1 Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.

On the tenth day of Abib, the first month of the year, being 430 from the confirmation of the covenant, the Israelites were commanded to put up a lamb for each house, and to kill it upon the fourteenth day in the evening.

They were to take its blood and to sprinkle it upon the door-posts of their houses, and to eat its flesh that same night, roast with fire, with unleavened bread, and bitter herbs. Nothing of it was to be left till morning. They were also to eat it in haste, as if about to hurry off upon a journey.

The meaning of this was, that God was about to destroy the first-born of every family in Egypt, would cause them to be thrust out of Egypt with great haste, and that when the destroying angel should see the blood on the door posts, he would pass over that house and not destroy the first born there. For this cause the lamb was termed the Lord's Passover (Exod. 12.). Not a bone of it was to be broken.

No stranger, foreigner, hired person, or uncircumcised individual was to eat of it; a servant, however, bought with the money of an Israelite, provided he were circumcised, was permitted to partake of it.

But this institution represented more than the facts upon which it was founded. It pointed to events of the forty-second, and present [Messiah's advent] generations of Israel. The apostle styles Christ the believer's passover, who was sacrificed for them (1 Cor. 5:7); and exhorts them to

"keep the feast with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth."

Elpis Israel2.4 p303 Logos

15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:

The kingdom restored

... in the deliverance and restoration of the Tribes of Israel to them, the Passover is revived, and the Lord Jesus "eats and drinks at his table in his kingdom" with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, all the prophets, and the apostles, &c., according to the ordinance contained in Ezek. 45:21–24.

"In the first month, in the 14th day of the month, ye shall have the Passover, a feast of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten. And upon that day shall the Prince prepare for himself, and all the people of the land, a bullock for a sin offering," &c.

The feast of Pentecost, fifty days after the Passover, is not celebrated in the temple service of the kingdom. It was primarily fulfilled in the events of the fiftieth day after the crucifixion; and will be secondarily or nationally, in the latter rain of the spirit on Israel when restored previously to the building of the temple by "the man whose name is The Branch." The two wave loaves of that feast, made of fine flour, represented "the First Fruits unto the Lord."

The sons of Zadok being the substance of that representation, as Jesus himself was of the wave sheaf, waved before the Lord by the Aaronic priest on his resurrection day, the shadow will not be reproduced hereafter in the service.

Christ and his brethren, the First Fruits, being there in person, the representation would cease to be in place.

Neither will there be "a memorial of blowing of trumpets" on the first day of the seventh month, as under the Mosaic law. The thing represented by the "memorial" will have been altogether accomplished before the dedication of the temple to be built by Jesus.

It began to be fulfilled by the proclamation of the gospel of the kingdom by apostles; and will be wholly completed when the "everlasting gospel" shall be preached by "the angel flying through the midst of heaven."—Rev, 14:6, 7.

There can be no type when the thing typified has come to pass in full. It has then answered its purpose and is abolished.

The day of Atonement on the 10th of the seventh month forms no part of the amended service for the same reason. It was a type, and will be secondarily or nationally, and therefore, entirely fulfilled in the reconciliation of the house of Israel.

The Mosaic atonement primarily prefigured the reconciliation of those who, believing "the word of reconciliation" ministered by the apostles, should have their sins and iniquities borne away by Jesus when resurrected, as represented by the bearing away of the sins of Israel by the scape-goat.

The iniquity of all believers was laid upon him when cruci fied. He was then "the goat for the Lord;" but when raised from the dead, he became "the scape goat presented alive before the Lord to make an atonement."

Being raised, his relations were changed. He then became the High Priest destined to enter alone into the Most Holy to make an atonement "for his own household" with his own blood. He is there now; and will remain there, until all who shall constitute "his house" shall have come in and been reconciled.

Till then no man can be where he is. When he shall have finished making atonement for his household, "He will come out," and "make an atonement for all the congregation of Israel."

