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5 And a tenth part of an ephah of flour for a meat offering, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil.

The Meal offering

Meat--that is, bread--(for it is a modern association that identifies "meat" with the article only that is supplied by the butcher; no vegetarianism intended)--meat is for strength; wine for gladness (Psa. 104:15).

What can be the meaning of their addition to the lamb of the daily sacrifice, but this, that the service of God is not all humiliation and sorrow and solemnity? Israel were early taught the joyful side of their relation with God. On the further side of the Red Sea, on the morrow after their thrilling deliverance from Egyptian pursuit, they sang under the leadership of Moses,

"The Lord is my strength and song' and he is become my salvation",

The Psalms of David are divine exemplification of the class of sentiment that is appropriate to the divine relationship in the present evil state. True, there is much shadow in them, it is not possible in human language to express deeper sorrow than some of them reflect. But there is more light than darkness: more joy and jubilance than lamentation. Most of them are in this vein:

"0 clap your hands, all ye people; shout unto God with the voice of triumph . . . Make a joyful noise unto God, all ye lands; sing forth the honour of his name: make his praise glorious . . . Sing aloud unto God our strength: make a joyful noise to the God of Jacob. Take a psalm, and bring hither the timbrel, the pleasant harp with the psaltery .... With trumpets and sound of cornet make a joyful noise before the Lord, the King. Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein. Let the floods clap their hands: let the hills be joyful together."

Joy belongs to faith in God and knowledge of His purposes and His way. There is no true joy apart from it. It means the full activity of the highest faculties of man--which cannot be realized in connection with any other exercise of the human mind. Science or sport brings only a part of the human brain into action; godliness--(of the enlightened sort--and there is no other true sort, for the godliness of darkened sectarianism is no more true godliness than sewer gas is fresh air)--godliness brings the whole brain into action, and therefore kindles noble joy.

"Thou hast put gladness into my heart more than when their corn and wine are increased."

It was appropriate therefore that a meat offering and strong wine should always accompany the sacrificial lamb, morning and evening.

That these three things--the light of knowledge, the incense of prayer, and the sacrificial condemnation of sin--should be the subjects of the daily service of the tabernacle, is an illustration not to be mistaken as to the places which these things should have in the lives of His people.

They condemn the loose thoughts of moralists, who would relegate all three to the region of uncertainty and neglect. They condemn no less the fraternal Laodiceanism that can only be roused by polemics, and who regard the daily worship of God as a weariness.

They show us the sort of people whom God approves, and they throw the right light upon the various kinds of worldliness that are unfit for the service of the true sanctuary.

"The Lord hath chosen the man that is godly for himself ": and these institutions of the Lord's house admit us to the divine estimate of the man that is godly. Many men in the truth have a name to live and are dead: the chill of their spiritual corpses is liable to infect living saints with a sense of shiver, who have to keep close to the fire to drive the cold away.

Law of Moses Ch 28


7 And the drink offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb: in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to be poured unto Yahweh for a drink offering.

The basic requirement of the symbolism of the Sanctuary was righteousness. That was unequivocally intimated by the fact that the Sanctuary was separated from the world around by a screen of fine twined linen. All about were the dark tents of Israel: against them the white screen stood out in significant contrast, the very emblem of moral spotlessness. In so far as the Court represented the people busy in God's service the screen was therefore a challenge to them to be spotlessly white in character and conduct to fit them for the stupendous responsibility of having God in their midst. It is in keeping with this fact that the Court was sometimes called "the holy (place)" (Lev. 6: 16; 10: 18; cf. Num, 28 : 7).

Law and Grace Ch 5

9 And on the sabbath day 2 lambs of the 1st year without spot, and 2 tenth deals of flour for a meal offering, mingled with oil, and the drink offering thereof:

The sabbath day.

So the seventh thousand years, though an age of rest or Sabbath-keeping, will be a day of special activity in the service of God through all the earth, in the ways appointed, with Jerusalem and the temple as the centre of the rushing currents of national life.

