Pioneer books
Enter subtitle here

Dr Thomas of West Hoboken, Hudson Co. New Jersey, U. S., has undoubtedly been the great instrument in the hand of God in digging out, in the nineteenth century, the lost and hidden treasure of the gospel.

The scattered elements of "the truth" had here and there shown themselves occasionally before his day. The Kingdom of God in some of its aspects was believed in by a few, the worthlessness of human nature in respect to immortality was here and there recognised by a stray Bible student; baptism had long been practised as an essential religious rite, but it was left to the remarkable man of whom we are speaking to collate and systematise the truth and evolve it in the complete doctrinal development which is efficacious for the salvation of men.

In the accomplishment of this great work, he studied much, and brought out many long lost ideas. He also detected the fallacy of many a revered doctrine, and gave to the Book of God such an altered complexion that the Bible which before time was enshrined in mystery, and cut off from the sympathies of intelligent men, became transparent in its intelligibility, and highly interesting in the grandeur of its revelations, and the adaptation of its schemes to the wants of the world.

In attaining this magnificent achievement, Dr. Thomas but yielded to the pressure of circumstances. It was not a result upon which he had set his mind. He may be said to have drifted into it through the studies forced upon him. His theological career was emphatically a providential development...

He did not design it; he did not incline it; it grew as the result of circumstances acting upon his peculiarly constituted mind.

----Brother Roberts 1864

Exposition of Daniel






Elpis Israel


Being An Exposition of the Kingdom of God

With Reference to The Time of the End, and The Age To Come.
Written 1848'
Special Edition -- Revised -- 1904

The Book unsealed

The Book Unsealed
A Lecture On The Prophetic Periods of Daniel and John
Approaching Climax

in the

Perdition of All Human Government

and the

Establishment of the Kingdom of God

By John Thomas, M.D.

Chronikon Hebraikon

Chronikon Hebraikon; Chronology of the Scriptures: AS CONTAINED IN THEIR historic numbers and dates, 



There is not a current brother that I know, or whose writings I have read, that has a tenth of the Scriptural knowledge that these pioneer brethren had, and I freely and happily include myself in this comparison. The comparison is so lop-sided it is pitiful. There is no comparison. If we did not have the brilliant, stable, providentially-provided light of the works of these brethren - if we had to depend for help on the poor little flickering candles in the earth today - what pitiful straits we would be in!

Bre. Thomas and Roberts knew the Scriptures as few men have ever known them, and they entered fully into their beautiful and transforming spirit - a thousand times better than those who now repudiate their teaching. Many years ago I came to the firm conviction, daily strengthened ever since, that bre. Thomas and Roberts were divinely and providentially raised up to revive the Truth of God and the Body of Christ in these last days, and that they laid a sound foundation of Truth - all the Truth - as regards fellowship and salvation.

They were not inspired. They were not perfect. They were not always right in everything. But when it comes to the basic beliefs involving fellowship and salvation, it is my ever increasing conviction that, in the providence of God, they gave us a complete and sound foundation.


Christendom Astray

Popular Christianity (both in Faith and Practice),
Shown to be Unscriptural ;
And the True Nature of the Ancient Apostolic Faith Exhibited. 

Law of Moses

As A Rule of National and Individual Life
By Robert Roberts

Nazareth Revisited


The Life and Work of Jesus Christ EXHIBITED ANEW, in harmony with The Scriptures of Moses and the Prophets, to which Jesus appealed as THE WORD OF GOD."

The Blood of Christ

The Blood of Christ
Its Place in

To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.

(2 Cor. 5:19).

And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement. (Rom. 5:11).

But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.

(1 John 1:7).

By Robert Roberts

The Slain Lamb

A Controversial and Expository
On the True Nature and Sacrifice of Christ
Delivered in the Temperance Hall, Birmingham [England]
on Friday, July 29th, 1873

The Visible Hand of God



The Ways of Providence


Bible history
VIZ :--:

by Robert Robrets of Birmingham



With reference to the nature of the body
when it first emerges from the grave

"There shall be a RESURRECTION OF DEAD Ones, both of just and unjust ones."-(PAUL.)

"And as Paul reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and the JUDGEMENT TO COME, Felix trembled."-(Acts xxiv. 25.)



With reference to the nature of the body when it first emerges from the grave

There shall be a RESURRECTION OF DEA D ONES , both of just and unjust ones."-(PAUL.)
" And as Paul reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and the JUDGMENT TO COME, Felix
trembled."-(ACTS xxiv. 25.)
" Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that the Deity should raise the
dead ? "-(PAUL TO AGRIPPA.)


THIS treatise on RESURRECTION and JUDGMENT owes its existence to the urgent request of friends in Detroit, who heard the substance of it orally delivered there at a private meeting. The exposition on that occasion was deemed highly satisfactory; and they determined that I should not rest until they obtained it in the present form.

I was the less disposed to refuse compliance when I considered the importance of the subject, the little information possessed upon it, the nearness of its development, and the " signs of the times" indicative thereof. In the present state of the public mind it is a subject very difficult to present in such a form, that he who runs may read it intelligibly. My aim has been to set it forth with all possible simplicity, that the reader might be instructed ; his faith, if he have any, enlarged and strengthened ; and his conduct purified by the conviction so sublime and terrible a wonder cannot fail to produce in a well balanced and judicious mind.

But some may be prompted to enquire, Is it necessary to understand all the details of the Resurrection and Judgment in order to possess the faith which justifies ? In reply, I would say, if it were necessary, there would scarcely be found, in this generation, a corporal's guard
of justified believers.

I apprehend that if a person heartily believe in " the resurrection of the just and the unjust," and that both these classes will appear in the presence of the Righteous Judge, " to give account of themselves to him," their understanding so far is sound

upon these two first principles ; but if on the contrary, he deny the resurrection of " the unjust," or saints of the Sardian type, and repudiate the citation of the righteous to judgment, saying that there is no other judgment for them than what they are subjected to in the present state ; and that they will not be called upon to give account : I can only say for myself, that I had rather never have been born than appear in the Divine Presence with such a tradition.

It would not be difficult to make out against such, a case of constructive treason to the truth. But this is neither my purpose nor desire. " Judge nothing," says Paul, " before the time until
the Lord come, Who will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the heart." My purpose is to enlighten, not to condemn. The more we understand of what we profess to believe, the stronger is our faith therein ; and the nearer
we approach its development, the more necessary is it, that a lively interest be kindled in us, that our lamps be well trimmed, and our lights be found brightly burning (Matt. xxv. 4, 7, 10).

Mystery of the Covenant of the Holy Land explained 

ACCORDING to the law ordained by angels in the hand of Moses, and styled "the word spoken by angels" (Heb. ii.2), mankind are separated into the holy and the unclean. It constituted the twelve tribes of Israel a holy nation," a special and peculiar people (Ex. 19:6; Deut. 7:6; 14:2), while it left all other nations mere "sinners of the Gentiles" (Gal. 2:15), as all men were originally constituted by the disobedience of Adam (Rom. 5:18), from whom they derive their descent. The national holiness of Israel was constitutional, not inherent. 

The nation was composed of a stiff-necked, perverse and intractable people who were more disposed to the wickedness of other nations than to the practice of the law of Yahweh, their King. But the holy seed of Abraham was the substance in the nation's loins, on account of whom, and the things affirmed respecting him, it was not consumed (Isa. 6:13; 65:8, 9; Rom. 11:16) but carefully preserved, as having a "blessing in it," even "an inheritor of Yahweh's mountains," who shall cause his servants to rejoice, and the nations to shout aloud for joy. 

Anything separated by Yahweh from things in general for His own special use is holy, irrespective of the nature or character of the thing. Hence, things animate and inanimate, animal, vegetable and mineral, solid and fluid, etc., have all been constituted holy by the law. Thus there were holy utensils, holy and most holy places of worship, holy mountains and cities, and holy officials, though oftentimes very unrighteous men. The holiness of this kind was the national holiness of the twelve tribes - a holiness conferred by the law of Moses, "which could make nothing perfect." It bestowed upon things a relative external holiness, a sort of halo of holiness confined to the surface, which left the mind and disposition, or heart of its subject untouched. Let us look into the matter a little more minutely. A babe, though born of Israelites, was unclean (Job 14:4; 25:4), which is the same thing as unholy, until its circumcision, and after presentation to Yahweh. "Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to Yahweh. This was the law, but how great the number so called were wicked men, Israel's history shows abundantly. Some, however, desired to keep the law. They grew up "blameless" (Phil. 3:6), observing all the precepts of the decalogue, conforming to the temple worship, and abstaining from contact with all legally unclean and interdicted things. This was a man's own righteousness acquired by working according to the law (Phil. 3:9). This was the righteousness Israel followed after, which they sought to establish in opposition to the righteousness Paul preached (Rom. 9:31; 10:3), and styled by the prophets "filthy rags." Many such men were ignorant. They had the token of the covenant in their flesh, but they were "children in whom was no faith," and "without faith it is impossible to please God." Thus an Israelite might be legally blameless, but if without faith, his legal righteousness could entitle him to no more than length of days in the land which Yahweh had given His people. The twelve tribes inherited the land under the law of Moses, which could confer upon their generations only a temporal life interest in the country. Could it have given them an everlasting inheritance therein, the nation, whatever its misdeeds, would not have been expelled, and its citizens might have attained to everlasting life as a recompense for keeping the law. The transgressions of Israel consummated in their rejection of the gospel of the kingdom, would doubtless have brought down heaven's judgments upon them, which would have ultimated in the triumph of the truth; but they would not have been punished in the way they have, by an expulsion from their country, if the word spoken by angels in the hand of Moses, could have conferred an everlasting title to it. Covenants are of no force until purged. "Almost all things are by the law purged with blood." To purge anything in the Scripture sense, is to cleanse it from legal or from moral defilement; and to impart to it a virtue co-efficient with the detergent or cleansing principle. This is a general definition which may not apply in every case, but it is sufficiently precise for the subject in hand. 

The covenant made with Abraham was confirmed with Yahweh's oath, saying, "Know of a surety," and by the consumption of sacrifices by fire from heaven (Gen. 15). This was confirmation, not purgation. It was not purged until two thousand and eighty-nine years after, when a virtue was imparted to it co-efficient with the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than the blood of Abel; that is, the blood of Jesus, which he says is "the blood of New . . • (Testament) shed for many for the remission of sin! The history of the death and resurrection of Jesus is that narrative which relates the story of the purging, or the rendering effective of the covenant, testament . . . through which remission of sins, eternal life, and an everlasting possession of the land, with all its inseparable attributes, may be obtained by every one who believes the things promised therein. Four hundred and thirty years after the confirmation of the New Covenant (styled new because of its coming into force at a time when that of Moses had waxed old), and sixteen hundred and fifty-nine years before its incipient enforcement, Moses dedicated or initiated "the law ordained by angels." This he did with blood. "For when he had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the Book and all the people, saying, This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined upon you" (Heb. 9:18-20). Here was a solution of blood in water, into which a sprinkler of scarlet wool and hyssop was dipped, and the Book and people sprinkled by the hand of Moses. These materials were purification emblems. "Without the shedding of blood, there is no remission," or sending away, as if sin and uncleanness were sent away into a land not inhabited (Lev. 16: 21, 22). This is a first principle of God's religion under both covenants. Blood is therefore regarded as purging, purifying, or cleansing. The only answer that can be given to the question, why is there no expiation without blood-shedding?- is that Yahweh wills it. The blood of the living creature is the life thereof; and as it has come under sentence of death, God wills that life shall make satisfaction for sin (Lev. 17:11, 14). "It is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul." 

Water is also cleansing. Hence, "Wash you, make you clean" (Isa. 1:16). The water and the blood with which Moses sprinkled the Book of the Covenant and the people, find their antitypes in the blood and water that issued from the pierced side of Jesus, with which he sprinkled the new covenant . . . But the efficacy of a covenant depends on the virtue of the blood with which it is purged. This principle is fatal to the idea of perfectability by the law of Moses; for "it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins" (Heb. 10:4). Hence it was weak and unprofitable, and made nothing perfect (Heb. 7:18,19). This defectiveness of the law, which even faith in the unpurged Abrahamic covenant could not remedy (Heb. 9:15) was referable to the nature of the sacrifices with whose blood it was dedicated; and to the weakness of the flesh (Rom. 8:3), which it could alone sanctify (Heb. 9:13) without reaching the inward man. Calves and goats were as destitute of righteousness as they were devoid of sin. Their blood therefore was a negative principle, and could impart no virtue to a covenant by which those who were sanctified under it could obtain a title or justification to eternal redemption. And furthermore let it be observed, that besides this defect, their blood was unprofitable for everlasting results, as being the blood of the dead, and not of the living. It was therefore ceremonially incommunicative of any kind of vitality. Even the blood of the innocent and righteous Jesus would have been as unprofitable for covenant purposes as the blood of Moses, Abel, or calves, if he had not been raised from the dead. This is the doctrine taught concerning him by David. The thirtieth Psalm is prophetic of Messiah's death and resurrection. "All things must be fulfilled that are written concerning me in the Psalms" (Luke 24:44), said Jesus. In the third verse of the Psalm quoted, the spirit which afterwards dwelt in him and spoke by him, says of him and for him, "O Yahweh, thou hast brought up my soul from the grave; thou hast kept me alive (or preserved from corruption), that I should not go down into the pit (or be reduced to dust)." In the eighth verse he says he "cried unto Yahweh, and made supplication." This occurred before his soul went down into the grave. In view of its hypothetical continuance in that gloomy place, he inquires in his supplication, "what profit is there in my blood, if I go down to the pit (or become dust)? Can the dust praise thee? Can it declare thy truth?" This interrogative argument teaches the doctrine of the 15th of I Corinthians, that "if Christ be not raised" from the dead, or in other words, be mere dust in the pit, "faith is in vain;" sins are not remitted; and dead believers are perished; which is equivalent to saying "there is no profit in his blood;" for it was shed for remission of sins, which, however, are not remitted, if be be not raised up, or "healed" of the "evil disease" which laid him in the tomb (Psa. 41:8). 