"His house are we, if we hold fast the confidence, and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end."

The household of the Lord Jesus appears in the temple of the kingdom, "holy, unblamable, and unreprovable," as the sons of Zadok, performing service before the Lord as his priests.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Sept 1851

16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

This was equivalent to saying,

"When the Passover is fulfilled in the kingdom of God I will eat of it."

Hence we find its restoration testified by Ezekiel in these words:

"On the fourteenth day of the first month ye shall have the Passover a feast of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten. And upon that day shall the Prince prepare (by the priests who offer his burnt-offerings and his peace-offerings, 46:2) for himself and all the people of the land, a bullock for a sin-offering. And seven days of the feast he shall prepare a burnt-offering to Yahweh, seven bullocks and seven rams without blemish, daily the seven days; and a kid of the goats daily, for a sin-offering.

And he shall prepare a meat-offering of an ephah for a bullock, and an ephah for a ram, and a hin of oil for an ephah. And in the next verse the feast of tabernacles is thus referred to: "In the seventh month, on the fifteenth day of the month, shall he do the like in the feast of the seven days, according to the sin-offering, according to the burnt-offering, and according to the meat-offering, and according to the oil."

The reader will observe, however, that the Passover is a feast for Israel's observance, not for that of the nations. The Prince, or High Priest, is to prepare it,

"for himself, and for all the people of the land,"

that is, of Palestine; because the passover is the memorial of the deliverance of the Twelve Tribes and their rulers from the power of all that hate them. In this deliverance, when it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God, the nations are punished after the manner of the Egyptians; becoming a sacrifice at the hand of the destroyer, while he passes over Israel whom he comes to save.

The Passover is the Fourth of July for Israel-the anniversary of the independence of their nation; which can only be celebrated by those Gentiles in the Age to Come who acquire citizenship in their land.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Dec 1854

16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

From this, then, it is clear, that the passover was prophetic of what is to be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. Has that kingdom come? If it has, as some very erroneously affirm, then Christ has eaten another passover, and has again drank of wine with his apostles; for he said he would do so when the kingdom had come. But no man in his senses will affirm this.

Another passover could not be celebrated till a year after; so that Jesus could not eat it with his disciples before that. Where is the testimony to his eating it with them then? There is none; but much of a contrary nature every way. The gracious declaration of Jesus is, I will eat of this passover, and drink of the fruit of the vine, with you in the kingdom of God when it shall be come. He did not say, when you shall go to the kingdom beyond the skies, but when the kingdom shall come, which he had taught them to pray for.

It is perfectly ridiculous to talk about the kingdom having come, and of the apostles being on their thrones. To affirm this proves that the professor is totally ignorant of the gospel. A pretty sitting upon thrones it was, when they were all arraigned at the bar, condemned, imprisoned, and scourged, for preaching the gospel of the kingdom in the name of Jesus!

What havoc the apostasy has made with the truth! The gospel preaches no such stuff as this. It treats of a kingdom which the God of heaven shall set up in Judea, which shall never be removed from thence; in which the whole twelve tribes shall rejoice; which the saints of all ages shall possess; and which shall rule over all. Its elements at present are all scattered. It is not a matter of fact; but a thing of hope, in which only they rejoice who believe the promises made of God to the fathers.

The passover must be restored before it can be eaten of by Christ and his apostles in the kingdom of God. This is one of the things to be re-established at "the restitution of all things;" and the law of its restoration is in the following words...:

"In the first month, in the fourteenth day of the month, ye shall have the passover, a fast of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten. And upon that day shall (Messiah) the Prince prepare for himself and for all the people, of the land a bullock for a sin offering" Ezek. 45:21-22).

This was spoken by the prophet to Israel of the fourteenth generation concerning the observance of the passover by Israel of the generation contemporary with the "restoration of the kingdom again to Israel" when it should be constituted under the Prince. Moses' law said all about the observance of the passover before the Prince appeared; but as Moses ceased to be the lawgiver when He came, a New Code is revealed through Ezekiel which will become the law of the kingdom under Shiloh.

