In Daniel 11 we have revealed a great panorama of events.
This chapter speaks of kingdoms of men that have tried to exercise power throughout a long period that ranges from the wars of Persia and Greece, (the Ram and Goat) to the ascendancy of Greece and Alexander (the notable horn); the dividing of his Greek kingdom into 4 parts (horns); 2 of these parts, King of the south and King of the north, making war over the people and land of Israel; the coming of power and authority of a god-king (the little horn) to the time of the end when the King of the south and King of the north reappear, and the little horn (Catholicism) and the King of the north (Russia) form one power; and in their might invade the land of Israel and camp before the holy mountain.
Bro David Clubb
Exposition of Daniel
By Dr. John Thomas, 1868
Paraphrase Of The Eleventh Of Daniel To The Thirty-Fifth Verse Inclusive
"I shall give it in the form of paraphrases, incorporating the prophecy with the <interpretation>, but at the same time giving the angel's words.
I may remark as to the date, that the revelator introduces his discourse with an allusion to "the first year of Darius the Mede". This was also the first year of Cyrus, who reigned conjointly with Darius; so that the third year of Cyrus was the first of his reign by himself. The reigns of Darius and Cyrus will therefore count as one, after which four are to be reckoned."
Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia,
<namely, Ahasuerus, Smerdis, and Darius;>
and the fourth,
shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia. And
<Alexander the Macedonian>,
a mighty King, shall stand up, ruling with great dominion and doing according to his will. And when he shall stand up,
<having suffered no defeat,>
his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided
<into four horns or kingdoms>
toward the four winds of heaven: and
<their glory and power shall fall>
not to his posterity, nor according to
<the extent of >
his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for other
<of his family>.
And the King of the South shall be strong, and shall be one of his,
<Alexander the Great's, >
and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion,
<extending over Egypt, Libya, Cyrenaica, Arabia, Palestine, Coele-Syria, and most of the maritime provinces of Asia Minor, with the island of Cyprus, and several others in the Aegean Sea, and even some cities of Greece, as Cicyon and Corinth. Such was the dominion of Ptolemy Soter, the first Macedonian King of Egypt>
And in the end of
<from B.C. 301>
<the Kings of Egypt, and of the Assyro-Macedonian Horn of the north>
themselves together; for
the king's daughter of the south, shall come,
<or be conducted, to Antiochus Theos, >
to the king of the north, to make
agreement; but she shall not retain the power of the arm
<of her father Ptolemy Philadelphus.>
<he her husband Antiochus>
<for Laodice his repudiated wife, whom he shall receive again when he divorces Berenice after her father's death, shall cause him to be poisoned.>
Nor shall his arm,
but she shall be given up
<to suffer death;>
<the Egyptians also>
that brought her and he that begat her
< to Syria; and he, her son, whom she brought forth,>
and he that strengthened her in these times,
<shall die; and thus leave her to the mercy of Laodice, which will be treachery and death>.
7. But out of a branch of her
<Ptolemy Euergetes her brother,>
shall stand up in his estate,
<or kingdom, and>
come with an army, and shall enter into
<Antioch the capital, and>
the fortress of the King of the north, and shall deal,
<or make war,>
<even against Laodice and her son Seleucus, >
and shall prevail:
shall also carry captive into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and gold: and he shall continue
<to reign nine>
more years than the King of the north,
<who shall die a prisoner in Parthia five years before the King of Egypt.>
So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land,
10. But his
<Seleucus Callinicus' >
<Seleucus Ceraunus and Antiochus;>
shall be stirred up
<to war; >
and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one
<of them, even Antiochus the Great,>
shall certainly come and overflow
<through the passes of Libanus,>
and pass through
<into Galilee, and possess himself of all that part of the country which was formerly the inheritance of the tribes Reuben and Gad, and of the half tribe of Manasseh. Then, the season being too far advanced to prolong the campaign>,
shall he return
<to Ptolemais, where he shall put his forces into winter-quarters. But early in the spring, B.C. 217, Ptolemy Philopater shall march with a large army to Raphia, by which Antiochus shall be stirred up again to war, and defeated with great slaughter, so that he shall retreat>
to his fortress.
Thus shall the king of the south be moved with choler, and come forth and fight with
<the king of the north; and >
the King of the north shall set forth a great multiude,
<even 72,000 foot and 6,000 horse;>
but the multitude shall be given into
<the hand of the King of Egypt>.