Commerce will no longer be the be-all and end-all of national enterprise. "Many nations shall go and say, Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob, and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths" 

Law of Moses Ch 28.

Thus each Sabbath was likewise but the epitome of the entire year, and its standard ritual a permanent object lesson and reminder to Israel of the obligations of its standing as "a holy nation" before God. Upon it the people were to assemble (that would seem to be the implication of "holy convocation") to remind themselves, and each other, of God's doings and purposes with them. It was meant to be a joyous day to them, commemorative of their joy when they sang the Song of Moses after the crossing of the Red Sea, chanting, 

"Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation" (Exod. 15: 13). 

Like that Song it took account of both the present and the future, of the rest of today and of that Rest which is to come, compressing into itself the lessons of both the Holy and Most Holy Place. But this it did only for those who accounted it "a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable", and who by their observance of it were constrained to rest from their own sinful works in order the better to serve God in true holiness (Isa. 58 : 13)ยท

Law and Grace Ch 10

On the seventh day, which was neither longer nor shorter than the days which preceded it, "God ended His work which he had made;" and because of this notable event, "He blessed and sanctified it." A day is blessed, because of what is or will be imparted to those who are commanded to observe it. The sanctification of the day implies the setting of it apart that it might be kept in some way different from other days. The manner of its original observance may be inferred from the law concerning it when it was enjoined upon the Israelites. To them it was said, "remember the sabbath day to keep it holy."

If it be asked, how was it to be kept holy? the answer is, "in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor any one or thing belonging to thee; " and the reason for this total abstinence from work is referred to the Lord's own example in that "He rested the seventh day." The nature of its observance in the ages and generations, and the recompense thereof, is well expressed in the words of Isaiah; --

"if thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath from doing thy pleasure, on My holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honorable; and shalt honour Him not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it" (Isaiah 58:13, 14).

In this passage the conditions are stated upon which faithful Israelites might inherit the blessing typified by the rest of the seventh day. They were joyfully to devote themselves, to the way of the Lord. They were not simply to abstain from work, yawning and grumbling over the tediousness of the day, and wishing it were gone, that they might return to their ordinary course of life; but they were to esteem it as a delightful, holy, and honorable day.

Their pleasure was to consist in doing what the Lord required, and in talking of "the exceeding great and precious promises" he had made. To do this was "not speaking their own words," but the Lord's words. Such an observance as this, however, of the Sabbath day, implies a faithful mind and a gracious disposition as the result of knowing the truth.

Neither antediluvian nor postdiluvian could "call the sabbath a delight," who was either ignorant or faithless of the import of the promise "thou shalt delight thyself in the Lord, and ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed with the heritage of Jacob." A man who simply looked at the seventh day as a sabbath in which he was interdicted from pleasures, and conversation agreeable to him, and from the money-making pursuits in which he delighted, would regard the day more as a weekly punishment, than as joyous and honorable.

Though he might mechanically abstain from work, he did not keep it so as to be entitled to the blessing which belonged to the observance of the day to the Lord. It was irksome to him, because being faithless he perceived no reward in keeping it; and "without faith it is impossible to please God."

The reward to antediluvian, and postdiluvian patriarchs and Israelites, for a faithful observance, or commemoration of Yahweh's rest from His creation-work, was "delight in the Lord, riding upon the high places of the earth, and feeding with the heritage of Jacob." This was neither more nor less than a promise of inheriting the kingdom of God, which is a summary of "the things hoped for and the things unseen," or the subject matter of the faith that pleases God. When that kingdom is established all who are accounted worthy of it will "delight or joy in the Lord;" and occupy "the high places of the earth," ruling over the nations as His associate kings and priests; and share in the "new heavens and earth," in which dwells righteousness, when Jerusalem shall be made a rejoicing, and her people Israel a joy (Matt. 25:23, 34; Rev. 2:26, 27; 3:21; 5:9, 10; 20:4; Dan. 7:18, 22, 27; Isaiah 65:17, 8).