When Ezekiel's passover is observed at Jerusalem, Christ will be there, the apostles also, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, and many from the four winds of heaven -- all of them the first-born redeemed from the earth, saved by the sprinkled blood of the true paschal lamb of God, and who shall find themselves in Canaan as inheritors of its attributes; celebrating their own redemption, and the overthrow of all their enemies by the Lord Jesus at his revelation in flaming fire, attended by the angels of his power.

The bread and wine of "the Lord's Supper" are the remains of the passover, which are to be shared by the circumcised of heart and ears, until Christ comes in power and great glory.

I am informed by a Jew, that when they eat the passover they eat no lamb, but have a dry bone of one on a dish; and that all who celebrate take hold of the lip of the dish, and unitedly offer a petition. This is remarkable. They have slain the true lamb, which believers of the gospel feed upon; while only a dry bone remains to them, strikingly illustrative of themselves.

Faith in the Lamb of God supplies the absence of the lamb in the Lord's supper. The broken bread and poured out wine, memorialize His sacrifice for believers; and the testimony, "this do in remembrance of me until I come," keeps alive the hope of His appearing in the Kingdom of God. When hope becomes a reality, the supper will give place to the passover; for when Christ is come, the memorial of His coming ceases to be prophetic of the event.

Elpis Israel 2.4.

18 For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.

The full and formal invitation to the kingdom began with the preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus -- being offered in connection with the resurrection of the dead at the coming of Christ. In this sense, the Kingdom of God had "come nigh," "approached," and was "at hand." It had not come nigh in the sense of being about to appear. This is shewn (if there were nothing else) by Christ's express confutation of that idea, as when we are informed in Luke xix. 11, that Christ spoke the parable there recorded

"because they thought that the Kingdom of God should immediately appear."

The parable speaks of a nobleman going into a far country, and being a long time away.

"After a long time, the lord of those servants cometh" (Matt. xxv. 19).

He taught them to look for that coming: and having spoken of signs of the approach of the event, he said:

"When ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the Kingdom of God is nigh at hand" (Luke xxi. 31).

In the literal sense, therefore, the Kingdom of God is not "nigh" till it become so in Christ himself arrived to set it up. But in the sense of having come near to them in the offer of inheritance, it had come nigh to them in the wonderful seven years covered by the mission of John the Baptist and Jesus.

Nazareth Revisited Ch 22

20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.

‭The "validity" of the breaking of bread depends upon the reality of our recollection of the Lord, and not upon the time or the place of our meeting nor upon the chemical quality of the bread or wine we use. If a brother thinking otherwise is willing to conform to the wholesome practice of the brethren in the matter, let him alone. If he sought to enforce his views on them, you could not submit.

‭TC 12/1896

21 But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.

They understood it enough to join in an earnest repudiation of such an idea; but not enough to realize that it was an actual impending catastrophe. So little affected were they by it in this sense, that when the immediate sensation caused by it had subsided, they began to discuss among themselves the positions they were severally likely to have in the kingdom which they thought was about to be established -- a discussion not the most dignified as regards the spirit leading to it.

It was a spirit of emulation -- an uncircumcised, short-sighted, petty spirit. There was actually "a strife among them which of them should be accounted the greatest." So little yet did they "know the manner of spirit" belonging to the mighty matter to which they had been called.

How greatly must this deficiency of theirs have aggravated the Lord's trouble -- to think that his very own disciples, in the very crisis of his approaching agony, should be debating a question such as should never be raised among saints at any time. In his greatness, he was able to excuse them. They were not yet what they would be by-and-bye, and what they became when the Spirit gave them understanding.