An unrisen Christ is an unprofitable sacrifice. His blood could purge nothing; and as to praising God and declaring His truth in heaven and earth, it would be impossible; for "the dead know not anything" (Eccles. 9:5), in the day of their return to the dust their thoughts perish (Psa. 146:4), and therefore the dead cannot praise Yahweh (Psa. 115:17), Jesus was "delivered for our offences;" but if he had not been raised, we should have remained unjustified, and in our sins, and without any title to things everlasting; happily, however, for the faithful, God raised him from the dead; whereupon the apostle adds, "And was raised again for our justification." Thus, his blood was made profitable, and he is prepared to praise Yahweh, and to declare his truth in the midst of Israel's congregation (Psa. 22:22, 23, 25) when the time comes. Now this doctrine being true of the blood of an unresurrected, innocent, and righteous man, it is clear that the blood of dead animals, such as calves and goats, must be utterly worthless for anything else than a shift devised for the exigency of the case. They had no righteousness; therefore their sprinkled blood would constitute no one righteous: they had no life; therefore it could impart no title to eternal life; and not being human they could not expiate humanity's offence, inasmuch as the wisdom of God determined that sin should be "condemned in the flesh," not representative of animals only, but literally in that of man (Rom. 8:3). As it was not possible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins, and his being the blood of the Mosaic covenant, it was as impossible for that instrument to give the twelve tribes or a single faithful Israelite, even a title to inherit the land for ever.

 "The wages of sin is death;" hence sins untaken away or transgressions unredeemed, leaves the transgressor under death's sentence. A man under sentence of death, is as good as dead; he is therefore styled "dead in trespass and sins." This was the condition of the whole nation under the law. No man thereof could show his title to eternal life in Canaan, or elsewhere. A faithful Israelite might hope that when Messiah came, he would not prove like Adam the first, but be obedient unto death; and by his shed blood, purge the Abrahamic covenant in which he believed, and by thus redeeming the trangressions committed by the faithful under the law (Heb. 9:15), gave them justification unto life eternal, by which they would be enabled to possess the land for ever. No, the only title to the land the Mosaic law could give was conditional and limited to their mortal existence upon it. The reward for keeping the commandments of Yahweh is affixed to the first of them. Let the reader observe what it is. It is not a promise of the Gentile "heaven beyond the skies," but of long life in Palestine. Hear the words, "Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the Yahweh thy elohim giveth thee." This, an apostle says, "is the first commandment with promise; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest live long upon the land" , land, not "earth," according to Moses). Paul quoted this as an exhortation to believers residing in Ephesus. It was a motive to them, because they believed the gospel of the kingdom which promises life upon the land, and, by consequence, upon the earth for ever; but it is no principle of action with the moderns, as they have no faith in the actual or real accomplishment of the covenant promises made to Abraham and his seed. We see, then, the nature of the Mosaic law purged by inferior or unprecious blood. It could not give a title to eternal life, and was therefore incapable of imparting everlasting righteousness to any (Gal. 3:21), and nothing short of an everlasting righteousness can constitute a man an heir of the kingdom of God in the covenanted land. By obedience to this law no flesh can be justified, for by it comes the knowledge of sin, without the power of deliverance (Rom. 3:20, 28). "It made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did." (Heb. 7:19). What could this better hope be to a people already living in the land promised to their father Abraham ? Could it be that when they became dead men, they should be metamorphosed into ethereal shadows, and having exhaled with the vapours of earth into the aerial regions, waft about on zephyrs, or take a higher flight to odyllic amplitudes beyond the skies ? Is this the better hope, the Christian's hope, brought in by Jesus, "the surety of the better covenant;" O, egregious nonsense! Mere Gentile imbecility and foolishness! Show us, ye "wise!" where such a hope is written. Produce your purged covenant in which it is promised and confirmed by Yahweh's oath. But why call upon you for proof, when none exists. Supposing that such a crazy fiction could have foundation in the promises of God, all of which are covenanted and purged; it must be written in the covenant confirmed to Abraham. But on studying that instrument we find there nothing of the kind-not the remotest hint of such a hope. That covenant expanded into the promises made to David, and illustrated by the writings of the prophets, leaves not the reader in a labyrinth of doubt and vague uncertainty about the better hope. These Scriptures bind us down to the better covenant in our enquiries after the better covenant. Now who that studies the Book of the Covenant with an opened understanding, can fail to see that hope that is promised of Yahweh to Israel, which is better than the hope promised to them in the inferior covenant of Moses? Moses set before them such an occupation of the land as is amply illustrated in their turbulent and eventful history. They had possessed the land indeed; but the Mosaic testament gave them no other hope than a prolonged, and prosperous, and peaceful life in it, if they forsook not the covenant. This was a hope, like the hope of the nations, bounded by things seen and temporal. 

After death Moses promised them nothing in his will, not even resurrection. The better covenant, however, purged by the blood of Jesus, did. It promised them a resurrection from the dead; it promised them incorruptibility and life; it promised them that they should "possess the land, and dwell therein for ever;" it promised them exaltation to the kingdom and the power, and the glory to be manifested there; and to the possession of domin ion over all the nations of the earth; it promised them the in heritance of these things when the seed of Abraham and of David should sit upon the throne of his glory; and as the Branch of righteousness, execute judgment and justice in the land. This was the better hope of the better testament and surpassed the Mosaic in desirableness, as infinitely as things unseen and eternal do those that are seen and temporal. But as "all the people" were sprinkled with the blood by which Moses dedicated the covenant, he enjoined upon them before they could attain to the inferior hope it set before them, so al§o it is necessary that every one, without exception, should be sprinkled with the precious blood of the better testament, even with that of Jesus, before he can become entitled to the better hope. The blood of the New Covenant speaks better things than the blood of the Mosaic. It speaks of the "good things to come" of which Jesus is the high priest, and not Aaron. It speaks of the good things of the better hope, and of the eternal redemption he hath obtained for his people individually and nationally. It is Israel's hope emphatically; and no Gentile man or nation can par take of it that is not sprinkled with the blood of the covenant that it sets forth. Even Israel's own nation will partake of it in no sense until "all the people" are sprinkled by the covenant blood; for it is by virtue of that blood alone, that they possess the land to be expelled no more; and as for the righteous dead, it is "by the blood of thy covenant, Ο Messiah, that Yahweh sends forth they prisoners out of the pit, in which there is no water" (Zech. 9:11). But Moses sprinkled the Book and all the people, with a bunch of hyssop and scarlet wool. He had a vessel containing the water and the blood within convenient reach; but where is the blood of the better covenant ? How can access be obtained to it ? How can it be sprinkled upon all the people from age to age, and generation to generation, who shall inherit the hope when the time of its development shall arrive? These are questions easily replied to from the testimony of God. The blood of the covenant was poured out of Jesus' side, bathing his body, and dripping on the dust of Palestine. Had anyone caught the blood in a vessel, and with a bunch of hyssop and scarlet wool sprinkled even believing people around, it would have availed them nothing. It would have been presumptive evidence that those upon whom it was found had been engaged in his murder; but it would have been no proof of their interest in the hope of the covenant which it dedicated. It was, when pouring out, the blood of an unrisen Christ; and therefore, of no then present efficacy. 

After Jesus had come to life again, and ascended to the Father, the blood which was dried up was nowhere to be found here; nor, if to be found, was it then known to what use it was to be applied. It is evident, therefore, that the existence of, or accessibility to the material blood, is not a question needing to be entertained; and that it was not intended to be used ceremonially, as Moses used the blood of his will. Romish priests pretend to manufacture, or rather, incantate wine into material blood of Christ, which like greedy cannibals they permit none to quaff but their impious selves. But the common use of the covenant blood in sprinkling or drinking was never intended. The blood of the covenant, which sanctifies, is no common or unholy thing. It is too precious to be dispensed indiscriminately in any sense; or to be placed at the disposal of ignorant and fleshly-minded priests. Save the drops that bedewed the dust, Christ took with him his blood to heaven; for "with his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us." Standing there before the throne, he appeared as a lamb that had been slain, his wool of snowy white, dyed scarlet with his blood. There is the blood of the covenant; not on earth, but in the holiest of all. The blood of the covenant being in heaven, and we upon the earth, there must be some appointed thing as a medium of access to it. The blood is to justify and sanctify, or to cleanse and make holy those who are sprinkled by it. Such are said to stand in the grace of God, rejoicing in hope, of His glory. If then we ascertain how access is obtained into this grace, we also learn how access is obtained to the blood of the covenant. Paul says, "We have access by faith"; a saying which agrees with that of the prophet, "the just shall live by his faith." "God," says Peter, "put no difference between Jews and Gentiles, purifying their hearts by faith." "I send thee," said the Lord Jesus to Paul, to "open the eyes of the Gentiles to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them who are sanctified by faith which is in me." "A man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law." "There is one God who shall justify the Jews on account of faith, and the Gentiles, through the faith." Such is the testimony of Scripture on this all-important subject, which summarily amounts to this, that the sons of Adam are purified, sanctified, justified or pardoned, and obtain eternal life by faith; or, in other words, as the apostle says to those who have been delivered from their past sins, "in grace ye are, having been saved (sesosmenoi) through the faith: and this not of (or originating from) yourselves (ex hymon); but the gift of God." By faith in the faith the great salvation is obtained, when the better hope which is the subject of it is no longer unseen, but an eternal and accomplished reality. 

To say that a man is purged, purified, or cleansed, is the same as to affirm that he is justified, or constituted righteous, and sanctified or made holy. It is sin that makes unclean-unclean by nature, because born of sinful flesh; and unclean by practice, because transgressors in the sight of God. The cleansing process is, therefore, intellectual, moral, and physical. The work begins by cleansing the intellect, casting out, as it were, all the devils that have established themselves there through the doctrines of fleshly men. This is done by the truth understood and believed, the soil be good, the truth sown in the understanding will take root in the heart, or moral sentiments, and bring forth "fruit unto holiness, the end of which is everlasting life." In this way the whole heart is cleansed by a faith yielding obedience, as the apostle saith, "ye have purified your souls (intellectual and moral faculties) in the obedience of the truth-en tee hypakoee tees aleetheias." The person so cleansed has no more conscience of past sins, but is able to stand in God's presence without shame or fear as Adam was before he fell. This is a spiritual cleansing, but no less real and literal for that. "Ye have purified your souls in the obedience of the truth, through the Spirit-dia Pneumatos." Spirit operating upon soul and spirit. How? By the word of truth evangelised enlightening the mind, and creating a right disposition. It is God's work, not man's; for the apostle saith, "Of his own will the Father of Lights begat us by the word of truth;" "and this," saith another, "is the word which is evangelised unto you." But the cleansing of the soul needs to be followed by the cleansing of the body to make the purification of the man complete. If the spiritual cleansing be well done (and if the word of truth have done it, it will), the corporeal cleansing will be sure to follow. Not, however, as a physical effect of the truth diffusing itself over the body as nervous influence from the brain, and so annihilating evil in the flesh; but a corporeal purification effected by the Spirit at the believer's resurrection, or transformation, as a part of the reward promised to all such who "patiently continue.· in well-doing." A man so cleansed is every whit whole; and qualified to receive and enjoy the hope of the better covenant by the blood of which he had been "purged from his old sins." Justification and sanctification, therefore, are consequent upon cleansing; if a man refuse to be cleansed, or be not cleansed, it is folly for him to talk of being just, or holy, or righteous in the sight of God. He may be what the world calls "good and pious;" he may overflow with the milk of human kindness, be very "wise" and learned, devout of tone, oily in speech, of solemn face, and exuberant in profession of "love" to Christ and all mankind, and may pass before his fellows as a saint too holy for this nether world: but if he have not submitted to the righteousness of God "in the obedience of the truth," he is but a "pious" sinner, uncleansed, and therefore unholy and profane. 

But if it be admitted that access to the blood of the covenant be by faith, the question still returns upon us. By faith of what? What must a man believe that he may be cleansed by the blood of sprinkling? Or to put the same question in another form, what must a man believe with the heart unto righteousness, and what must he confess with his mouth unto salvation? Or to reduce the question to few words, What must a man do to be saved? This question is the most important of any among men. There are few, however, among the living who can answer it aright, the reason of which is not difficult to conceive. The thinking of the flesh (to phronema tees sarkos) educational bias, veneration for mere human authority, love of popularity, lack of independence, fear of persecution and pecuniary loss, a spurious charity, or ignorance, have all more or less to do with the inability of the people's prophets to give the scriptural answer which is the only true response extant, and the only one admissible by the inquirer to this vital and all important question. For ourselves, if we saw in the Book of the Covenant an answer written which reduced the number of the saved out of this generation to a second Noahic family; and were convinced that in stating what we saw and professing to believe it, would leave this paper without a single subscriber, and ourselves homeless and without a friend, we would not withold it, but give it utterance as our means might serve. 