12 .And when he,
<,the King of the south, had >
taken away the multitude
<by a signal defeat of Antiochus,>
his heart shall be lifted up,
<for he will desire to enter the Most Holy Place of the temple. But while he was preparing to enter, he was stricken and carried off for dead. In his victory over Antiochus,>
he shall cast down ten thousands,
<even 10,000 foot and 300 horse. But not following up his advantages, Philopater, >
shall not be strengthened by
13 <For Antiochus the king of the north>
shall return and shall set forth a multitude
greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain,
<that is nineteen >
<after the battle of Raphia, or B.C. 198,>
with a great army and with much riches,
< and shall subjugate all the Holy and Coele-Syria.>
14. And in those times
<when Ptolemy Epiphanes shall reign over Egypt,>
many shall stand up against the
king of the south,
<even the kings of Macedonia, and of Syriam and Scopas, the general of his deceased father. But the Deputies of the Breakers of thy people Judah, O Daniel, that is, of the Romans, shall interfere>
to establish the vision.
<The Romans became the guardians and protectors of Epiphanes during his minority. They appointed three deputies, who were ordered to acquaint the Kings with their resolution, and to enjoin them not to infest the dominions of their royal pupil; for that other wise they should be forced to declare war against them. The Deputy Emilius, one of the three, after delivering the message of the Roman Senate, proceeded to Alexandria, and settled everything to as much advantage as the state of affairs in Egypt would then admit. In this way the Romans began to mix themselves up with the affairs of Egypt, Syria, and the Holy; and in a few years established themselves as lords paramount of the East, being thus constituted a Power in Asia, which is symbolised in this relation by the Little Horn on the Northern Horn of the Grecian Goat; and in the 36th verse of this chapter, styled, "THE KING". But, though destined to be "the Breakers of Judah", the assurance was given to Daniel, saying,>
they shall fall.
15. So the king of the north,
<being checked by the Roman Deputies,>
<into the Holy,>
and cast up a mount
<against Sidon, where he shall besiege the forces of the Egyptians; and he shall take Jerusalem, the city of munitions, from the castle of which he shall expel the Egyptian garrison; >
and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand
< Antiochus. v 16. But Antiochus who cometh against Ptolemy Epiphanes >
shall do according to his own will
<in Coele-Syria and the Holy Land, >
and none shall stand before him: and he shall
<make a permanent stand in the land of glory>
which by his hand shall be consumed.
17 .He shall also set his face to enter
<into Greece >
with the strength of his whole kingdom,
with him. Thus shall he do
<to incorporate Greece with his dominion, by which the Romans who had recently proclaimed it free, would be stirred up against him. Therefore, to secure the neutrality of their Egyptian ally he shall give Cleopatra, >
the daughter of women,
<or princess royal, to Epiphanes to wife, >
<to betray him by resigning to him Coele-Syria and Palestine as her dower; but on condition that he should receive half the revenue. Thus the land of Judah was given over as a bribe to bind Cleopatra to her father's interests, that she might influence Epiphanes either to remain neutral, or to declare against the Romans, his protectors. But she shall cleave to her husband, and >
not stand, neither be for him,
<but shall join with her husband in congratulating the Roman Senate on the victory they had gained over her father at Thermopylae.>
18 After this shall
<Antiochus, at the earnest solicitation of the Aetolians, >
turn his face unto the isles
and shall take many: but
<a chieftain (kotzin), L. Scipio, the Roman Consul,>
shall cause the reproach offered to him to cease: without his own
<disgrace he, Scipio, >
shall cause it to turn upon
<Antiochus, by defeating him at Mount Sipyllus, and repulsing him from every part of Asia Minor. As the condition of peace, the Romans required him to pay 15,000 talents--500 down, 2,500 on the ratification of the treaty, and the rest in twelve years at 1,000 talents per annum.>
19. <These terms being acceded to>,
he shall turn his face toward the fortress,
<or capitol, >
of his own land,
<being much at a loss how to raise the tribute. While in the province of Elymais, he heard of a considerable treasure in the temple of Jupiter Belus. He accordingly broke into it in the dead of night, and carried off all its riches. >
But he shall stumble, and fall, and not be found;
<for the provincials, exasperated at the robbery, rebelled against him, and murdered him and all his attendants, B.C. 187.>
20. Then shall stand up
<in Antiochus' estate or kingdom, his son Seleucus Philopater, one who causeth an exactor to pass over>
the glory of the kingdom;
<the business of his reign being to raise the tribute for the Romans. >
But within few days,
<that is twelve years,>
he shall be destroyed, neither in anger nor in battle,
<being poisoned by Heliodorus, his prime minister, having reigned long enough to pay the last instalment to the Romans.>
21. And in his,
<Seleucus Philopater's, place >
shall stand up
a vile person,
<being both a poisoner and usurper, to whom they, the authorities of the nation,>
shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but
shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries
<bestowed on the adherents of Heliodorus.>
22. And with the arms of a flood,
< by which they shall be formidably invaded, shall they, the Egyptians,>
be overflown from before
<Antiochus, whom they excite to war, by demanding the restitution of Coele-Syria and Palestine.>
And they shall be broken,
<or subdued, yea, also, Oilins, the High Priest, or >
Prince of the
<shall be murdered, as it came to pass B.C. 172.>
23. And after the league made with
<Ptolemy Philometer, Antiochus>
shall work deceitfully after
<his second invasion of Egypt, B.C. 170; >
for he shall come up
<to Alexandria, and he>
shall become strong with a small people,
24. <By his deceit,>
he shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province
<to which he reduces Egypt;>
shall do that which his fathers,
<or predecessors on the throne,>
have not done, nor his fathers' fathers;
he shall scatter among his followers the prey, and spoils, and riches: yea, he shall forecast his devices against the strongholds
<of Egypt, >
even for a time.