Nazareth Revisisted Ch 52

30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Think of being recognized by the gracious smile of such an one, not as a distant act of politeness, but as a close, personal, cordial friendship. That will be the beginning of many ecstasies, for Christ has many friends, and we shall know and rejoice in them all. They are hid away in darkness just now, but he will bring them up again - the salt of the earth, the pick of mankind, Godês jewels. We are to be introduced to them. We are to be made one of them. That will be

"receiving the right hand of fellowship"

worthy of having. We receive the right hand of fellowship among each other now, but God has to ratify it before it is of any value. If God receive us not, what does human recognition avail? But God will receive us then, if we please Him now, and will introduce us to delightful friends whom we shall never lose, and never tire of, or find any fault in.

Rejoicing together with them, we shall be invited to bless a world in darkness. The promise embraces all the perishing world. All families of the earth shall be blessed. The immortal friends of God are going to be sent out on that errand, and to have power and plenty in their hands for that purpose. At present we can do nothing, though our hearts may break at the universal misery. All we can do is to wait for God, doing the little we can meanwhile.

Think of going forth as Christ's representatives, clothed with his authority, and supported by his power, to listen to all cases, and rectify all abuses, punish all crimes, and supply all needs. All democratic ferments and insubordinations will then be at an end. They are a mere upheaval of diabolism. They will be repressed as with a rod of iron. They are only a part of the night, these clamors of the voice of the people as the source of government.

Republicanism is better than tyranny; but it is not in principle a reasonable form of government. The masses do not know what is right and good. Legislation should be from above - not from below. The wisdom of God should give law, the authority of God should enforce it. The world will never be happy till then.

Seasons 2.102

31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat:

Christ probably meant that the authorities who were plotting his destruction would try to corrupt the fidelity of the disciples one by one, should Judas fail them, and that Peter would be in special danger from such a process -- in more danger than the others it would seem, for he prayed specially for Peter that the temptation might not be too much for him.

That Peter was weak was shewn in his denial of Christ at the last moment. Was Christ's prayer on his behalf of no avail then? We are in every way debarred from coming to such a conclusion. Peter did not prove the traitor which he might have done. And when he stumbled into a momentary denial, he stumbled out as quickly, and washed away his guilt in tears. His faith did not fail him as it might have done had the Lord not prayed for him.

Nazareth Revisited Ch 52

35 And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing.

Their every want had been liberally supplied by those among whom they had laboured in his name, as he had told them.

36 Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.

He meant that for a time, the divine protection that had guarded them all in their mutual labours was to be withdrawn, in consequence of which he (the shepherd) would be "smitten," and they (the sheep) would be scattered, as it was Written (Zech. xiii. 7).

The violence of the enemy would prevail in his destruction; and for the moment, he would be in the category of captured felons -- than which there is no lower point of degradation and helplessness.

38 And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.

In his own mental agony, and in their obtuseness of understanding, he did not enter upon explanations. He simply waived the subject in the vague response: "It is enough."

Nazareth Revisited Ch 52

44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.

Sweat being as great drops of blood

The mental conflict is appalling, in prospect of what is before him by command of the Father. We see him kneel; we see him cast himself on his face; we hear him earnestly implore,

"Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me. Nevertheless, not my will but Thine be done."

We see an angel strengthen and soothe and encourage him to the submission required. We see him at last a prisoner in the hands of an unfeeling-a cruel mob; we see him in a court, the butt of judicial scorn and menial insult. We see him treated as the basest criminal, under the scourge.

We see him at last nailed to a cross under the open vault of heaven, a spectacle to a soul-less, jeering rabble surging round. We hear his dying wail; we behold him lifeless hanging there, and witness the frown of heaven in the veiling of the sun and the convulsion of the earth.

"He gave himself for our sins that he might redeem us from this present evil world."

Seasons 2.84

46 And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.

When is a sin large or small?

Who is to say? Any sin is sin. Any conscious, deliberate sin, even the most trivial, is a complete break in our life line of love that unites us to God, and upon which everything depends.