We care not whose "orthodoxy" may be demolished by the word of God. If it convict us of error, we will get quit of the error as soon as possible, and embrace the truth. We have no interests to conserve by garbling or suppressing the testimony of God. Ye who denounce us for heresy, and before God accuse us day and night, show us if you can what the truth is; and if ye be able, prove it from the book of the blood-sprinkled covenant, and we will joyfully receive it, and co-operate with you to the full extent of our ability in making it known to the ends of the earth. But so long as ye assert everything and prove nothing, but by evil deeds and speeches, and by gospel-nullifying tradition contravene what we not only believe, but prove to be the truth, we will give you no rest, but like Samuel of old time, do our best to hew Agag in pieces. 

This question of what a man must do to be saved, is the point of discord in all the world. It was the great subject-matter of dispute between Luther and the Papists; the former maintaining that man was justified by faith alone, the latter, the necessity of meritorious works as well. Though much was said on both sides, neither succeeded in developing the truth. Luther was right in maintaining justification by faith, for an apostle says, "we are justified by faith," and it might be said only through the blood of the covenant. But this is justification from all sins previously to being sprinkled by the covenant-blood. It is the justification of a sinner, or the transformation of him into a saint. Luther rejected the epistle of James because it did not square with his views, and which he found impossible to make agree. That letter teaches that "faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone." This is as true as the saying of Paul, "A man is justified by faith without works of the law'' and between them there is no real contradiction. 

The works James speaks of are those opposed to "the works of the flesh," and termed "the fruit of the Spirit, such as love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, temperance." Now, James teaches that if a justified man's faith (and he cites Abraham as an example) be unaccompanied with such works as these, he is possessed of a dead faith, and has no means of proving that he has faith at all. Paul says, Abraham was justified by faith; James that he was justified by works; both agree, for they speak of Abraham at different epochs of his life. James refers to the time of his offering up Isaac; and Paul to upwards of twenty years before his son was born. He was then justified from all his past sins by faith, or believing on God; he was afterwards, when proved, justified by works, the fruit of faith; by which works, says James, his faith was perfected. "Ye see, then, how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only." The works Paul was opposed to as a ground of justification were the works done in obedience to the law of Moses; but he agreed with James, that where the works of faith were wanting there was spiritual death; and that in such a case, though all past sins had been purged, the man was unfruitful of holiness, and therefore could not inherit the kingdom of God. 

Luther and the Papists did not understand this doctrine; and though three centuries of free discussion have since elapsed, the moderns still need to be instructed in the justification of believers by their faith and works. While they repeat the words of Paul, "we conclude a man is justified by faith," and might perhaps even say, "by faith of the gospel," few, very few of them indeed, can tell us what the gospel is. We have already done this. We are now looking at the same subject from a different point of view in order to make assurance doubly sure. But before we answer the question before us in connection with our present exposition, we would call the reader's attention to a few testimonies concerning the covenant purged by the blood of Jesus, on which our replication will be based. "All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth unto such as keep His covenant and His testimonies. The secret of the Lord is with them that fear Him; and He will shew them His covenant. Redeem Israel, Ο Lord, out of all his troubles" (Psa. 25:10, 14, 22). "Unto the wicked God saith, what hast thou to do to declare my statutes, or that thou shouldest take my covenant in thy mouth? Seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest my words behind thee" (Psa. 50:16). Not regarding God's words, even the words of the covenant, is the criterion of wickedness ...  "My covenant shall stand fast with Him . .. . my covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips" (Psa. 89: 24-29, 34-37). Again, "The Lord will be ever mindful of His covenant . .. . He hath commanded His covenant for ever: holy and reverend is His name" (Psa. 3:6, 9). Concerning Messiah it is written: "I, Yahweh have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light to the Gentiles; to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house" (Isa. 42:6, 7). 

Christ is "a covenant of the people," because the blood with which the covenant is dedicated was His life. As Christ is "our life," so is He the covenant; without Him neither we nor it are anything. The "prison house" is the grave, and the prisoners in darkness the righteous dead; of whom Yahweh says elsewhere to the King who rode into Jerusalem on a colt, the foal of an ass: "As for Thee, by the blood of Thy covenant I send forth Thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water" (Zech. 9:9, 11). These prisoners are the King's dead, called "thy dead*' and "my dead body," by the prophet in the song he inscribes to the Lord for Judah, saying "Thy dead shall live (as) my dead body shall they arise." Then calling to this mystical body of the dead, barred in by the gates of the invisible, he says, "Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust!" and reverting to the Lord, he adds, "Thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead'" (Isa. 26:19). Let us see with what people this covenant so pregnant of wonders is made. "Behold the days come saith Yahweh, that I will make a NEW COVENANT with the House of Israel, and with the House of Judah; not according to the (Mosaic) covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith Yahweh; this shall be the covenant that I will make with the House of Israel. After those days, saith Yahweh, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts, and will be their elohim, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord; for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith Yahweh; for I will forgive them their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more" (Jer. 31:31). 

Now the Gentile philosophists styled by their disciples "Reverend Divines," pretend that this prophecy was fulfilled on the Pentecost of the Ascension! They find it twice quoted in the epistle to the Hebrews (8:8; 10:14-18), and as it speaks of remission of sins, they jump to the conclusion that the covenant was made with Israel and Judah at that time! But they mistake the covenant coming into force on that day, consequent upon its dedication fifty days before, as an available instrument for the imparting of a remission to the heirs of the kingdom and future rulers of the two houses then united into one which they could not obtain from the Mosaic; they mistake this anticipative use of the covenant, for the making of it with the twelve tribes. Paul quotes the prophecy not to show that it was fulfilled but to prove that the Mosaic being imperfect, a new covenant was to supersede it; and secondly, to demonstrate that the new one "perfected for ever them that are sanctified" by the blood of it, so that there was no occasion for a repetition of offerings for sin as under the old. It is strange that men in the face of glaring facts to the contrary can venture to affirm that this prophecy is fulfilled. How could the New Covenant be made with the House of Israel on Pentecost, when instead of being in Palestine, it was beyond Parthia in a scattered condition? There were Israelites there from the Caspian countries; but to admit individuals of a nation to the privileges of a covenant afterwards to be made with a whole body politic, is not making it with that nation. Though many Jews submitted to the faith, and had the laws of God written on their hearts by the Holy Spirit received, the House of Judah positively rejected the covenant, because it was offered to them in the name of Jesus, with whose blood it was testified it had been purged. Then again, the apostolic age was not the time proposed in the prophecy for its national acceptance. "After those days" I will put my laws in them, etc., are the words. After what days? "The days come," says God that I will do so and so. But when will these coming days in which he is doing the things promised be? After "those days" alluded to in the twenty-ninth verse. Let us produce the testimony. "Behold the days come, saith Yahweh, that I will sow the House of Israel and the House of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast. And it shall come to pass that like as I have watched over them to pluck up, and to break down, and to throw down, and to destroy, and to afflict; so will I watch over them to build, and to plant, saith Yahweh. In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten a sour grape, and the children's teeth are set on edge. But every man shall die for his own iniquity." After those days of building and planting, the New Covenant is to be made with the two houses; when, as Ezekiel testifies, "they shall be two kingdoms no more at all," but one united nation under the second David, who shall be their King and Prince for ever. "O," exclaim the wise men in their own conceit, "Jesus  reign over carnal Jews in old Jerusalem! Israel after the flesh are castaways, and are for ever scattered, and broken down to rise no more." Ah! say ye so? Then read this, ye scorners and Christ, the Son of David and Son of God, will never return to this cursed and sin-polluted earth, to blasphemers of the Word. "Thus saith Yahweh, who giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, who divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; the I SHALL BE OF ARMIES is his name; if those ordinances depart from before me, saith Yahweh, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me for ever." The converse of this hypothesis is that as the said ordinances cannot cease, so it is equally impossible for Israel to become nationally extinct. Then follows another hypothesis of a like kind, saying, "Thus saith Yahweh, if heaven above can be measured and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, I will also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done, saith the Lord." But heaven cannot be measured, and earth's foundation cannot be searched out, therefore, it is impossible for Israel to be finally cast off, for whatever they have done. Therefore, "Behold the days come," - the days of the new covenant aforesaid-" saith Yahweh, that the city (Jerusalem) shall be built to the Lord from the tower of Hananeel unto the gate of the corner. And the measuring line shall go forth over against it upon the hill Gareb, and shall compass about to Goath. And the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of the ashes, and all the fields unto the brook Kidron unto the corner of the horse gate toward the east, shall be holy unto the Lord; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more for ever.** 

But, granting that the New Covenant was made with the two houses on the aforesaid Pentecost, we inquire, do those who contend for this mean to say, that Yahweh then put His laws in their Inward parts, and wrote it in their hearts? If they say "Yes," then we demand the proof, for we have neither experience nor testimony of the fact; and can have none, we add, so long as the twelve tribes reject the claims of Jesus. If, on the other hand, they say, "God hath not placed His law there yet," then we object that He has not yet made the covenant with them.  But, not to dwell longer on this triumphant testimony, we pass on to the prophecy of Ezekiel. 

Addressing the house of Israel, he writes, "As  I live, saith the Lord God, surely with a mighty hand, and with a stretched-out arm, and with fury poured out, will I rule over you, and I will bring you out from the people, and will gather you out of the countries wherein ye are scattered, with a mighty hand, and with a stretched-out arm, and with fury poured out. And I will bring you into the wilderness of the people, and there will I plead with you face to face, like as I pleaded with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so will I plead with you, saith the Lord God. And I will cause you to pass under the rod, and / will bring you into the bonds of the Covenant: and I will purge out from among you the rebels, and them that transgress against me: I will bring them forth out of the country where they sojourn, and they shall not enter into the land of Israel: and ye shall know that I am Yahweh " (Ezek. 20:33-38). 

This remarkable prophecy can only refer to the future; unless it can be shown that Since the days of Ezekiel, Yahweh hath assembled the tribes of Israel into a certain wilderness, and dealt with them there in the same manner as He dealt with them on their leaving Egypt under Moses. But this cannot be shown, for there is no history to that effect extant. They have been scattered in the countries since their deportation by Shalmaneser, in the sixth of Hezekiah, King of Judah, B.C. 725 and nine months. T

This is their condition still; and not theirs only, but Judah's likewise. But the prophecy swears by the life of Yahweh, that the Israelites shall not continue always thus; but that the scattering of their power shall have an end (Dan. 12:7), and that when gathered into the people's wilderness, he will there bring them into "the bonds of the Covenant." The margin reads "into a delivering of the Covenant," which Boothroyd renders "the discipline of the Covenant" - bemahsoreth havberith. Masoreth signifies fetters, bonds; from the root Ahsar - to be tied or bound. Boothroyd seems to have derived the word masoreth from mosar, discipline; from the root yehsar chastised, corrected; the margin, however, assigns it to the root mahsar, to deliver from one to another anything in general; hence, to deliver instruction, or to teach. But whatever the derivation of masoreth, its sense in the passage is not materially affected. To be in bonds, "is to be in discipline," and to be in either, is the result of a "delivery into," them. The delivering of the Covenant to Israel must precede their being bound or disciplined by it; and this delivering the prophecy shows is preceded by their being gathered out of the countries into the people's wilderness. When there, the New Covenant will be "enjoined unto" (Heb. 9:20), or "made with" (Ex. 24:8) them, that is, delivered unto them, as the Mosaic was to their fathers of old. The Covenant will not be forced upon them against their will; for it is written, "Thy people, Adon, shall be willing in the day of thy power" (Psa. ex. 3). 

The period we are considering is the day of David's son's power, whom he addresses as Adon, or Lord. They are brought from the countries into the people's wilderness "with a mighty hand and with a stretched-out arm, and with fury poured out" upon the nations who oppress them and refuse to let them go (Mic. 4:3; 5:15; 7:14-17).

This wonderful deliverance from the power of the strong nations which occupy "the great city spiritually called Sodom and EGYPT" (Rev. 11:8) and the congregating of them safely in the people's wilderness, will superinduce a willingness of the part of Israel to enter into, covenant with their Deliverer, the Horn of Salvation raised up for them in the House of David (Luke 1:69).

This glorious victory over Israel's enemies, and all those that hate them, will consummate the second act of the extraordinary tragedy of their engraftment into their own olive again. The first act closes in their being made willing to follow the Leader sent them by Yahweh, through whom He proposes to bring them into the wilderness.

Being in the wilderness, then, rejoicing in Moses and the Lamb, the Lord God propounds for their acceptance the New Covenant dedicated by his own blood over eighteen hundred years before. They will accept it; for the prophecy saith, "I will bring them into the bonds of the covenant," which implies their being in when so brought; and their language on the occasion, after "the representation of the truth in the law," will be, "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient."

They are brought to this confession of willingness to obey as the fruit of faith in "the Everlasting Gospel" preached to them (Rev. 14:6), by which they were first moved to entertain the idea of putting themselves under the command of the Leader sent, who was to bring them into the unseen presence of the Lord God in the people's wilderness.