25. And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very
mighty army, but he shall not stand: for
<the Alexandrians seeing him in the hands of Antiochus, and lost to them,>
shall forecast devices against him,
<and place the crown of Egypt on the head of his brother, Euergetes II.>
26. Yea, they that feed of the portion of
<even his courtiers, shall separate, or renounce, him;> and his
army shall overflow
<of the Egyptians>
shall fall down slain.
27 <And the hearts of both>
these kings shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table, but shall not prosper; for the end
at the time appointed.
28 Then shall
return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the
<Covenant of the Holy;>
and he shall do
<terrible things against Jerusalem, taking it by storm, butchering 80,000 men, making 40,000 prisoners, and causing a like number to be sold for slaves. And then shall >
he return to his own land,
<laden with the spoils of the Temple, amounting to 1,800 talents, or £270,000, about £1,315,000.>
29. At the time appointed,
<under pretence of restoring Philometer to the throne,>
he shall return and come towards the south,
<against Alexandria to besiege it. >
<this fourth invasion, >
shall not be as the former or as the latter.
<He raised the siege and marched towards Memphis, where he installed Philometer as king. As soon, however, as he had departed, Philometer came to an understanding with Euergetes, and they agreed to a joint reign over Egypt. This coming to the ears of Antiochus, he led a powerful army against Memphis, for the purpose of subduing the country. Having nearly accomplished his project, he marched against Alexandria, which was the only obstacle to his becoming absolute master of Egypt.
But the Roman Embassy, sent at the request of the Ptolemies, met him about a mile from the city. They had left Rome with the utmost diligence. When they arrived at Delos they found a fleet of Macedonian, or Greek, ships, on board of which they embarked for Alexandria, where they arrived at the crisis of his approach: Popilius delivered to Antiochus the decree of the Senate, and demanded an immediate answer. Sorely against his will he agreed to obey its mandate, and draw off his army from Egypt. Thus, his invasion terminated very differently from the former and the latter; >
30. For the ships of Chittim shall come against him,
<and prevent him from incorporating Egypt into his Assyrian dominion the north. Thus, the prophecy of Balaam, that "ships from the coast of Chittim shall come and afflict Asshur", began to show itself; a more complete fulfilment remains for the latter days, when "Asshur shall perish forever". All Antiochus' wrath was kindied at this interference; >
therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the
< Covenant of the Holy; for in his return-march, through Palestine, he detached 20,000 men under Apollonius with orders to destroy Jerusalem, B.C. 168. >
So shall he do; he shall even return and have intelligence with them that forsake the
31. And arms shall stand on his part
<the Assyro-Macedonian troops, shall penetrate the temple, ham-mikdosh, the stronghold, and they shall remove the Daily,>
and they shall place
<a statue of the Olympian Jupiter in the temple, and a strong garrison in the castle to command it, as>
the abomination making desolate
<its courts, and overawing the nation.>
<As soon as Antiochus Epiphanes was returned to Antioch, he published a decree by which all his subjects were required to conform to the religion of the State. This was aimed chiefly at the Jews, whose religion and nation he was resolved to extirpate. Atheneus, a man advanced in years, and extremely well versed in all the ceremonies of Grecian idolatry, was commissioned to carry the edict into effect in Judea and Samaria. As soon as he arrived at Jerusalem he began by suppressing the Daily, or evening-morning sacrifice, and all the observances of the Mosaic Law.