The knowledge and belief of these things was the powerful and transforming motive which caused Abel, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, &c., to "call the sabbath a delight, holy of the Lord, and honorable;" and to observe it as the sons of Belial cannot possibly do. But while this was the motive, even faith, which actuated the sons of God in their keeping holy the seventh day, Yahweh did not permit the faithless to transgress or desecrate it with impunity. We know not what penalty, if any, was attached to its violation before the flood; but its desecration under the Mosaic constitution was attended with signal and summary vengeance, as will appear from the following testimonies: --


1. "And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, speak thou unto the children of Israel, saying, verily My sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the Lord that doth sanctify you. Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore: for it is holy unto you. Every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people. Six days may work be done, but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord; whosoever doeth any work on the sabbath day shall surely be put to death. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He rested and was refreshed" (Exodus 31:12-17).

2. "Remember, O Israel, that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a stretched out arm; therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day" (Dent. 5:15).

3. "Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a sabbath of rest to the Lord: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death. Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the sabbath day" (Exodus 35:2, 3)

4. "And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in a ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the Lord said unto Moses, the man shall surely be put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the Lord commanded Moses" (Numb. 15:32-36).

5 . "Thus saith the Lord; take heed to yourselves, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem: neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day neither do ye any work, but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers. And it shall come to pass if ye diligently hearken unto Me, saith the Lord, to bring in no burden through the gates of this city on the sabbath day, to do no work therein: then shall there enter into the gates of this city kings and princes sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariots and upon horses, they, and their princes, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem: and this city shall remain for ever. And they shall come from the cities of Judah, and from the places about Jerusalem, and from the land of Benjamin, and from the plain, and from the mountains, and from the south, bringing burnt offerings, and sacrifices, and meat offerings, and incense, and bringing sacrifices of praise, unto the temple of the Lord. But if ye will not hearken unto me to hallow the sabbath day, and not to bear a burden, even entering in at the gates of Jerusalem on the sabbath day; then will I kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall not be quenched" (Jer. 17:21-27).

6. "Abide ye every man in his tent, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. So the people rested on the seventh day " (Exodus 16:29).


From these testimonies it is clear that it was unlawful for servants in the families of Israel to light fires, cook dinners, harness horses, drive out families to the synagogues, or priests to the temple to officiate in the service of the Lord. The visiting of families on the sabbath day, the taking of excursions for health or for preaching, and conversing about worldly or family, or any kind of secular affairs, was also illegal, and punishable with death. The law, it will be observed also, had regard to the seventh, and to no other day of the week. It was lawful to do all these things on the first or eighth day (some particular ones however excepted), but not on the seventh.

On this day, however, it was "lawful to do good;" but then this good was not arbitrary. Neither the priests nor the people were the judges of the good or evil, but the law only which defined it. "On the sabbath days the priests in the temple profaned the sabbath, and were blameless;" (Matt. 12:5), for the law enjoined them to offer "two lambs of the first year without spot as the burnt-offering of every sabbath" (Num. 28:9-10). This was a profanation of the seventh-day law, which prohibited "any work " from being done; and had not God commanded it they would have been "guilty of death." It was upon this ground that Jesus was "guiltless;" for he did the work of God on that day in healing the sick as the Father had commanded Him.

"The sabbath was made for man and not man for the sabbath therefore," said Jesus, "the Son of Man is Lord also of the sabbath day " (Mark 2:27). It was a wise and beneficent institution. It prevented the Israelites from wearing out themselves and their dependants by incessant toil; and revived in them a weekly remembrance of the law and promises of God. It was, however, only "a SHADOW of things to come," the substance of which is found in the things which pertain to the Anointed One of God. (Col. 2:16-17; and 14). It was a part of "the rudiments of the world" inscribed on "the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us," and which the Lord Jesus "took out of the way, nailing it to His cross."

When He lay entombed He rested from His labours, abiding in His place all the seventh day. Having ended His work, He arose on the eight day, "and was refreshed." The shadowy sabbath disappeared before the brightness of the rising of the Sun of righteousness; who, having become the accursed of the law, delivered His brethren from its sentence upon all.