Thus, believing the gospel of the kingdom then about to be established in the covenanted land, and confessing with their mouth the sovereignty of Jesus as their Lord and Christ, the nation by the act (whatever it may be) of entering the covenant, becomes through faith sprinkled with the blood thereof; for the sprinkling in the Mosaic type follows after the confession (Ex. 24: 3-8).The period we are considering is the day of David's son's power, whom he addresses as Adon, or Lord. They are brought from the countries into the people's wilderness "with a mighty hand and with a stretched-out arm, and with fury poured out" upon the nations who oppress them and refuse to let them go (Mic. 4:3; 5:15; 7:14-17).

This wonderful deliverance from the power of the strong nations which occupy "the great city spiritually called Sodom and EGYPT" (Rev. 11:8) and the congregating of them safely in the people's wilderness, will superinduce a willingness of the part of Israel to enter into, covenant with their Deliverer, the Horn of Salvation raised up for them in the House of David (Luke 1:69).

This glorious victory over Israel's enemies, and all those that hate them, will consummate the second act of the extraordinary tragedy of their engraftment into their own olive again. The first act closes in their being made willing to follow the Leader sent them by Yahweh, through whom He proposes to bring them into the wilderness.

Being in the wilderness, then, rejoicing in Moses and the Lamb, the Lord God propounds for their acceptance the New Covenant dedicated by his own blood over eighteen hundred years before. They will accept it; for the prophecy saith, "I will bring them into the bonds of the covenant," which implies their being in when so brought; and their language on the occasion, after "the representation of the truth in the law," will be, "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient."

They are brought to this confession of willingness to obey as the fruit of faith in "the Everlasting Gospel" preached to them (Rev. 14:6), by which they were first moved to entertain the idea of putting themselves under the command of the Leader sent, who was to bring them into the unseen presence of the Lord God in the people's wilderness.

Thus, believing the gospel of the kingdom then about to be established in the covenanted land, and confessing with their mouth the sovereignty of Jesus as their Lord and Christ, the nation by the act (whatever it may be) of entering the covenant, becomes through faith sprinkled with the blood thereof; for the sprinkling in the Mosaic type follows after the confession (Ex. 24: 3-8).The period we are considering is the day of David's son's power, whom he addresses as Adon, or Lord. They are brought from the countries into the people's wilderness "with a mighty hand and with a stretched-out arm, and with fury poured out" upon the nations who oppress them and refuse to let them go (Mic. 4:3; 5:15; 7:14-17).

This wonderful deliverance from the power of the strong nations which occupy "the great city spiritually called Sodom and EGYPT" (Rev. 11:8) and the congregating of them safely in the people's wilderness, will superinduce a willingness of the part of Israel to enter into, covenant with their Deliverer, the Horn of Salvation raised up for them in the House of David (Luke 1:69).

This glorious victory over Israel's enemies, and all those that hate them, will consummate the second act of the extraordinary tragedy of their engraftment into their own olive again. The first act closes in their being made willing to follow the Leader sent them by Yahweh, through whom He proposes to bring them into the wilderness.

Being in the wilderness, then, rejoicing in Moses and the Lamb, the Lord God propounds for their acceptance the New Covenant dedicated by his own blood over eighteen hundred years before. They will accept it; for the prophecy saith, "I will bring them into the bonds of the covenant," which implies their being in when so brought; and their language on the occasion, after "the representation of the truth in the law," will be, "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient."

They are brought to this confession of willingness to obey as the fruit of faith in "the Everlasting Gospel" preached to them (Rev. 14:6), by which they were first moved to entertain the idea of putting themselves under the command of the Leader sent, who was to bring them into the unseen presence of the Lord God in the people's wilderness.

Thus, believing the gospel of the kingdom then about to be established in the covenanted land, and confessing with their mouth the sovereignty of Jesus as their Lord and Christ, the nation by the act (whatever it may be) of entering the covenant, becomes through faith sprinkled with the blood thereof; for the sprinkling in the Mosaic type follows after the confession (Ex. 24: 3-8).

 believing the gospel of the kingdom then about to be established in the covenanted land, and confessing with their mouth the sovereignty of Jesus as their Lord and Christ, the nation by the act (whatever it may be) of entering the covenant, becomes through faith sprinkled with the blood thereof; for the sprinkling in the Mosaic type follows after the confession (Ex. 24: 3-8).  

Some will rebel and transgress against their deliverer. Their provocations will become unpardonable; for though a promise will have been made to them in the gospel preached, of a national settlement under Messiah in the covenant land, to be no more expelled for ever, their faith will fail; it will not be made perfect by their works, but will have become dead; so that though a reconciliation be effected between Yahweh and the nation at the delivering of the covenant, and its past offences blotted out as a thick cloud, multitudes of Israelites harden their hearts and become rebellious, and fail of justification by works unto a participation in the national redemption and glory. Concerning these rebels it is written, "I will bring them forth out of the country where they sojourn." 

But though brought out thence, one of two things still remains to them, either to die in the wilderness of the peoples or to enter the covenant land; for it by no means follows that, because they have escapefd from "the great city spiritually called Egypt," they will, therefore, enter the Holy Land. What then saith the testimony respecting the final punishment of these transgressors? The; judgment written is, "They shall not enter into the Land of Israel." In answer to Micah's petition that God would "let Israel feed in Bashan and Gilead, as in the days of old,"Yahweh saith to the nation, "According to the days of thy coming out of the land of Egypt will I show unto him marvellous things. The nations shall see and be confounded at all their (Israel's) might; they shall lay their hand upon their mouth; their ears shall be deaf. They shall lick the dust like a serpent, they shall move out of their holes like worms of the earth; they shall be afraid of the Lord, Israel's God, and shall fear because of Thee. Thou wilt perform the truth to Jacob and the mercy (covenanted) to Abraham, which thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old" (Mic. 7:14-20). 

Now the days of coming out of Egypt under Moses were forty years. This is the typical period pointing to the exodus from "the Great City figuratively called Egypt." Israel's passing through the people's wilderness to the Covenant-Land will occupy forty years. During this time the Lord God pleads with them as He did with their fathers in the days of Moses; and with the same result. 

The carcases of the adult generation fall in the wilderness, as it is written, "And they shall not enter into the land of Israel," which is equivalent to "They shall not enter into my rest" (Ps. 95:11) - the Messianic Sabbatism in the holy land. "The bonds" or "discipline of the covenant" purges the rebels out and trains up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord; so that the second generation of the emancipated nation takes possession of the promised land under the new covenant. 

I find in the Mosaic representation of the truth that when Israel arrived in Moab, words were added to what was spoken in Horeb. Moses assembled the second generation there just previous to their invasion of Canaan, and his handing them over to the command of Joshua, another type of Christ. On that occasion he said, "Ye stand this day all of you before the Lord your God; the captains of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, with all the men of Israel, ...that thou shouldest enter into covenant with the Lord thy God, and into his oath, which the Lord thy God maketh with thee this day: that he may establish thee to-day for a people unto himself, and that he may be unto thee a God, as he hath said unto thee, and as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob" (Deut. 29:1, 10-13). 

The covenant with the nation in Horeb was regarded as having been really made with the second generation, not with those who perished in the wilderness. Hence Moses says to the people in the land of Moab, "The Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. Yaweh made not his covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day" (Deut. 5:2, 3). After the same representation, then, we are to understand that when the nation shall hereafter be brought into "the bonds of the covenant," the covenant will be regarded as being made, not with the rebels who transgress, but with those who shall constitute the nation forty years afterwards, and shall actually enter into the land of Israel. 

The terms of the New Covenant show that though made with the nation, it is not made with the generation brought out of "the Great City figuratively called Egypt." The promise is, "I will put my law in their inward parts and write it in their hearts." This is equivalent to giving them "such a heart that they would fear Yahweh, and keep all his commandments always, that it might be well with them and with their children for ever" (Deut. 5:29). Such a heart as this the nation has never had, but has ever been "uncircumcised of heart and ears," as at this day. Moses prophesied, however, that a time would come when they should be brought back from their dispersion, that the Lord would circumcise their heart, and the heart of their seed, to love the Lord with all their heart and with all their soul, that they might live (Deut. 30:6). This promise of heart circumcision belongs especially to the New Covenant, and can only be affirmed in a national sense of the second generation of the coming exodus. 

A circumcised heart, the covenant-token in every man who inherits under Messiah, is a heart that cannot rebel and transgress wilfully against the Lord. It is a heart renewed by the word of covenant-truth, an example of which is presented in Abraham, "the Friend of God." Forty years' discipline will create this heart in the nation, and prepare it for the gift of the Holy Spirit, when "their iniquity will be forgiven, and their sin remembered no more. After that, there will be no more purging out of rebels; for they will all know Yahweh and His King from the least even to the greatest of them, and lovingly obey them. 

The reader will by this time perceive that the making of a New Covenant with the two Houses of Israel is not the work of a day, as if on Pentecost, but of forty years. A nation may be politically born in a day, as Israel from the Red Sea; but they can know very little of human nature who suppose a nation of uncircumcised hearts can be intellectually and morally, that is, spiritually regenerated in so short a time. At the end of forty years, then, the "regeneration" of the nation, spiritually, as well as politically, is complete and the following testimonies find their full accomplishment. "Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me; and the Lord whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple even the MESSENGER OF THE COVENANT, whom ye delight in; behold, He shall come, saith the Lord of hosts. But who may abide the day of his coming? And who shall stand when he appeareth? For He is like a refiner's fire, and like fuller's soap; and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the Lord an offering in righteousness. Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto the Lord, as in the days of old, and as in former years." 

I do not forget what the Lord Jesus said of John the Baptist, and what Mark and Luke say concerning him. Matthew says that John was he of whom Isaiah spoke; and Luke makes the same reference. Mark quotes both Malachi and Isaiah to prove that a messenger and a proclamation were to precede the appearance or manifestation of the Lord; and having said this he proceeds with his history of events. Speaking of John, the Lord says, "This is he of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before they face, who shall prepare thy way before thee." But in Malachi's prophecies above quoted, "a great and terrible day" is spoken of, even in the day of the Lord's coming and appearance as a refiner's fire and fuller's soap. Now before that day, says the prophet, a messenger shall be sent; and at the close of his prophecy tells us his name in these words, "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord; and he shall restore the heart of the fathers to the children, and understood, restore, turn the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse." 

Now the contemporaries of Jesus understood this in its obvious sense, namely, that the identical Elijah who was translated, should return to Palestine on a mission to Israel before their being made to pass through the refining and purifying process on the day of terror. This appears from the question put by the disciples to Jesus after seeing Elijah on the Mount with Moses, "Why then say the scribes that Elijah must first come?" This was a reason urged by the scribes for rejecting Jesus. As if they had said, "This Jesus cannot be the Messenger of the Covenant, for Elijah has not yet made his appearance." The disciples were in a difficulty. They acknowledged Jesus to be Christ, but they had seen him before Elijah, which did not harmonise with Malachi's testimony. Jesus admitted that the scribes were right about the coming of Elijah; for he said, "Elijah truly shall first come and restore all things. This is a truth that must not be lost sight of. Elijah's mission is· to restore all things when he comes. 

What things? Not things pertaining to the Gentiles; for there is nothing Gentile worth restoring. Destruction, not restoration, is to come upon the things of the Gentiles both ecclesiastical and civil. The things to be restored are the things of Moses' law, as far as compatible with faith in the blood of the New Covenant, constituting the amended law. Hence in the verse preceding that about Elijah, the Lord says to Israel, "Remember ye the law of Moses, my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even the statutes and judgments." These are the civil law of the nation, the law of the state, the existence of which is quite compatible with the new covenant to which it will be accommodated in the time of emendation. 

On a former occasion Jesus said to the multitude, "If ye will receive it, John is the Elijah being about to come (Matt. 11:14). I understand Jesus to say in these words that Elijah's coming is still future. He says, too, "John is Elijah"-but in what sense are they identical? Let the angel of Yahweh who appeared to John's father, answer the question-"John shall go before the Lord Israel's God in Elijah's spirit and power, to restore to posterity the father's dispositions, and disobedient ones to just persons' mode of thinking; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord" (Luke 1:17). Then Elijah's spirit and power," like his mantle on Elisha had fallen upon John; and hence the identity, which, however, did not at all affect the proper coming of Elijah at the appointed time. In this sense Jesus said to his disciples, "But I say unto you (though there is truth in what the scribes say) that Elijah once come already, and they did not know him, but have done to him whatever they listed" (Matt. 17:12). John said of himself plainly, "I am not Elijah" (John 1:21). 

The appearances, then, of the Messenger of the Covenant, to the nation are preceded by messengers sent by Yahweh to Israel - messengers, individually two, but officially and spiritually one. The power and spirit of Elijah, viz., one spirit and power through whomsoever manifested, the operation of which in regard to Israel prepares them for the appearance of the Messenger of the Covenant in their midst. This one spirit power is exhibited in the history of Elijah. On comparing it with John's, their identity evidently consisted in both being possessed of the same spirit of prophecy and a like authority within Israel, which appears to have been "the power" referred to by the angel. The word of the Lord came to them both while sojourning by the Jordan, and thence their influence was felt among all ranks and classes of the nation. 