He caused the sabbaths and other festivals to be profaned; forbade the circumcision of children; carried off and burned all copies of the Law and the Prophets wherever they could be found; and put to death whoever acted contrary to the decree of the king. To establish it the sooner in every part of the nation, altars and chapels filled with idols were erected in every city, and sacred groves were planted.
Officers were appointed over these, who caused the people generally to offer sacrifice in them every month, on the day of the month on which the king was born, who made them eat swine's flesh and other unclean animals sacrificed there. The temple in Jerusalem was dedicated to Jupiter Olympius, whose statue was placed in it. Thus he did in his great indignation against the Covenant of the Holy Nation and its Land.>
We have now arrived at the end of the thirty-fifth verse, the events of which bring us down to the conclusion of 430 years from the destruction of the city and temple in the 19th of Nebuchadnezzar. There is here a change of topic in the prophecy.
No more is said about Judah's warfare with the Greek Powers of the north or south. History, but not the prophecy, informs us that Judah became a kingdom, under princes of the Asmonean family, until it passed under the sceptre of Herod the Idumean, in the 39th year of whose reign Jesus CHRIST was "born KING OF THE JEWS".
Not long after this event the sceptre of Judah was transferred to the Romans, whose emperor became the reigning king (John 19:15). But the sceptre was only temporarily departed; and its return is earnestly desired and expected by all who believe the gospel of the Kingdom of God. When Jesus was 26 years old, the things revealed by Gabriel (Dan. 9:24, 27), in relation to the seventieth heptade, began to be accomplished.
During that seven years Judah's heart was stirred up from its lowest depths. John the Baptist and Jesus, the greatest personages of the time, turned all minds to that great kingdom, which, in the hands of the Prince Royal and the Saints, is to rule over all. But even then, "the end was still for a time appointed".
About 1,835 years have passed since the expiration of the seventieth heptade. Judah has been broken, but their "breakers" have not been "ground to powder" by the Stone. The time, however, fast approaches; and the nearer it arrives, the more important do all questions become bearing upon Judah's land, and Zion, the city of their king.
About 95 years after the end of the 430 years previously indicated, the Asiatic kingdom of the north, which had so terribly afflicted Judah, was annexed by Pompey to the empire of the Romans, which, by the absorption of Greece, had now become Romano- or Latino-Greek; and in about thirty-five years after that, Egypt experienced the same fate. The kingdom of the Jews still survived. Two powers alone existed. The Four Horns of the Goat had disappeared; and nothing of the symbol remained but that which answered to the Romano-Greek Asiatic Power, waxing exceeding great toward the east, and looking with a fierce and threatening countenance upon the little kingdom of Judea.
What shall this power be called ? Gabriel styled it "a Little Horn" budding forth out of one of the four horns of the Goat--"little" in its Asiatic beginning, but "exceeding great" when it had ceased to grow. In relation to the Holy Land it appeared as a power, first in the north. History therefore shows, that the horn of the north was the one of the four upon which Daniel beheld it. But it did not content itself with merely looking fiercely at Judah. It fought against Judea and conquered; and so firmly had it established itself in the Holy, that when Jesus was arraigned before it, Judah clamoured for his death, crying, "We have no king but Caesar".
From the annexation of the Holy Land to the Roman empire by Pompey until the present time, it has been mainly subject to Rome and Constantinople--to Rome until the throne of the empire was transferred by Constantine the Great to the city called by his name. Because, therefore, the Holy Land and city have been in the main possessed by the Romano-Constantinopolitan power, and because that power crucified the King of the Jews, and destroyed the holy soon after the seventieth heptade; and because it is the same (though administered by a different race and generation, that is, the Moslem) that will stand up against heaven's Commander in Chief in the approaching consummation--the power is represented by one and the same symbol, which is styled "the Little Horn" of the Grecian Goat, or nation.
The Man of Sin
36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
38 But in his estate shall he honour the god of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
Bazaars of Mahuzzim
39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
The buildings pertaining to this God of Guardian Saints and Angels are styled by Daniel, "the Bazaars of the Guardians." The noun mivtzahr, is derived from the root bahtzar, which among other meanings signifies to enclose with a wall.
As a noun betzer signifies ore of gold and silver, precious metals, store, or treasure so secured.