The ordinances of the law of Moses are styled by Paul "the rudiments," or "elements of the world," which, in Galatians, he also terms "weak and beggarly elements, whereunto they desired again to be in bondage." They evinced this desire by "observing days, and months, and times, and years (Gal. 4:3, 5, 9, 10), not being satisfied with the things of Christ, but seeking to combine the Mosaic institutions with the gospel. This was Judaizing, and the first step to that awful apostacy by which the world has been cursed for so many ages. When the Mosaic constitution, as "the representation of the knowledge and the truth," had "waxed old" by the manifestation of the substance to a sufficient extent to nullify it, it "vanished away" by being "cast down to the ground" by the Roman power, and with it the law of the seventh day. Even before its abolition, Paul expressed his fear of the Galatians "lest he should have bestowed labour upon them in vain," seeing that they were becoming zealous of the ordinances of the law. They seemed not to understand that the Mosaic economy was only a temporary constitution of things, "added because of transgressions, till the Seed should come;" that when He came, "He redeemed them from the curse of the law, being made a curse for them;" and that therefore they had nothing to fear, nor to hope for from keeping, or transgressing its command.

They had got it into their heads that "except they were circumcised and kept the law of Moses, as well as believed and obeyed the gospel of the kingdom, they could not be saved " (Acts 15:1-5). Therefore they "desired to be under the law " and began to busy themselves about "keeping the Sabbath," and doing other works which Moses had enjoined upon Israel. Paul was very much distressed at this, and describes himself as "travailing in birth again until Christ be formed in them."

They had been delivered from "the yoke of bondage" by putting on Christ; but by seeking to renew their connexion with Moses' law, they were selling their birth-right for a mess of pottage. "I say unto you", saith Paul, "that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace."

A partial observance of the law can do no one any good. If He kept the sabbath in the most approved manner, but neglected the sacrifices, or eat swine's flesh, He was as accursed as a thief or a robber; for to one under the law it saith,

"Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them;"

hence even the sinless Jesus was cursed by it, because He was crucified; for it is written, "Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree" (Gal. 3, 4, 5:4). What hope then is there for Jew or Gentile of escaping the curse of the law, seeing that from the very nature of things connected with the present state of Jerusalem it is impossible to observe it, save in the few particulars of "meat and drink, or in respect of the sabbath partially," &c. The observance of the seventh day was regulated by the Mosaic law, and the penalties due to its "desecration," or "profanation," are pronounced by it alone; but, it is clear, that law being taken out of the way, or abolished, by Jesus who nailed it to His cross, there remain no more retributions for the non-observance of its appointments; and therefore there is no transgression in working or pleasure taking, or in speaking one's own words on the seventh day.


On the first day of the creation-week God said, "Let there be light, and there was light;" so on the first day of the week "THE TRUE LIGHT" came forth from the darkness of the tomb "like dew from the womb of the morning." This event constituted the day after the sabbath, or eighth day, the day of the Lord's resurrection; and therefore styled by His disciples "THE LORD'S DAY." It is a day to be much remembered by them, because it assures them of their justification "in Him," of their own resurrection to life, and of the certainty of His ruling or "judging the world in righteousness" as Yahweh's king, when they also shall reign with Him as kings and priests of God (Rom. 4:25; 8:11; 1 Cor. 15:14-20; Acts 17:31; Rev. 5:9-10).

This day is also notable on account of the special interviews which occurred between Jesus and His disciples after His resurrection (John 20:19-26). He ascended to heaven on this day, even the forty-third from His crucifixion; and seven days after, that is the fiftieth, being that Lord's day styled "the day of Pentecost," the gift of the Holy Spirit was poured out upon the apostles, and the gospel of the kingdom preached for the first time in His name.

Power being in the hands of their enemies the Christians of the Hebrew nation still continued to observe the seventh day according to the custom. Hence we find the apostles frequenting the synagogues on the sabbath days and reasoning with the people out of the Scriptures (Acts 27:2, 17; 18:4; 19:8). To have done otherwise would have been to create an unnecessary prejudice, and to let slip one of the best opportunities of introducing the gospel to the attention of the Jewish public. They did not forsake the synagogues until they were expelled.