But "John did no miracle" (John 10:41). Elijah performed many of great magnitude: John's identity in power with Elijah was, therefore, not wonder-working. Christ's mission to Israel was covenant-confirming, and individually enlightening and converting (Luke 5:32); not political: his political mission pertains to the future (Jer. 23:5). Yahweh's messengers who precede and introduce his king's appearing, have each a mission corresponding to Christ's. Hence John's mission in Elijah's spirit-power was confirming and personally enlightening and converting; while Elijah's, when he comes in his own proper person to Israel, will be nationally enlightening, converting, and political. The combined result of the Elijah-spirit-power mission, is the spiritual and political restoration of all things before Christ's manifestation to the Twelve Tribes as their king, sitting on David's throne in Zion. The restoration effected by this power through John, was a spiritual restoration affecting the hearts of many (Luke i. 16) of the people, not of all; a restoration of the Abrahamic mind and disposition in his contemporaries. 

Beyond this nothing was restored. But, through "Elijah the prophet," the same spirit-power will "restore all things," and, among these the tribes of Israel, when its mission will be complete. Such appears to me to be the Scripture teaching concerning Elijah. He has a work to perform in the midst of Israel, before they are permitted the honour of a personal interview with their Lord and King in His glory. 

The angel in the bush did not go down into Egypt in person to meet Israel there, and preach to them. On the contrary, he sent Moses to bring them to him in the wilderness, where he would meet them as the representative of the Invisible Majesty. When they arrived in Horeb he met them, but though they had heard his voice, he did not permit them to see his personal glory. 

This was a privilege accorded only to the nation's chief men* not to the tribes at large. Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, were alone permitted to ascend Mount Sinai; but of them only Moses and Joshua were allowed to approach the Lord's glory on the top. The rest were restricted to a lower altitude. After being with them on this part of the mountain for six days, Moses and Joshua left them, and were absent above towards the top during forty days and nights, leaving Aaron and Hur to attend to matters below. 

During the six days they saw above them the glory of the God of Israel. The testimony is, "And they saw the God of Israel; and, under his feet as it were, a paved work of sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven for clearness. But against the nobles of the children of Israel he stretched not forth his hand, though they saw God and they did eat and drink" (Exod. 24:9-11). 

This arrangement was afterwards represented in the Tabernacle -Moses and Joshua admitted to the Most Holy; the elders, &c, to the Holy Place, and the Tribes in Israel's Court below. But what we refer to this scene for is to show that the arrangement of things for forty days in Israel after crossing the Red Sea, is a miniature representation of the ordinal relations which will exist for forty years when the tribes of Jacob shall have been brought into the wilderness of the peoples, under the Leader we have hinted at before. In order to bring the matter out so as to exhibit the ordinal relations then subsisting between Yahweh, the Lord Jesus, Elijah, and the saints, and the twelve tribes in the wilderness of the peoples, we must change our position and survey the subject from a different point of view, "John is Elijah," as "this bread is my body"; that is, he is the type or representative of Elijah in the discharge of the spiritual part of his future mission to Israel; hence, as John made proclamation to Judah, that the messenger of the covenant was then about to appear, so Elijah will make proclamation to all Israel that the same personage is about to manifest Himself to them in great power and glory. In other words, as Moses preached the gospel concerning the covenant-land to be typically and temporally inherited, to Israel in the literal Egypt; so Elijah will proclaim the same gospel to be antitypically and everlastingly realised, and therefore everlasting to the twelve tribes scattered abroad in "the Great City figuratively called Egypt." That there is to be a proclamation of that kind is a point easily proved; and to save words, we affirm, that it is to be made subsequently to the advent of Jesus, the resurrection of the righteous, and the battle of Armageddon, and before the passing of Israel through the refiner's fire in the wilderness of the peoples, which is to them and the nations "the great and terrible day of the Lord." Now for the proof...

In the last chapter of Isaiah it is written, according to Lowth and others, "Behold, the Lord shall come as a fire (to Zion -Isai. 59:20) and his chariots as a whirlwind: to breathe forth his anger in a burning heat, and his rebuke in flames of fire. For by fire and by his sword shall the Lord execute judgment upon all flesh; and the slain by the Lord shall be many. It shall come, that I will gather all the nations and tongues together; and they shall come and see my glory. And I will place a Wonder among them (Israel), and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, Meshech, Tubal, Javan, to the far distant coasts that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall proclaim my glory; among the nations. And they shall bring all your brethren from all nations, for an oblation to Yahweh to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the Lord" (Isa. 66: 15, 16, 18, 19, 20). 

In view of the above testimony, we would ask, where shall the nations be gathered to in the providence of God? Yahweh replies, "I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city shall be taken." And what then? "The Lord shall then go forth and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle" (Zech. 14:2, 3; Joel 3:2, 16, 17). 

How did He fight in the day of battle? Read the History of Joshua, who says, "There was not a city that made peace with the children of Israel, save the Hivites, the inhabitants of Gibeon; all others they took in battle. For it was of the Lord to harden their hearts, that they should come against Israel to battle, that he (the Lord) might destroy them utterly, and that they might have no favour." "The Lord discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah. And as they fled from before Israel, the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them, and they died; there were more that died with the hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword" (Josh. 11:19, 20; 10:10, 11). 

This is the way the Lord fought in the day of battle; and so He declares He will fight again (Ezek. 38:21-23; Zech. 14:14; 10:5, 3), for "Judah shall fight at Jerusalem, because the Lord is with them; and they shall be as his goodly horse in battle." And how will the battle against the gathered armies end? He will leave but the sixth part, for Gog shall fall upon the mountains, and his multitude shall be buried in the valley of Hamon-Gog (Ezek. 39:2, 4, 11). This is the victory of Armageddon. 

Who are those that escape among whom the "Wonder" is placed? The third part of those Jews residing in the land during the war which is consummated by the victory of Armageddon. Of these it is written, "In all the land, saith the Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off, and die; but the third part shall be left therein. And I will bring the third part through the fire, and I will refine them as silver is refined, and I will try them as gold is tried: they shall call on My name, and I will hear them: I will say, it is My people: and they shall say, the Lord is my God" (Zech. 13:8, 9).

Who is the wonder or sign whom Yahweh wil place in the midst of this refined third part? He who in prophecy says, "I was a wonder to many" (Ps. 71:7), and of whom it is testified "His name shall be called Wonderful" (Isa. 9:6). Joshua, the high priest, and his fellows, who were typical of the branch and his associates are styled "men of wonder," or sign (anshai mophaith); and the prophet says, in words applied by Paul to Jesus and his brethren, "Behold, I and the children which God hath given me, are for Signs and Wonders in Israel, from Yahweh hosts, who dwelleth in Mount Zion" (Isa. 8:18). 

The answer then to the question is, that the Lord Jesus is the Wonder, whom Yahweh will place in the midst of the third part; and that He with his refined third and the risen saints, will constitute the little stone-kingdom in Judea, which after a lapse of forty years will by war and conquest have become as a great mountain filling the whole earth. Now, from this third part, become as gold and silver well refined, the Wonderful will choose men whom He will send as messengers to the nations; as it is written, "I will send those that escape of them to the nations." 

Being sent, they are consequently apostles; men, not only sent, but equipped for their work-in the highest sense, ambassadors of Jesus, the King of the Jews, to the nations. These men are not apostolised to take up their residence at the courts of kings like ordinary ambassadors, but, like Moses and Aaron, sent of Yahweh's angel to Israel in Egypt, to proclaim the fame of the King, their Master, and the glory of His name, and to invite the aggregation of His people Israel into the wilderness, that they may be thence presented as an offering to  Yahweh their God. In doing this they will announce the Gospel of the everlasting kingdom of the Lord Jesus, which, as the little stone, will then be in its incipient state. And here I would direct the reader's attention to the symbolisation of these events (Rev. 14:6, 7). In the passage referred to, he will find the symbolography. There this company of messengers, in Greek termed angels, is represented by a single angel or messenger flying in mid-heaven, that is, taking his course between the governments and the peoples. He is sent to "the powers that be;" they are doomed to overthrow without remedy; but "to preach the everlasting Gospel to them that dwell upon the earth" which is apocalyptically opposed to "them that dwell in the heaven." Their proclamation is symbolised by "a loud voice" for, unlike the preaching of the Gospel now, which is "a still small voice" exciting but little attention, it "sounds through every nation, kindred, tongue, and people," becoming the greatest question of the age. 

The nations are informed that the Gospel of the Everlasting Age to come, which, thirty-nine centuries before, had been announced to Abraham, is about to become an accomplished fact-that the hour has arrived to bless all the families of the earth in Abraham and his seed (Gal. 3:8). They are not invited to inherit the kingdom with eternal life and glory - the time of that invitation passed away with the battle of Armageddon - but they are called upon to submit to the Stone Kingdom as the inheritance of its king (Ps. 2:8). 

As it is written, "Fear God, and give glory to Him, for the hour of his judgment comes, and do homage to the Maker of heaven and earth." To accept this invitation would be to renounce all allegiance to the powers that be, which the nations, even if disposed, will not be permitted to do by "the beast and the kings of the earth," who, to maintain their own ascendancy, prepare for war against Israel's king (Rev. 19:19, 21). The proclamation, however, will be believed by the Israelites scattered among the nations. Their king will not permit them to remain there exposed to his judgments upon their oppressors. The proclamation, therefore, has no especial reference to them. "Go," says he "and proclaim these words towards the north (Meshech, Tubal, and Javan), and say, Return thou backsliding Israel, saith the Lord; I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you for I am merciful, saith the Lord, and will not keep anger for ever" (Jer. 3:12-18). 

The result of the proclamation is that "they come together out of the land of the north"; for however unwilling the north will certainly be to give them up, and the south may desire to keep them back (Isa. 43:6, 18-21), they will assuredly be separated from the nations with terrible effect upon them; and marching for forty years through the wilderness of the peoples, "come to the land Yahweh hath given for an inheritance to their fathers" - yea, even "to Zion, with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads" (Isa. 35:10). 

These messengers of the third part, with Elijah the prophet at their head, are not merely preachers of the everlasting gospel: but endued with power to gather Israel together in the face of all the opposition that can be organised by the powers that be to prevent it; as it is written," "They shall bring all your brethren as an offering unto the Lord, out of all nations": not direct from the countries into Palestine, but circuitously "by a way they knew not, and in paths they have not known." (Isa. 42:16). This will have been a stupendous work, but nothing is too hard for the Lord, reigning in Zion. 

The good tidings brought by Him publishing peace and salvation to Israel will have been effectually proclaimed by a powerful, if not a very numerous company of Israelites, and the resistance it will have occasioned on the part of the powers will have caused Him to "make bare His holy arm in the eyes of all the nations," for He comes not with persuading, but "with a strong hand, and His arm shall rule for Him." The exhortation to Israel amongst the nations is, "Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence: touch no polluted thing; go ye out from the midst of her (the great city figuratively called Egypt and Babylon), be ye clean that bring the vessels of the Lord (that is, who lead the Israelites). Verily not in haste shall ye go forth, nor by flight shall ye march along: for Yahweh shall march in your front; and the God of Israel shall bring up the rear" (Isa. 40:10; 52:7, 12). 

In this particular, the exodus will be unlike that under Moses, for then they fled from Egypt, but in the time to come, they have to give battle to their oppressors, and by victory after victory, to retire valiantly (Numbers 24:18) to the wilderness, where Elijah, in restoring all things, as a second Moses, will prepare them to enter the land of Israel under the Lord Jesus, the Captain of Yahweh's host (Josh. 5:13-15), who, as another Joshua, will give the nation everlasting rest. 

This proclamation by some of the refined third part is subsequently to the resurrection of the righteous, and previously to the fall of Babylon, the great city; for John saw the lamb surrounded by 144,000 before he saw the angelic preacher, who is "followed by another angel," proclaiming Babylon's fall. The resurrected, I apprehend, are not comprehended in the preaching symbol, because that is called "another angel flying through mid-heaven." The 144,000 occupy the "heaven," "before the throne," and "follow the Lamb," or Israel's king, "withersoever he goes." This is a more exalted sphere of operation, than that occupied by the agents of the third part. The transformed and risen saints, with the Lord at their head, will be ready "to execute the judgment written" when the proclamation shall have produced its intended effect. Hence they appear in another scene at the strateumata, or staff and bodyguard of the Great Captain, ready with him to judge and make war on "the powers that be" in righteousness and truth (Rev. 19:11), for it is their mission at the head of the armies of Israel, "to execute vengeance upon the nations, and punishments upon the peoples; to bind their kings* with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron; to execute upon them the judgment written; this honour have all God's saints" (Ps. 149:7-9). 

It would seem from the Mosaic type, that the eyes of the nations, and of all Israel, save the third part, will be holden; so that while the nations feel the vengeance of the Lamb and his companions, who co-operate with Israel as did the captains of the Lord's host in the days of Joshua, they see only the hosts of Israel with whom they fight. For an illustration of this arrangement of things read the account of Elisha in Dothan, against which a mighty host of Syrians assembled for the capture of one man (2 Kings 6:8-17). This invisible co-operation is necessary; first, that the governments and their armies may be led on to their destruction; and secondly, that scope may be afforded to Israel for faith; for the grafting of them "into their own olive tree" is to be effected by God "If they abide not still in unbelief." 

"And so all Israel shall be saved "from all their enemies, and those that hate them; as it is written, "There shall come out of Zion, the Deliverer, who shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: for this is my covenant unto them when I shall take away their sins" (Romans 11:23-27). 

