of this tragical event.

Elpis Israel 3.1.

11 And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.

11. And after the three days and a half, spirit of life from the Deity broke in upon them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon those who beheld them.

Resurrection of the witnesses

And what length of time was to elapse from the slaying of the witnessing bodies in A.D. 1685, to their resurrection? The answer of the text is in mystical terms "three days and a half." Now during all the time of their lying dead and unburied in the breadth of the Great City, no one was able rightly to conjecture what number of years was signified by this enigmatical formula. But, when they arose and "stood upon their feet," they convulsed the Great City, and made it tremble in all its ten kingdoms.

There could be no mistaking the fact, that the advocates of civil and religious liberty and the rights of man, who had been so cruelly massacred by Louis XIV, were again, in the reign of Louis XVI, in intense and terrible activity. This was, therefore, a resurrection of the same class that had been slain. New life had entered into them, and they were again a power in the state.

On May 15, 1789, the States General of France, consisting of 601 deputies of the Third Estate; 285 nobles; and 308 clergy; in all 1254 representatives, opened their sitting at Versailles. The Third Estate, which was the popular element, desired that the three orders should form but one assembly. This the nobles and clergy at first refused to do. On the 17th June, however, some of the clergy having joined the Third Estate, the deputies declared their assembly to be the only legal one, and constituted themselves as THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY; which, on the 27th, was joined by all the rest.

On the 23rd of Aug. this new assembly published a decree proclaiming liberty of opinions, religious as well as political; on Oct. 1, it made a declaration of the Rights of Man in society; and on Dec. 24, issued a decree declaring all Frenchmen who are not Catholics admissible to all offices, both civil and military. Civil and religious liberty and the rights of man were the ancient testimony, both of the true believers, and of "the Earth" that helped them; and here we find the doctrine authoritatively reaffirmed by "the Earth" in its National Assembly, which restores these inestimable blessings to all non-catholic Frenchmen, who had been so mercilessly deprived of them in Oct. 1685.

A Louis had taken away this liberty from his non-catholic subjects; and his grandson by the same class of people was compelled to restore it.

Here, then, are two important and signal dates -- Oct. 1685, and Oct. 1789. These decrees of the National Assembly were as "the Spirit of life from the Deity;" and on the 10th July 1790 "they stood upon their feet;" for the Earth's Assembly on that day decreed, that the property of the expelled Houguenots unsold at date, confiscated by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, should be restored to their heirs.

They called this the National Justice, which it was the providential mission of the Third Estate to execute; and with terrible fidelity did they fulfil it in vindicating the oppressed, and in punishing the oppressor.

Now, between 1685 and 1790, is a period of 105 years. This is the duration of the death state in which the witnesses were deficient of all political life.

Eureka 11.3.4.

Revival of the Truth in the Latter Days

The time is come in which there must be no faint heartedness, and when a courageous testimony must be borne for the word of the kingdom. Ministerial favour and popularity must be utterly disregarded; and the question be, not "what saith the minister?" or "what will people think?"

It matters not what they say, or think, in the case; the simple question is, "How is it written?" "What saith the word?" Let this course be pursued in candour, and I doubt not, but in a short time a people will spring up in this island prepared for the Lord, whom he will acknowledge at his return.

Elpis Israel 3.3.