While they frequented these, however, on the seventh day, they assembled themselves together with the disciples whose assemblies constituted the churches (ecclesias) of the saints and of God. They ordained elders over these societies, and "taught them to observe all things whatsoever Jesus had commanded them" (Matt. 28:20; Acts 2:42; 14:22-23). In His letter to the Hebrew Christians He exhorts them "not to forsake the assembling of themselves together" (Heb. 10:25). Such an exhortation as this implies a stated time and place of assembly.

On what day, then, did the churches (ecclesias) of the saints meet to exhort one another so as to provoke to love and to good works? Certainly, not on the seventh day, for then the apostles were in the synagogues. What day then more appropriate than the Lord's day, or first day of the week? Now it cannot be affirmed that the saints were commanded to meet on this day, because there is no testimony to that effect in the New Testament. But, it is beyond dispute, that they did assemble themselves together on the first day of the week, and the most reasonable inference is that they did so in obedience to the instruction of the apostles from whose teaching they derived all their faith and practice, which constituted them the disciples of Jesus.


The law of Moses was delivered to the Israelites and not to the Gentiles, who were therefore "without the law." "What things soever the law saith, it says to them who are under the law; " consequently the nations were not amenable to it: and though they obtained not the blessings of Mount Gerizim (unless they became faithful Jews by adoption), neither were they obnoxious to the curses of Mount Ebal (Dent. 27:9-26). The faithless Jews and Gentiles are equally aliens from the precepts of Christ and His apostles. What these prescribe is enjoined upon the disciples of Jesus. They only are "under law to Christ." "What have I," says Paul, "to do to judge them that are without? God judgeth them" (1 Cor. 5:12-13).

...He has caused the gospel of the kingdom to be preached to sinners "for the obedience of faith." When they are judged, it will be for "not obeying the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ " (2 Thess. 1:7-10), and not because they do not "go to church," or do not keep a sabbath instituted by a semi-pagan emperor of the fourth century. The sabbath God requires sinful men to observe is to cease from the works of the flesh, as completely as He rested from the work of creation on the seventh day, that they may enter into the millennial rest that remaineth for the people of God (Heb. 4:9-11).

... It is a fact, that "God blessed and sanctified," or set apart, "the seventh day;" and doubtless, Adam and his wife rested, or intermitted their horticultural tendance upon that day. Yea, we may go further and say, that it is extremely probable that "the sons of God" before the flood, worshipped God according to "His way" upon that day; but in all the history of that long period, which intervened from the santification of the seventh day to the raining down bread from heaven for the Israelites in the wilderness (Exodus 16), there is not the least hint of any punishment for breaking the sabbath day. Guiltiness before God cannot therefore be argued against the Gentiles so as to entitle them to death or reprobation, predicated upon the threatenings of the patriarchal code. Whatever the appointment might be, it was no doubt significative of the blessings to be obtained through observing it; not alone, but in connexion with the other matters which made up "the way of God."

As I have shown, observance of the seventh day was obligatory only upon the Israelites so long as the Mosaic code was in force, being "a sign" between God and them. The sabbaths belong to the land and people of Israel, and can be only kept according to the law while they reside in the country. This will appear from the fact that the law requires that "two lambs of the first year without spot" should be offered with other things "as the burnt offering of every sabbath;" an offering which, like all the offerings, &c., must be offered in a temple in Jerusalem where the Lord has placed His name, and not in the dwelling places of Jacob.

Israel must therefore be restored to their own country before even they can keep the sabbath. Then, when "the throne is established in mercy; and He (the Lord Jesus) shall sit upon it in truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness" (Isaiah 16:5), then I say, "shall the priests, the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, come near to Me to minister unto Me, and they shall stand before Me to offer unto Me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord God: and they shall hallow My sabbaths" (Ezek. 44:15-24)

But these sabbaths will be no longer celebrated on the seventh day. They will be changed from the seventh to the eighth or first day of the week, which are the same. The "dispensation of the fulness of times" (Ephes. 1:10), popularly styled the Millennium, will be the antitype, or substance, of the Mosaic feast of tabernacles which was "a shadow of things to come." In this type, or pattern, Israel were to rejoice before the Lord for seven days, beginning "on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when they had gathered the fruit of the land." In relation to the first day of the seven, the law says, "it shall be a holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein." This was what we call Sunday.