We cannot here forbear the expression of our astonishment at the ignorance and presumption of pious Gentiles who undertake to convert the Jews to the faith of Jesus. God only can accomplish it after the manner we are expounding. Gentile machinery may convert Jews into Gentiles; but it can never turn the seed of Abraham after the flesh into the seed of Abraham after the spirit. They may persuade a few Jews to forsake the little of Moses they still adhere to, and to confess that Jesus is Christ and join a church; but to "turn away ungodliness from Jacob" is a work beyond their knowledge and ability. It is an honour reserved for the Deliverer, who, when he returns, to Zion, will execute his mission as becomes a God. 

As the result of the proclamation and its immediate consequents, the Elijah-work of restoring all things will have progressed so far as to restore liberty to the tribes, and the introduction of them to the wilderness of the peoples. The work, however, as we have seen, will not then, as yet, be complete. Elijah has to give them a national organisation there as Moses did when their ancestors arrived at Sinai. This organisation will doubtless be adapted to their forty years sojourn in the people's wilderness, where, as the House of Israel, they will be preparing for an everlasting union with the House of Judah, already as the little Stone Kingdom, strengthening and enlarging itself under Messiah in the Holy Land. 

Here, then, we have the ordinal relation of things brought out to view. In the days of Moses, the Holy and Most Holy Places were perpendicularly presented on the mountain side, but in the days of Elijah's future mission they will exchange the perpendicular for a horizontal extension. The Most Holy, instead of being on the top of Mount Sinai, will be in Zion, of which it is written, "O, thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colours, and thy foundations with sapphires. And I will make thy battlements of rubies and thy gates of carbuncles, and the whole circuit of thy walls shall be of precious stones. And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord, and great shall be their prosperity" (Isaiah 54:11-13). 

In Zion, thus beautified, and possessed of the Nazarites, purer than snow, whiter than milk, ruddier than rubies, and of sapphire polishing (Lam. 4:7), exist the Four Cherubim, representative of the 144,000 anti-typical Nazarites, and the intensely dazzling, crystal-like expanse above them, supporting the sapphire throne, on which sits the Son of Man, the bearer of Yahweh's glory (Ezek. 1:22-28; Zech. 6:13). This glory is Zion's city when the Lord is there (Ezek. 48:35) reigning before his ancients gloriously (Isa. 24:23). It may be remarked here that the sapphire is the most precious stone next to the diamond. It is a fine azure, or like the purest blue of heaven. When highly polished, and reflecting the sun's dazzling light, it looks very brilliant. As in this state, it is used in Scripture to illustrate the glory of the saints who, under the law, were represented by the Nazarites. "He shall be called a Nazarene," whose body is as "bright ivory, overlaid with sapphires" (Cant. 5:14). To say of the Nazarites, "a sapphire their polish," sapphir gizrahshahm, signifies the same thing as to say of "the wise" they shall "shine as the brightness of the firmament" (Dan. 12:3), which is solar light richly blended with the azure of the sky. 

These things, as they will then exist in Zion, the Most Holy, when "the judgment is set, and the books are opened," were seen in vision by the prophet, who thus describes them: "I saw, behold, while thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head as the pure wool; his throne as the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A stream of fire flowed and came forth from his presence; a thousand of thousands attended him, and ten thousand ten thousands rose up before Him: the judgment did sit, and the books were opened" (Dan. 7:10). 

This represents that from the presence of the Glory-Bearer in Zion, judgment was proceeding against his adversaries, among whom is the beast spoken of by John (Rev. 19:19), which is utterly destroyed. This judgment period and the forty years in the people's wilderness are coeval, a time during which "everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power," goes forth against "them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ," a time "when he shall be glorified in his saints, and admired by all who believe" (2 Thess. 1:7-10). 

But the tribes in the wilderness are not permitted to see this glory of the Most Holy, though they are cognisant of what proceeds from its presence, as their ancestors were. Between it and them is the breadth of the Holy Place, or land, towards which they then look, as the heaven of the covenant with whose blood they have been sprinkled. While they are in the wilderness they are in the court without, the way into the Holy Place not being laid open to them till the end of the forty years. 

But with Judah, the third part, refined in the fire it is not so. "He rules with God - od rahd im-Ail; and with the holy ones is true" (Hos. 11:12). God having saved Judah's tents before Ephraim's (Zech. 12:7), his King possesses Judah, his portion in the Holy Land (Zech. 2:12), while Ephraim, under Elijah, is passing under the rod. This relation of Judah, the little stone-kingdom, in Judea, to the Ten Tribes in the Wilderness, is as the Holy Place to the Court of Israel, the Court of the Gentiles beyond, not being then, as yet, measured (Rev. 11:2), seeing that the war against them is in progress still. 

These ordinal relations may become more obvious to the reader as exhibited in the following series: l:- MOST HOLY PLACE The Holy oblation south of the canton of Judah, and north of Benjamin, 25,000 cubits square (Ezek. 48:8-22) about 7 miles, "the place of my throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the Children of Israel for ever, saith Yahweh' (Ezek. 43:7).  ZION In this city where David dwelt, the King of Israel, bearing the glory of Yahweh, occupies the sapphire-throne, angels ascending and descending upon him from the Majesty in the heavens. The Holy ones or saints, whose symbolical number is 144,000, and their representative measurement 144 cubits, belong to the Holy oblation, as joint heirs in the throne.

 II.-HOLY PLACE All the Covenanted Land not included in the Holy Oblation and the Prince's portion. THE STONE KINGDOM Consisting of Judah, the Third Part, cut out of the Mountains, organised and refined. David's original kingdom before the submission of the Ten Tribes, when his throne was in Hebron. 

III.-COURT OF ISRAEL The House of Israel, or Ten Tribes called Ephraim, in the people's wilderness, where, like a heifer, he is being broken to the yoke by Elijah the Prophet and his companions of the Third Part, the representatives of Israel's king in restoring all things preparatory to their entering into the land promised to their fathers. 

IV.-COURT OF THE GENTILES The nations under the Beast and False Prophet, and the Kings of the earth, etc., subject to terrible and devastating wars by the sword of Judah and Israel, the Lord's weapon of war (Jer. 51:19, 20; Isaiah 41 :H, 16), which continue until their kingdoms become Yahweh's and his Christ's (Rev. 11:15). 

V.-THE GREAT MOUNTAIN Peace between Israel and the nations for a thousand years. The Stone-Kingdom, by the reunion of the Twelve Tribes for the first time since the rebellion of the Ten against the house of David under Jeroboam being a period of some 2,894 years, becomes the great mountain "filling the whole land," and as the everlasting kingdom of Jesus, ruling over the earth (Dan. 2:35; Ps. 103; 19). "The middle wall of partition" between Israel and the Gentiles is "broken down" nationally, as it was spiritually, when Jews and Gentiles became one in Christ as heirs of the kingdom to be established. Henceforth, one court in the Temple of the Branch's building (Zech. 6:12), serves as the arena of prayer for Israel, and the worshippers who come up to Jerusalem to do homage to Yahweh and his king out of all nations. "Rejoice! Ο ye nations, with his people," for there is peace over the earth, and goodwill among men. 

At the end of forty years' sojourn in the people's wilderness, Elijah conducts the tribes to the borders of the land. I say Elijah does it; because Jesus says, "Elijah truly shall first come, and restore all things" This is not to be lost sight of in the interpretation. He will figure very conspicuously in "the restitution of all the things of which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets." 

Moses, Elijah, and Jesus are the three whose work consummates the purposes of Yahweh, which ultimate in blessing all nations in Abraham and his seed. It would seem that the tribes march from the south, towards the Red Sea, and from the west, north, and east, to the Euphrates flood; from which two points they form a junction in the intermediate wilderness. They are to be gathered from Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, and the regions of the Western Sea (Isa. 11:11). These lie at all points of the compass with respect to Palestine. Having to congregate from such opposite directions, they will, no doubt, move towards the wilderness in armies, fighting their way through the countries, and coalescing as occasion may serve, until they arrive at their destination. 

My reasons for concluding that they will approach the wilderness from the Red Sea and flood of the Euphrates, are first, because it is written, "Yahweh shall make a gathering of his fruit from the flood of the river (shibboleth han-nahhar) to the stream of Egypt; and ye shall be gleaned up one by one, Ο ye sons of Israel. And it shall come to pass in that day the Great Trumpet (the proclamation spoken of before) shall be blown, and those shall come who were perishing in the land of Assyria, and who were dispersed in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the Lord on the Holy Mount at Jerusalem" (Isa. 27:12-13). 

Here are a gathering and a gleaning, so that no stragglers may be left behind. Now, between these two extremities, there is to be a highway from Assyria, beyond the Euphrates, styled "the river," into Egypt, beyond the Red Sea, even to the Nile; and the proof of this contains my second reason. The passage is very variously rendered by Lowth, Boothroyd, and the common version. It is necessary where the doctors differ for disciples to try and help themselves. The English Bible would lead one to infer that the Red Sea and seven-mouthed Nile were to be divided, while Lowth and Boothroyd would intimate that neither were; but looking into the text carefully, I'm satisfied that both are to be affected, as described in the following literal rendering:- "And Yahweh shall dry them up-the tongue of the sea of Egypt: and He shall shake to and fro His hand over the river by violence of His wind, and He shall cause to smite it in seven streams and make to pass through in shoes." 

From this and the former text, I understand that the flood of the Euphrates, that is, below where the Tigris falls into it, will be made fordable, and the Gulf of Suez entirely destroyed, so as to facilitate the passage of Israel from Pathios, Cush, and Egypt, into the wilderness, to meet their brethren from "beyond the flood." This accords with what follows: "And there shall be a highway for the remnant of Yahweh's people, who shall be left from Assyria; like as it was to Israel, in the day that He came up out of the land of Egypt" (Isa. 11:16). And again, it is written in reference to this way, when the great work is complete: "In that day there shall be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria; and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria; and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria, the work of my hand, and Israel my inheritance" (Isa. 19:23-25). 

The condition of the tribes in the people's wilderness, seems to be alluded to in the following testimonies: "The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose. It shall blossom abundantly, and exult even with joy and singing. The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it; the beauty of Carmel and of Sharon; they shall see the glory of Yahweh, and behold the majesty of our God. Strengthen the feeble hands, and confirm the trembling knees. Say ye to the faint-hearted, 'Be ye strong; but not afraid; behold your God;' vengeance will come; the Retribution of God. He Himself will come and save you. Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped; then shall the lame bound like the hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing; for in the desert shall waters burst forth, and streams shall flow in the wilderness; and the glowing sand shall become a pool, and the thirsty soil springs of water; in the haunts of serpents shall spring up grass, with the reed and the bulrush. And a highway shall be there, and it shall be called the way of holiness. No unclean person shall pass through it; but God shall be with them, walking in the way, and the foolish shall not err therein. No lion shall be there, nor shall any ravenous beast come up thither; neither shall one such be found there; but the redeemed shall walk therein. Yea, the ransomed of Yahweh shall return; they shall come to Zion with triumph, perpetual joy shall crown their heads. Joy and gladness shall they obtain, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away" (Isa. 35). 

Again, "the poor and needy seek for water; but find none; their tongue is parched with thirst: I, Yahweh, will attend to them; I, the God of Israel, will not forsake them. I will open in the high places rivers, and in the midst of the valleys fountains; I will make the desert a waterpool, and the dry land springs of water. In the wilderness I will make the cedar to grow, the acacia, the myrtle, and the wild olive; I will plant in the desert the fir tree and the pine and the box together; that they may see and may know, and consider, and understand at once that the hand of the Lord hath done this. And the Holy One of Israel hath created it" (Isa. 41:17-20) "Yahweh shall go forth as a mighty man; like a warrior shall he stir up his zeal; he shall cry aloud, yea, he shall shout; he shall exert his strength against his foes. I have a long time holden my peace; I have been still, and refrained myself. I will now cry like a woman in travail, I will breathe short, and draw in my breath at once. I will lay waste the mountains and the hills, and burn up all the grass upon them; I will also make the rivers dry deserts, and I will dry up the water pools. I will bring the blind by a way they knew not, and in the paths they knew not will I lead them; I will make darkness light before them, and the rugged ways shall be a smooth plain. These things will I do for them (Israel) and not forsake them" (Isa. 42:13-16). 

Referring to the overthrow of Pharoah's host in the Red Sea as compared with what is yet to happen in Israel's history, Yahweh says, "Remember no more the former things, and things of ancient times regard not. Behold, I am about to do a new thing; now it 35 shall spring forth, will ye not regard it? Yea, Ϊ will make in the wil derness a way; in the desert send forth streams of water. The wild beasts of the field shall glorify me, the dragons and daughters of the ostrich; because I have given waters in the desert, and streams of water in the wilderness, to give drink to my people, my chosen. This people have I formed for myself; they shall show forth my praise" (Isa. 43:18-21). 

While the ten tribes were living in their land, Yahweh gave them the name of LO-RUHAMAH, or no mercy, and gave a reason, "I will not have mercy on the house of Israel; but will utterly take them away." After that, he gave them another name, as LO-AMMI, or not my people; importing their rejection during their dispersion among the nations; and, in giving the reason for thus naming them, follows it up with a promise of their restora tion to His favour. Thus it is written, "Call his name Lo-Ammi: for ye are not my people, and I will not be your God. Yet the number of children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured nor numbered; and it shall come to pass that in the place, where it was said to them (so said to some of them by God while in the land), Ye are not my people, there it shall be said unto them, Ye are the sons of the living God. Then shall the children of Judah and the children of Israel be gathered to gether, and shall appoint to themselves One Head, and they shall come up out of the country; for great shall be the day of Jezreel." 