The magnitude of a sin is no direct measure of the heart, or of a man's relative wickedness. A small, mean sin, done consciously and deliberately, and brushed off with a belittling of its seriousness, and with excuses and self-justification when pointed out -- can reveal a far more sordid and poverty stricken state of heart than a great failure that is sincerely and bitterly and openly repented of.

We cannot judge degrees of guilt, or magnitudes of sin. We do not know how severely God is testing a man, or what great work God is preparing him for. We can, and must, determine between factual right and wrong. And we must follow the scripturally-required course in relation to it. But we cannot judge or condemn, we cannot discern motives, or relative degrees of guilt. That is God's prerogative.

Bro Growcott - BYT 1.8/4.7

51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him.

How impressive is the moral grandeur that could not only teach and practice submission to evil under circumstances so provocative of resentment, but that could at the same moment confer a benefaction on one of his murderers. This was not only "enduring the cross for the joy set before him" (the work of faith); it was the crowning grace of charity added to faith and hope; in which he hath set us an example that we should follow in his steps. It was not only that "when he was reviled, he reviled not again," but he "did good to the unthankful and the evil," which is a higher degree of excellence.

Nazareth Revisited Ch 56

53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.

"Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world."

The enemies of Christ were only actors in the scene, though at the same time acting the perfectly witting part of malice and wickedness. As Peter afterwards told them,

"Those things which God before had showed by the mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he so fulfilled" (Acts iii. 18).

By "wicked hands" they took him; but it was

"by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God"

that they had the opportunity (Acts ii. 22; iv. 27, 28).

Nazareth Revisited Ch 56

The end of all things hath approached—Peter.

The hour had arrived called their hour. It was the last hour of their day of ruling—"This," said Jesus to the police sent to arrest him, "is your hour, and the jurisdiction of the darkness—Luke 22:53.

They were doing a work which was pregnant with the fate of the ruling of the State. Their condemnation of Jesus to death, was the condemnation of their own administration.

"This is the condemnation (κρισις) that the Light came into the kosmos, but the men loved the darkness rather than the Light, because their deeds were evil—Jno. 3:19.

That Light was Jesus—the "Great Light" that sprung up in Galilee,

"the region of the shadow of death, where the people were sitting in darkness"—Mat. 4:16.

The men who loved the darkness were the rulers who, from envy, sought to destroy him; and their success sealed the ruin of their estate. Hence, in reference to this, Jesus said,

"Now is the condemnation of this kosmos; now (in that "last hour"—1 Jno. 2:18) the ruling of this kosmos shall be cast out—Jno. 12:31. "The ruling of this kosmos‮ ‬finds‮ ‬nothing‮ ‬in‮ ‬me,‮" ‬said‮ ‬Jesus.‮ ‬So‮ ‬Daniel‮ ‬predicted,‮ ‬saying,‮ "

The‮ ‬Anointed‮ ‬One‮ ‬shall‮ ‬be‮ ‬cut‮ ‬off‮ (‬or‮ ‬made‮ ‬a‮ ‬covenant‮ ‬of‮—‬Isai.‮ ‬42:6‮; ‬49 we-ain lo,‭ ‬but nothing in him‭" (‬shall be found:‭)

‭ ‬and so Pilate declared,‭ ‬saying,‭

‭"‬I find in him no fault—Jno.‭ ‬18:38.‭

These few words show in what sense the phrase,‭ "‬the ruling of this kosmos,‭" ‬is to be taken.‭ ‬Though they hired one of his own apostles to betray him,‭ ‬and suborned false witnesses to testify against him,‭ ‬and threatened Pilate with misprisonment of treason for showing a disposition to do justly,‭ ‬yet was he declared innocent,‭ ‬and without fault.‭ ‬There was,‭ ‬as Daniel said,‭ "‬nothing in him‭" ‬for which he should be‭ "‬cut off.‭"

It was a part of the work assigned to the apostles, when filled with Holy Spirit, to convince the kosmos, in its heavens and earth, of the condemnation, or κρισις, that had been pronounced against it by the Eternal. According to the English version, it is written, "The Comforter shall convince the world of judgment, because the prince of this word is judged;" but a more correct rendering of the original is—

"of judgment, because the ruling of this order (of things) has been condemned."