The statute then continues, "on the eighth day," also Sunday, "shall be a holy convocation unto you, and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein. " Again, "on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath " (Lev. 23:34-43). Thus, in this "pattern of things in the heavens" the first and eighth days are constituted holy days in which no work was to be done. It also represents the palm-bearing or victorious ingathering of the twelve tribes of Israel from their present dispersion to the land of their fathers, "when the Lord shall set His hand a second time to recover the remnant of His people" (Isaiah 11:11).

Three times in four verses does Zechariah style the yearly going up of the Gentiles to Jerusalem to worship the king, the Lord of Hosts, there, the "keeping of the feast of tabernacles" (Zech. 14:16-19); an event which is consequent upon the destruction of the dominion represented by Nebuchadnezzar's image, and the re-establishment of the kingdom and throne of David. This national confluence of the Gentiles to Jerusalem is characteristic of Messiah's times; and of the true or real festival of tabernacles, when He will "confess to God among the Gentiles, and sing unto His name," and "they shall rejoice with His people," Israel (Rom. 15:9-10).

...This change of the sabbath from the seventh to the eighth, or first day of the week, is the full development and establishment of the observance of the Lord's day by the disciples of Jesus since the times of the apostles.

Elpis Israel Ch 2

10 This is the burnt offering of every sabbath, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.

That was to be the one constant, indispensable offering which God required of His People, in intimation of that constancy and fidelity of service which He expected of them axiomatically.

This continual offering, being a Burnt Offering, signified that the nation, conscious of having received atonement for its sin, wished to devote itself and its labours (these being symbolized by the Meal and Drink Offering) utterly to God. Not a day was to pass without such a ritual confession by the nation in this representative way of the character of its fundamental duty as God's Covenant People.

"The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out" , was the rule for the day (Lev. 6 : 13); and likewise also for the night - "It is the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning" (Lev. 6 : 9).

By this symbolic means each day was shown to be, ideally, not something separate and distinct in itself, but only one brief stage in a continuous process of spiritual activity before God and of service to Him. The double nature of the offering served to emphasize that lesson for each individual in the nation by showing him that his life was meant to begin and end in God who had delivered him from sin's bondage.

The evening oblation, inasmuch as it came at the close of the day, spoke symbolically of a day's work done (and so, by extension, of a whole life lived) as to God - of a duty accomplished, of an ideal attained. As such it was to some extent more significant allegorically than that of the morning, which may explain why the Psalmist besought God,

"Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense; and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice" (Psalm 141 : 2).* Apart from this distinction, however, the evening and morning oblation both served the same essential purpose, and spoke equally of constancy in self-devotion and in service to God.

*Prayer, we note, is here equated with both Incense and Burnt Offering.

Law and Grace Ch 10

11 And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto Yahweh; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot;

At the beginnings of your months", there was to be a special service of a gladsome character

"Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day. For this was a statute for Israel, and a law of the God of Jacob" (Psa. 81:3-4). On that day, the first day of the month--marked and dated by the advent of the new moon--there was to be a large addition to the daily sacrifice. There were to be seven lambs, two young bullocks, and one ram, besides the daily lamb of the morning and evening; and these additional burnt offerings were to be accompanied by proportional meat offerings and wine offerings in the quantities specified, in addition to which, there was to be an offering of one kid of the goats for a sin offering.