In the next chapter of the same book, the House of Israel is spoken of as the harlot mother of Ruhamah, sentenced, and punished. Though she went after other lovers, and forgot Yahweh, he says concerning her, "Notwithstanding this, I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably unto her. And from thence will I give to her her vineyards, and the Valley of Achor for a door of hope; and she shall sing there as in the days of her youth, and as in the day when she came up from the land of Egypt. And it shall be in that day, saith Yahweh that thou (House of Israel) shalt call me Ishi (my husband), and shalt call me no more Baali (my Lord) ... . And in that day will I make for them a covenant with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of the air, and with the reptiles of the ground; and the bow, and the sword, and war, will I destroy out of the land; and I will make them to lie down safely, and I will betroth thee, Ο Israel, unto me for ever" (Hos. 1:6, 9, 111; 2:14-19). 

This last is a highly important testimony. It shows that the tribes will be allured into the wilderness of the peoples, doubtless by the inducements set before them in the proclamation sounded forth when the great trumpet is blown. It shows, too, that Israel will return to their vineyards from the wilderness, and not direct from the country of the enemy without passing through it. And thirdly, it tells us that they will re-enter the land of Israel west of the Jordan, at the same point their ancestors did under Joshua, that is, north of Jericho, not far from Gilgal. 

The recovery of the Valley of Achor becomes to them the earnest of inheriting the whole land, the object of their hope. Hence it is styled, "A door of hope," as well as on account of its being the place through which they enter the land. It is unnecessary for us now to trace their progress further. After arriving at the door under Elijah's administration, we may be sure they will not be denied admission to the presence of Judah's King. It will be a day of happy reunion for all the tribes. For they will sing in the valley of Achor as in the days of their nation's youth. Judah and Ephraim will be reconciled; for "the jealousy of Ephraim shall cease, and the enmity of Judah shall be no more; Ephraim shall not envy Judah and Judah shall not be at enmity with Ephraim" (Isa. 11:13). The land bequeathed to Abraham, to their king, to his nobles, and to themselves, in the covenant confirmed of Yahweh, and purged by the blood of his Son, will be fully possessed by their distribution over its valleys, plains, and mountains, when they shall have passed from Achor's delightful and joyous vale. Being settled in it "after their old estates" (Ezek. 36:11), with the assurance of possession and peace for ever, the things of the covenant, no more a matter of hopeful faith, will be the realities of daily life. Though not yet relieved from the necessity of paying nature's debt, yet as the days of a tree shall their duration be (Isa. 65:22); and though a full end shall be made of all other nations (Jer. 30:11), theirs shall be deathless as their king, and eternal as the years of God They will be all righteous (Isa. 60:21), and therefore, by eminence, the righteous nation; as it is written, "Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation which keepeth the truth may enter in" (Isa. 26:2); "and for ever shall they inherit the land for they are the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I may be glorified. A little one shall become a thousand; and a small one a strong nation: I, Yahweh, will hasten it in its time" (Isa. 60:21-22). 

For a thousand years its [the holy land] prosperity will know no interruption; but when these shall have elapsed, the nations outlying the borders of their glorious land, deceived by Satanic lust of rule, will seek the dethronement of their king. The effort will be brief and unavailing. As a summer's cloud, or the morning dew, shall they vanish, and be no more. Yahweh's thunderbolts,  the artillery of their immortal Prince, will crush the rebels, and stretch out their serpent coils motionless, powerless, lifeless in the dust for ever. the artillery of their immortal Prince, will crush the rebels, and stretch out their serpent coils motionless, powerless, lifeless in the dust for ever. 

"Every curse shall cease;" and "death shall be no more." All that survive the crisis are merged into the Israel of God, which, not only nationally immortal and individually righteous, attains to deathlessness from the greatest to the least, and not only inherits the land, but the renovated earth for ever. 

What more can the redeemed of Adam's race require? What hope for man more glorious or better suited to his necessities than this? It is Israel's hope covenanted to the fathers, confirmed of God, and consummated by their seed for ever. The following testimonies find their fulfilment subsequently to the arrival of the tribes in the valley of Achor, the door of hope. "I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David (David the Second, or David's Son). He shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd. And I, Yahweh, will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them. I, Yahweh, have spoken it. And I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil beasts to cease out of the land: and they shall dwell safely in the desert, and sleep in the woods. And I will make them, and the places round about my Hill (Zion), a blessing; and I will cause the shower to come down in its season; there shall be showers of blessing. And the trees of the field shall yield their fruit and the earth shall yield her increase; and they shall be secure in their land, and shall know that I am Yahweh, when I have broken the bands of their yoke and delivered them out of the hands of those that exacted service of them. 

And they shall be no more a prey to the nations, neither shall the beast of the land devour them, but they shall dwell securely, and none shall make them afraid. And I will raise up for them a Plant of Renown (Messiah), and they shall no more be consumed by famine in the land, neither bear the reproach of the nations any more. Then shall they know, that I, Yahweh, their God, am with them, and that they even the House of Israel, are my people, saith the Lord Yahweh" (Ezek. 34:23-30). 

Again, "I will take you from among the nations, and gather you out of all countries; and I will bring you into your own land (all except the rebels who are purged out). Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you (this is the covenant-sprinkling), and ye shall be cleansed from all your defilements; and from all your idols will I cleanse you." 

This is "forgiving their iniquity and remembering their sins no more," according to the promise of the New Covenant. "A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the heart of stone from your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh. And my spirit will I put within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them." 

This is the putting of God's "law in their inward parts, and writing it in their hearts." It is then added, "And ye shall dwell in the land which I gave to your fathers, and ye shall be my people, and I will be your God. I will also save you from all your defilements: and I will call for the corn and I will increase it, and will send no famine upon you. And I will multiply the fruit of the tree, and the increase of the field, that ye shall receive no more the reproach of famine among the nations." Then shall it be said, "This land that was desolate is become as the garden of Eden." That is, it has become Paradise. 

"And the cities that were waste and desolate, and ruined, are become fenced, and are inhabited. Then the nations, that are left round about you shall know that I, Yahweh, have built the ruined places, and planted the land which was desolate. I, Yahweh, have spoken it, and will do it" (Ezek. 36:24-30, 35-36). 

This great national deliverance is consequent upon their political resurrection and enlargement from the countries where they are now .........

*[this book was written before Zionism existed and long before the regathering of a portion of the Jews to their homeland. The accuracy of Brother Thoma's exposition of Bible prophecy in Elpis Israel and other writings was fully vindicated some 70 years later when the Jews under the British colonial power (Tarshish and the young lions) were guaranteed nationhood in the Holy Land, 'a partial and primary restoration' 'under the British protectorate' - exactly as Brother Thomas had deduced from his lifeling dedicated study of the holy scriptures]. 

.........were entombed, devoid to a great extent of the rights both of men and citizens. But they will soon rise from political death, and afterwards enter their land in triumph. When there, under the government of the Immortals and their chief, their condition will exactly answer to the following testimonies: "Behold, I will take the Israelites from among the nations whither they are gone, and will gather them from every side, and bring them into their own land . . . And I will make with them a covenant of peace; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary (or Temple) in the midst of them for evermore. My Tabernacle (or dwelling-place) also shall be with them; yea, I will be their God and they shall be my people. And the nations shall know, that I, Yahweh, sanctify Israel when my sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for evermore" (Ezek. 37:21, 26-28). "When I bring them back again from the peoples, and gather them from the lands of their enemies, and am sanctified in them in the sight of many nations, then shall they know that I am Yahweh their God, who caused them to be led into captivity among the nations: and have gathered them into their own land. And none of them will I leave there any more, neither hide my face any more from them, when I have poured my spirit upon the House of Israel, saith the Lord Yahweh" (Ezek. 39:27-29). 

From the 17th verse of the 65th of Isaiah to the end is also applicable to the same time. The reader can refer to it for himself. I will only add here under this head, that this great national redemption of Israel is regarded by Yahweh as a work of greater magnitude and renown than their exodus from Egypt by the hand of Moses. For, "Behold the days come, saith Yahweh, that I will raise up to David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and execute judgment and justice in the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is His name whereby he shall be called, Yahweh OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS." Yahweh-tzidkainu, which is represented by Jesous, the Greek transfer of Yeho-shua, contracted Yeshua (in English Yahweh the powerful). 

"Therefore (because of this King reigning), lo! the days come saith Yahweh, that they shall no more say, As Yahweh liveth, who brought up the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt; but they shall say, As Yahweh liveth, who brought up and led the seed of the House of Israel from the north country, and from all the countries whither He had driven them; and they shall again dwell in their own land" (Jer. 23:5-8). 

Great indeed will be the renown of Yahweh, and not less the joy of His People, when the work is done. For, "with joy shall ye draw water from the wells of salvation, and shall say, Give thanks to Yahweh ; call on His name; make known among the people His doings; record ye how high His name is exalted; sing to Yahweh, for He hath done excellent things; this is made manifest in all the earth. Cry out and shout, Ο inhabitants of Zion; for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee" (Isaiah 12:3-6). 

Such are in brief some of the things of the new covenant dedicated by the blood of Abraham's seed, to whom, with Himself, they were made sure (Gal. 3:16). After reading and reflecting upon the testimonies adduced, they must have made some distinct impression upon the reader's mind. We would, therefore, ask him: Have they taught you that the covenant land is beyond the skies? Have they taught you that the Israel who is to inhabit it for ever are the ghosts of the pious? Have they convinced you that the everlasting kingdom of Jesus Christ exists already somewhere in the sidereal regions? Have they proved to you that the throne of David is at the right hand of the Celestial Majesty above? Have they taught you that (as some allege) "the hope of Israel is all humbug, a mere hallucination," and that a "Christian has no interest in it?" Have they proved that Israel is a castaway, and that the 

restoration of the Jews 

is a delusion, or at best a matter of doubtful disputation? Have they shown you that salvation is of the Gentiles? Have they demonstrated the absurdity of a divine kingdom being established in Palestine under Jesus and the saints? Have they proved the perpetuity of the powers that be? Have they revealed the supersedence of these powers by republican institutions? Do they exalt "the majesty of the people?" Do they preach a spiritual millenium peaceably introduced? Do they teach the burning up of the earth, "a wreck of matter and crash of worlds?" In short, have they taught you these notions, or any of the idols preached by the philosophists of the Gentile superstitions? Triumphantly the reverse! These noted testimonies have reduced to foolishness the wisdom of the wise; and convicted them of the grossest ignorance and unbelief. If the testimony, grammatically and reasonably interpreted, be admitted, no man can be regarded as of sound mind, who at the same time professes to believe that the pulpit gospels are the truth of God. It is perfect imbecility to maintain seriously any such proposition. If pulpit theology and college divinity, which are indeed the same, be endorsed as true, the testimonies adduced must be rejected as false, for there is, and can be, no harmony between them. 

The theologies of "Christendom" are no part of the things of the covenant; they are, consequently, unpurged by the covenant-blood; and, therefore, the belief of them can give no one an interest in the blood of sprinkling which speaks of better things of the testimony adduced. This remark contains our negative reply to the question, "What must we do to be saved?" You must purge yourselves of these human dogmas so subversive of the truth of God; for they cannot only not save you, but they corrupt the word, and cause it to throw off an ill and pestilential effluvium, which works death in those that breathe it. If you would be sprinkled by the covenant-blood you must believe the things of the covenant, for the belief of no other things can do it. It is only those who keep Yahweh's covenant and his testimonies, to whom "he will show his covenant;" for it is only with such that "the Lord's secret" dwells. 

This testimony is what we have been looking into and which we have found speaking things utterly subversive of all the systems extant. What absurd nonsense are the religions and preachings of Gentile Christendom when tested by the word of the living God! It is really astonishing that, with the Bible in everybody's hand, such utter foolishness can pass current for aught else than a fiction not very ingeniously devised. A few isolated truths are blended with the corrupt mass which serve to give it currency with the piously disposed. 

That Jesus is the Son of God, that he died for sins, was' buried, and rose again, and is ascended into heaven, are truths adopted as a creed of Papist, Protestant, and Mormon; but they are embedded in such a mountain of rubbish, that as matters of faith they are perfectly void and ineffectual. Almost universally they who profess to believe them are ignorant, and consequently faithless of the things of the covenant; and for the most part, too wise in their own conceit to be enlightened. 

Men in these days have "made void the word of God by their traditions," as completely as "the learned," who darkened counsel by words without knowledge in the time of Jesus. Ours is a generation whose Creed is a dogma, or a history, but without faith in the covenanted promises of God. 

Reader! If thou would'st inherit the Kingdom, you must cleanse your inward parts of pulpit theosophisms by receiving into your heart the rich testimonies and soul-converting and perfect law of Yahweh. The woman's seed are "they who keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ." 

They who affirm that Jesus will not return to Mount Olivet to restore the Kingdom again to Israel and to re-establish David's throne in Zion, and himself to sit upon it there, have not the testimony of Jesus Christ. They who teach that Israel will inherit the covenant - land no more make God a liar; for He hath sworn by his own life that they shall. 