The verb is in the perfect passive, not in the present tense. The condemnation has been pronounced, but not executed. The execution had been committed to Jesus, who said,

"The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed the judgment all to the Son: … he that heareth my word, and believeth on Him that sent me … comes not into condemnation"—Jno. 5:22, 24.

This the ruling of the Mosaic Order of Things refused to do; they would not hear the prophet like unto Moses, therefore sentence of deposition and abolition was pronounced against it; and

"authority given to the Son to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man"—ver. 27.

The reader will now understand the import of Christ's words which he spoke to Pilate, saying, "My kingdom is not of this kosmos"—it was not of the Mosiac Order of things. This was condemned to destruction—to be taken out of the way to make room for his kingdom, which shall be established when

"the times of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled;"

for he had already said that Jerusalem should be trodden under foot until those times were over; for so long as the City of the Great King is subjected to the barbarians, as it has been, and is to this day, the kingdom of Messiah can have no existence.

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come, Aug 1859

57 And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.

Though he had protested that he would follow him to death, he felt very unlike it now, in the presence of scoffing enemies, and in the cold of midnight, after a fatiguing day, and in the confused state of the faculties which succeeds to such snatches of sleep as he had had in the Garden of Gethsemane while Christ was praying.

The servant-maid's challenge, therefore, threw him off his balance altogether. Acknowledgment of his connection with Christ would likely lead to participation in his fate. From this he shrank in the utter weakness of this unguarded hour. It was not wickedness; it was the instinct of self-preservation acting without control. Wickedness would have led him to take part, like Judas, in the plans to destroy Christ. This was furthest from his thoughts. At the same time, he felt unable to own to discipleship.

...It was a terrible failure under trial, but it was a failure with ameliorating circumstances, which secured his forgiveness. It was a failure that actually qualified him in one way for the work he had to do, as the chosen mouth-piece of the Apostolic witnesses of Christ's resurrection. It humbled himself in his own eyes for ever, and fitted him to wear the honours of his position afterwards, in which it was fitting that God only should be exalted.

Nazareth Revisited Ch 57

61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.

Peter noticed the movement and caught Christ's eye. There are circumstances in which a look is more impressive than the most eloquent and convincing harangue. Such a look must this have been. It was probably not so much a look of reproach as a solemn reminder. The absence of reproach would make it all the more crushing to Peter.

"Though all forsake thee, yet will not I;"

so Peter had boasted. The Lord had answered:

"Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice."

And lo, here was the agonising fulfilment. A look was enough to force it into Peter's inmost soul. He could not endure it. He went straight out and in the darkness and solitude of the night, poured out his broken heart in bitter tears.

Nazareth Revisited Ch 57

61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.

Moses does not say "Whosoever shall deny that prophet shall be cut off", but whosoever will not hearken to "that prophet", in the sense of ultimately receiving and submitting to him, shall be destroyed.

His disciple Peter, under great pressure gave way to the temptation to deny him for a moment. It was but a moment. Immediately "he went out and wept bitterly". And is there no such thing as forgiveness? Is not the God of Israel a gracious God, forgiving iniquity and transgression?

Bro Roberts - Was Jesus of Nazareth The Messiah?

68 And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go.

Then we may imagine a pause, during which whisperings would pass among the members of the Council, to the effect that at the night sitting, Jesus had openly professed his Messiahship but was now afraid to do so. His reticence now might perplex them as to their next procedure. If so, Jesus ended their perplexity by repeating the declaration of the previous night...

Nazareth Revisited Ch 57