This was a more casual, yet a larger, form of special service than the Sabbath or the daily: once in thirty days as compared with once in seven days or twice in one day. Its occasion was the completion of a larger cycle of the divine beneficence to man. It takes the moon about thirty days to perform her circuit round the earth. All the benefits she confers in that circuit, we cannot know. Some of them we know. She prevents stagnation in the waters of the earth by causing their rise and fall and so giving us the tides. She mitigates the darkness of night, and even imparts to it a silvery beauty, which is often more acceptable than the glory of the day. She exercises subtle magnetic influences on the condition of earth's inhabitants which we cannot estimate. She gives us a standard of time measurement which is of greater value than familiarity allows us to appreciate.

That the periodicity of such an ordinance in nature should be chosen as the occasion of a special recognition of man's relation to God, is significant. It shows that God finds pleasure in our appreciation of His works. It shows that He disapproves of the indifference that takes them all as a matter of course. There is a liability in men to do this. Accustomed to the automatic operations of the laws of nature, they are liable to become insensible to the eternal power and wisdom in which they have their root. In a sense, the motions of nature are a matter of course.

They are established and cannot be interfered with: yet they are not reasonably regarded, if considered without reference to the contriving energy in which they had their origin. "He commanded, and they were created. He hath also established them for ever and ever. He hath made a decree which shall not pass." To look at them and not admiringly recognize the wisdom that has made them is to be like a cow or any other beast--which dimly looks, sees, feels, but does not understand--well enough in its place, but only as fattening flesh to be eaten. "0 Lord, how great are thy works! Thy thoughts are very deep. A brutish man knoweth not; neither doth a fool understand this" (Psa. 92:5). "The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein" (Psa. 111:2).

What man, who has made some great and clever thing, does not enjoy the appreciation of intelligent visitors? What man gets any satisfaction out of the unintelligent gaze of the uninitiated? If this be so with us, who are in the faint image of the Creator, we may understand why God should delight in the recognition of His works by the intelligent creatures He has made, and why He should have selected the completion of the moon's monthly journey for a special exercise in this direction.

There is an evident counterpart to the Mosaic monthly institution in the blessed age that is coming with the advent of the saints to power. It is" from one new moon to another", as well as from Sabbath to Sabbath, that all flesh appears in the temple courts to worship (Isa. 66:23). It is "every month" or once a month, that the Apocalyptic wood of life (the saints) yields its fruit for the healing of the nations (Rev. 22:2), and it is "according to his months" that the literal tree on both sides of the temple river yields its fruit "whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be consumed . . . the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine" (Ezek. 47:12). There will be no monotony in a state of things in which the whole population is roused with the advent of every new moon in the heavens to a special service of worship and praise, and a special distribution of healing and blessing. The prospect of the Kingdom is a prospect of an endless succession of joyful activities.

But what nation, as at present constituted, would care for the activities of holiness? It is "when thy judgments are made manifest" that "all nations will come and worship before Thee" (Rev. 15:4; Psa. 86:9; 29:27-29; 102:16-22; Isa. 26:9). Till then, the only kind of activity that appeals to the general taste is the activity of the racecourse or the circus, or the theatre, and other polluted forms of public life. There are to be "new heavens and new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness" Among many detailed features of delightfulness will be the monthly recurrence of special feasts of praise, joy, and blessing.

Law of Moses Ch 28.

16 And in the fourteenth day of the first month is the passover of Yahweh.

Passover, as first observed in Egypt, spoke to Israel, as we have seen, of redemption through sacrifice and of rest from bondage to sin. So vital was its ritual meaning to Israel as God's People that God designated it "My sacrifice" (Exod. 23: 18; 34: 25).

The slaying of the firstborn began after sundown midway through Abib. Before sundown the Israelites had had to slay the Lamb to procure its blood to serve as a token and a sign. So the rule became, "In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the Lord's passover" (Lev. 23 : 5 ; cf. Num. 28 : 16). But that terrible first night in Egypt, though spelling disaster to Egypt, meant release from bondage to Israel.

"Even the self same day it came to pass that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. It is a night to be much observed unto the Lord for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the Lord to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations" (Exod. 12 : 41-42).

This day - particularly as it could so conveniently serve as an anniversary of the original event was therefore even better qualified than the Sabbath to act as a commemoration of the Exodus. Hence the law,

"On the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord" (Lev. 23 : 6).