...Holy Father" of Christendom so-called... a foreign god, and all the ecclesiastical edifices of his bishoprick dedicated to the dis embodied ghosts of reputed saints, into Bazaars, or places of traffic in spiritual merchandise, and in "the bodies and souls of men!" (Apoc. 18:13).
The churches, chapels, and cathedrals, then, are "the most strongholds" of the King's superstition, which has spread itself over Europe and America. They are the houses of business dedicated by the prospering craft to "Guardian Spirits". There are laid up in store the images and pictures of reputed saints.
They are Saints' Houses in which are deposited their shrines; silver, gold and ivory crucifixes; "religious articles" of all sorts; together with old bones, and various kinds of votive trumpery.
They are literally, "Dens of Thieves," without ever having been houses of the Father - dens, where people are hoodwinked, and by "sharp practice" robbed of their money under divers false pretences. They are places where pews are sold by auction, the proudest sittings being knocked down to Mammon's greatest favorites; places where fairs of vanity and deceit are held for "pious objects;" and whose spiritual empirics pretend to "cure souls" in consideration of so much per annum.
In view of these facts, the Scriptural epithet bestowed upon the ecclesiastical edifices of the Apostasy , is most appropriate. They are truly bazaars of spiritual merchandise; and the prospering craft, "the great men of the earth," papal, catholic, and protestant, made rich by trading in their wares, are the Bazaar-Men, who extort all kinds of goods from their deluded customers by putting them in sulphurous and mortal fear; and comforting them with counterfeits upon some transpatial bank when time shall be no more!
They "buy and sell" under license from the Ecclesiastical Power, having received its "mark upon their foreheads, or on their right hands. " The reader may find their inventory of merchandise in Apoc. 18:12,13. Among the articles received in exchange for their "spiritual things," are tithes, bodies (somata) and souls of men. But the trade of these soul-and-body merchants is in anything but a satisfactory state at present.
Great numbers of their customers have discovered that the profit is all upon one side; nor are they backward in proclaiming that when a favorable opportunity presents they will break up the iniquitous concern, and make the cheats disgorge their unhallowed gains.
This will be to them a sad day - a day of universal bankruptcy for the weeping and wailing merchants of "Babylon the Great;" for "no man buyeth their merchandize any more." When a man's trade is thus extinguished, nothing but ruin stares the shattered tradesman in the face.
This is the fate that awaits the preachers of all the "other gospels" of the bazaars - gospels other than Paul preached, and which leave men in ignorance and disobedience; gospels which make them partisans of human crotchets and traditions; and the apologists of anything sincerely professed as a substitute for the truth.
40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
In the approaching scramble for the effects of the expiring Sick Man of Ottomania, she [Britain] will most likely secure for herself, or at least take possession of, Egypt and Syria. But Daniel shows that whatever power may primarily become seized of these countries, will not be able to prevent their being stamped by the Feet of the Bear.*
43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
From this conquest he will proceed into the Holy Land. The war between the belligerents will then be transferred to this country, upon which the Oriental Power must necessarily retire. The conflict waged will be furious; for the Northern Power, symbolized by John's Scarlet-colored Beast, will..."go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many".*
44 But tidings out of the east [Tarshish and the young lions] and out of the north [Israel] shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
This brings him to Jerusalem, which he besieges and captures (Zech. 14:2). Upon this the Oriental Leopard falls back upon Edom, Moab and Ammon, beyond the Jordan and the Dead Sea.*
45 And he shall < pitch> the <tents of his entrenched camp> between the seas <unto the mountain of the glory of the holy>; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
At this crisis the face of Yahweh is flushed with fury, and he goes forth against the invader (Ezek. 38:18; Zech. 14:3). As the Stone-Power, he smites the Image upon the feet, and shatters it into fragments.
The Bear, the Lion and Leopard, inclusive of the British section of the last, lose their dominion; but as Assyria and Egypt are annexed to Israel (Isa. 19:23-25) and the tide of war is rolled back from Syria, north and west, upon the countries of the Ten Horns, and of the Two-Horned beasts, over which the Name of Blasphemy presides as their prophet, priest and king.
This solution of the Eastern Question ushers in the solution of the Roman Question, neither of which can be finally disposed of until the Ancient of day's, that is, Jesus Christ, come; and he give authority and power to his brethren, the Saints, to execute the judgment written in ch. 13:10; which is, as David expressed it, to slay the beast (the Fourth Beast in Apocalyptic manifestation) , destroy his body in the burning flame, and take away the dominion of the Lion, the Bear and the Leopard (ch. 7:11,12).