That feast was intended to bring home to Israel with urgent force the moral demands of their status as God's ransomed People: so the rule was - "Seven days ye must eat unleavened bread". Of these the first (i.e., Abib 15th) was an holy convocation, and thus an extra sabbath. All servile work was forbidden; the epithet "servile" suggesting that commemoration of their serfdom in Egypt (Exod 1: 14) was the idea intended to be uppermost in their mind, and that abstinence from work in general was not to be so stringent as on an ordinary sabbath when even the busy activity of sowing and harvest had to be interrupted (Exod. 34 : 2 I; cf. Lev. 23 : 3).

But though servile work was prohibited, from one form of activity they could not rest. "Ye shall do no servile work therein. But ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord seven days" (Lev. 23 : 8). The duration of the feast - seven days - was itself of sabbatical import, and appropriate as a period during which the Covenant People should commemorate its deliverance. As the week began, so it ended. "In the seventh day is an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein" (Lev. 23 : 8).

Law and Grace Ch 10

24 After this manner ye shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Yahweh: it shall be offered beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.

25 And on the seventh day ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work.

The schedule of altar offerings for each of the seven days was significant. It was (Num. 28 : 19-25) :-

I. Burnt Offering:

two young bullocks.

one ram.

seven lambs of the first year.

2. Meal Offering: as specified for each animal in the schedule of Num. 15: 3-12.

3. Sin Offering: one goat.

"After this manner ye shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord: it shall be offered beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering" (Num. 28: 24). Thus while the nation abstained from leaven (i.e., ritually abstained from sinning) in recognition of the obligations of its calling, it simultaneously pledged itself entirely to God by sacrificing to him "of the flock and of the herd" (Deut. 16 : 2), a series of animal offerings all "without blemish" (Num. 28: 19), among them "seven lambs"-seven to represent the People, lambs to recall the Passover victim in the same way as the Daily Burnt Offering.

But, in recognition of its actual sinfulness (which so belied the meaning of the ritual as a whole), each day there was offered as well a goat of Sin Offering. This would of course be offered before the special Burnt Offerings, and was a single animal because Sin Offering was never anything but a single animal, but both .the multiplicity and the greatly superior value of the Burnt Offerings ensured for the idea of self-consecration the special prominence which it was meant to have in the thoughts of the People at this time. The additional Meal Offering spoke likewise of righteous works, in significant contrast to the unrighteous works to which the presentation of the goat unhappily bore witness.

Law and Grace Ch 10.

26 Also in the day of the firstfruits, when ye bring a new meat offering unto Yahweh, after your weeks be out, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work:

27 But ye shall offer the burnt offering for a sweet savour unto Yahweh; two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs of the first year;

28 And their meat offering of flour mingled with oil, three tenth deals unto one bullock, two tenth deals unto one ram,

29 A several tenth deal unto one lamb, throughout the seven lambs;

30 And one kid of the goats, to make an atonement for you.

Here was the whole range of offerings.

Sin Offering first, to bear witness to the nation's failure to attain the ideal presented to it in the Feast of Un leavened Bread - hence the two leavened loaves, eaten by the priest as type of God since they could not be burnt upon the Altar* (Lev. 2 : 1 I).

Burnt Offering second, to express renewed self-consecration to God for His mercy and pardon.

Peace Offering last to signify that God's purpose with Israel had potentially come to fruition, so that the nation could exult in its fellowship with Him, The loaves were waved with the lambs of Peace Offering (Lev. 23: 20) as a token that God accepted Israel, despite its sinfulness (symbolized in the leaven in the loaves).

"They are the firstfruits unto the Lord" (Lev. 23 : 17) was the added witness of the Law as it sought to remind Israel that they were but the precursors of many other peoples who would likewise be reconciled to God and made at one with Him, and also that as such they were to live "unto the Lord".

*It should be carefully noted that no Sin Offering accompanied the presentation of the Wave Sheaf of Firstfruits.

Law and Grace Ch 10