Now we would ask of what value are the "piety," faith, religions, and teachings which hold not the testimony of Jesus, and resolve God's "precious promises" into falsehood. They are· worse than useless, they are God-dishonouring and insulting. But one may say, is it to be supposed that the great, the wise, the pious of our age, who are esteemed orthodox, are all mistaken? We reply, no; such a thing is by no means to be supposed. The case is beyond supposition; it is a demonstrable certainty.

A thing cannot be at once both true and false. If it be true, that which is contrary to it, is not hypothetically, but positively not true; in other words, it is false. This principle is itself eternal truth. It is absurd to say that black is not white; yet black and white are, or may be, the same colour; it is equally absurd to say, the testimonies we had adduced are unquestionably true, yet "orthodoxy," which teaches the direct opposite on every point, is, or may be, true also. This is impossible. 

If it be admitted that the testimonies are true, that admission is equivalent to declaring that the theosophisms of the schools-the opinions of the sects, from Rome, the mother of all sects, down to Campbellism, Millerism, and Mormonism, the latest editions of error, are all mere fallacies of the carnal mind; but admit that these are the truth, one or all, and you reduce the testimony to a nullity, and give the lie to God. For example, Campbellism teaches that the throne of David exists where Jesus now dwells, and will never exist anywhere else. Yahweh says, "I have chosen Zion for my habitation, and there will I make the Horn of David to bud" (Ps. 132), I set my King on my Holy Hill of Zion; and there shall he reign in the midst of his enemies.'* "He shall come to Zion; and build her up, when he shall appear in his glory" (Ps. 2; 110; Isaiah 59:20; Ps. 102:16). "She shall be redeemed with judgment (Isaiah 1:27) though a wilderness, and ploughed as a field" (Isa. 64:10; Jer. 26:18) These testimonies show that the Horn of David who is Yahweh's king, shall reign in that Zion which for ages past has been in the hands of His enemies. This is God's truth; but the Campbellite dogma, which is the popular notion, denies it all; and in so doing, reduces the gospel to a nullity; for if there be hereafter no throne of David in the City of David where he once dwelt, there will be no kingdom in the covenant - land, and that land will never be possessed by Abraham and his seed, who is Christ. 

Now, as the kingdom to be established there is the Gospel Kingdom, that theory which denies the return of Jesus to earth to set up David's throne in Zion, that he may reign upon it over Israel and the nations for ever, is an infidel theory which denies the truth of the Gospel exhibited in the prophetic Scriptures. What avails it that its supporters admit that Jesus is God's Son and David's Son, while they resolve both God and His prophets into liars by denying the things which they have declared Christ shall inherit: and the belief of which things God has made the condition of acceptance with him? 

Piety and zeal can save no man while he denies nearly all the truth, except a few facts admitted to be real by even the worst of men. An immersed believer of facts who denies the second appearing of Jesus, and his reign in Zion on David's throne, is but a religious infidel and enemy of "the Gospel of the Kingdom" in disguise. 

Again, there is Millerism, another example of infidelity in the gauze drapery of popular sanctity. This theory contemptuously avers that the twelve tribes of Israel are cast away, that they neither are, nor ever will be, the people of God; and that there are no prophecies to be fulfilled with respect to them, save of their destruction with the rest of the wicked in the burning of the world; and, consequently, that their restoration to Palestine is a mere conceit of a Judaized and carnal mind. This is but another form of Campbellized infidelity. 

But what saith Yahweh to this? Let the reader consider the testimonies already adduced and then reply. Hear the Word of the Lord! "Thou, Israel, art my servant, Jacob, whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend. Thou whom I have taken from the ends of the earth, thou art my servant; I have chosen thee and not cast thee away" (Isai 41:8, 9). "In the place where it was said to them, ye are not my people, there it shall be said to them, ye are the sons of the living God." "God hath not cast away his people whom he knew before" (Rom. 11:2). "Blindness in part (only) hath happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be brought in; and so all Israel shall be saved" (Rom. 11:25-26). 

Now, here are diametrical opposite statements, Millerism affirming one thing, and God and His prophets the contrary! Yet Millerites plume themselves with the conceit of being God's faithful ones upon earth! But this cannot be, for their theory stultifies the apostles, falsifies the prophets, and gives the lie to God, which His saints have never been known to do. If the twelve tribes never obtain everlasting inheritance in the Holy Land, there will be no Kingdom of God; for the twelve tribes are the subjects thereof, and a kingdom without subjects is a thing that ne'er was nor e'er can be. 

On the hypothesis of no restoration, "the Gospel of the Kingdom" is mere "philosophy and vain deceit." But time and space would fail us for the exposure of the antiscriptural and truth-destroying character of all the forms of infidelity immersed and sprinkled "Christian." If the reader would behold them in all their hideous deformity, let him view them by the light of the sure prophetic Word. There is not one of them reflected from the "Book of the Covenant," as at all worthy of the respectful consideration of him who desires the wisdom from above. 

The truth, like its author, is light. It is not a matter of opinion, or of doubtful disputation. It is clear, certain and demonstrable; and being light, it is not afraid of light, because in it is no darkness at all. Believe, then, God's covenant and testimonies. This is the foundation upon which you must be built if you would be sprinkled with the blood of the covenant, without which you cannot be saved. If you believe them you have found the kingdom of God, which Jesus counsels you to seek first. (Matt. 6:33). You cannot fail to have found the Kingdom there, for the Kingdom is the grand theme of them all. 

Now, the next thing you have to do, is to seek God's righteousness; that is, to ascertain what is that way appointed of God, in which men who believe His covenant and testimonies may be regarded by Him as righteous and holy; for "without holiness no man can see the Lord," or enter the Kingdom, which is the same thing. 

Men have ways of righteousness; but they are none of them God's way - they are mere corruptions only of His. They tell you to believe in Jesus, and you shall be saved. It is true, you cannot be saved if you do not; but if you believe no more than what is technically termed "believing in Jesus," this credence will not save you. But why cannot a man be saved who believes only his creed? Because he does not believe the covenant and testimonies, in other words "the Gospel of the Kingdom." God has set Jesus forth as a blood-sprinkled mercy-seat for them who believe the things of the Kingdom, and of his name as its Christ, and for no one else. 

Hence, if men reject the things of the Kingdom, they can no more be saved by Jesus than those who reject Jesus, but believe all that is testified concerning the Kingdom. The belief of the gospel of the kingdom qualifies a man for being saved by the name of Jesus. This qualification must precede the salvation, or salvation is impossible; because it is written, "He that believes not (the gospel) shall be condemned." Jesus himself preached the gospel upon which he predicates men's salvation; therefore, it must be something else than his own personality. 

As the promises pertain to Israelites (Rom. 9:4) Gentiles must become Jews before they can claim them. Supposing, then, that a man believed the covenant and testimonies, or the gospel, which exhibits Abraham's seed as the world's sin-bearer as well as Yahweh's glory - bearer with whose blood the covenant is purged - if he would be sprinkled by that blood, he must admit with all his heart the claims of Jesus to be that covenant seed. This he can only do by believing the testimony of the apostles, which leaves not a shadow of doubt upon the mind that Jesus is "he of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write." Now if his faith comprehend these things, it is clear that it is created within him by "the testimony ot God;" and what remains is, that he should be built upon them as a foundation, through whom he has come to the understanding and belief of the doctrine concerning the Christ, and the conviction that Jesus is he. 

This is a necessity which cannot be dispensed with; and which was never omitted in apostolic times. Hence those Gentiles, who then constituted "God's building," are thus addressed by an apostle, "Ye are no more strangers and foreigners but fellow-citizens with the saints (of Israel) and of the household of God: having been built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner" (Ephes. 2:19-20). As far, then, as faith is concerned, the qualification of the candidate for justification of faith is unexceptionable. God hath purified his heart by faith (Acts 15:9), and in the words of ancient Israel before Moses sprinkled them with the blood of the covenant, he saith, "All that the Lord hath said will I do, and be obedient" (Exod. 24:7). 

The reader will please note particularly the order of the type - Moses first read the Book of the Covenant in the audience of the people, which they believed unto righteousness of the law; next, they made confession unto the salvation of the law; then Moses sprinkled the blood of the covenant upon them with the sprinkler made of scarlet wool and hyssop; after which, some of them were permitted to see the glory of the God of Israel. Though the altar and the book (Heb. 9:19) were already sprinkled with the blood before them, faith in the words read from the sprinkled covenant, in the blood itself, or in the altar, did not constitute them a sprinkled people; though they believed and confessed, they were still unsprinkled until the sprinkler was brought into operation upon them. 

Now the point to be observed in the antitype individually (that is, not nationally) applied is this, that believers, however unexceptionable their faith, are not sprinkled with the blood of the New Testament in simply believing with the heart and confessing with the mouth. Belief and confession are "unto righteousness and unto salvation" (Rom. x. 10), or unto remission of sins and eternal life. Belief and confession are for righteousness and salvation, in the sense of qualifying a believer for remission to eternal life in the name of Jesus, so that when he puts on this name, he will have attained "unto justification of life"; that is, to a salvation from all his past sins, by which deliverance he has passed, and in being delivered passes, from death unto life; that is, he is no longer under sentence of death, and is therefore undqr sentence to eternal life, which he attains as part of his reward Qfyhe continues a faithful well-doer to the end. A man, then, may be pure-hearted, confess the truth, and promise obedience; nevertheless in none of these things is he sprinkled with the covenant blood. "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God;" this, however, is on the presumption that they will "do and be obedient.'* Will any one say that an unsprinkled heart is an acceptable heart to God? 

The apostle did not think so, for he says, "Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the confession of the hope (homologiatees elpidos, not pisteos) without wavering; for He is faithful that promised" (Heb. 10:22-23). If he had considered the heart-sprinkling and body-washing non-essential in drawing near to God, he would probably have said nothing about them. He might have reduced the text to fewer words by saying, "Let us draw near with a true heart, without wavering." But no; he did not consider a heart true that was unsprinkled; because it had still "a conscience of sins," or "an evil conscience"; and with such a heart, no man may venture to draw near to God with any well-grounded hope of acceptance. 

When it is considered what a pure heart is abstractly considered, its incompleteness will become manifest. The "heart" is Constituted of the intellectual faculties, moral sentiments, and propensities. When the intellect and sentiments are under the control of the propensities, the heart is earthly, sensual, and devilish, or impure. To purify such a heart, the intellect must be enlightened by the testimony of God, which is of such a nature that it not only enlightens, but develops a moral disposition in harmony with the divine mind, and compels the propensities to keep within the limits of His law. Such a heart as this believes unto righteousness, and expressing its convictions, confesses unto salvation. 

But what becomes of that body of sins which had accumulated from the earliest times till its rectification? The impure heart, by which sins had been added to sins, had been crucified and slain, but what had yet happened to relieve the enlightened conscience of the guilt that had been contracted? The rectification of the heart had served only to reveal the evil, and to create a determination to sin no more; but it had imparted no token that its sins were blotted out. Without this token, the pure-hearted do sigh or groan, being burdened. 

The impure of heart do not sigh or groan, but rejoice in the pleasures or sin; nor do the pure in heart who have the token, because they can point to that in proof of their being justified from all their past sins, at peace with God, and free to rejoice in hope of His glory. An enlightened, believing, Abrahamically-disposed, or repentant sinner, is the pure-hearted man without the token of the covenant upon the foreskin of his heart. After recounting the goodness of God to Israel, Moses said to them: "Circumcise the foreskin of your hearts, and be no more stiff-necked" (Deut. 10:16); and again: "Circumcise yourself to Yahweh," says the prophet, "and take away the foreskins of your hearts, ye men of Judah, and inhabitants of Jerusalem" (Jer. 4:4). 

The circumcision of the heart, then, is a thing to be done by him who owns the heart. But how is a faithful and repentant sinner to do this? The answer is: "Do, and be obedient," for, says Peter to such as had obeyed, "Ye have purified your souls in the obedience of the truth." Is it not obvious, then, that there is something to be done? Clearly so; and it is in the doing of that something that the doer circumcises his heart. The thing to be done has to do with blood, or it cannot be a circumcision. It is not blood-shedding by the knife, however; but the sprinkling of the shed blood of a circumcised man of the heart. It is termed "the circumcision made without hands," which is said to consist "in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh," casting it away as the heart's foreskin. But how can this body of sins be put off? The apostle tells us in these words: 'Ύe are circumcised by the circumcision of Christ. This is getting a little nearer to the point. But seeing that Christ is in heaven, how is a man upon earth to be circumcised by his circumcision? "In whom, says Paul, ye are circumcised, etc." Ah, then, it is obvious the believing, repentant sinner, must get into Christ, or "put him on" so that being "in him," he may be "complete in him." 

If a man put on a garment, he is in that article of apparel; and he appears to the eye, not as a natural, but as an artificial man; so, if a believer in the covenant and testimonies of God put on Christ, he is in Christ; and appears in the eye of God as "covered with the robe of righteousness," in which he appears not as a natural man, but as Christ himself. Having the same faith and hope as Jesus had, being animated with a like spirit, and clothed with him as with a garment, he becomes another Christ in all but his personality; and hence he is called a Christian. The next point, then, to be ascertained is, how can a believer of the gospel of the kingdom put on Christ? The apostle answers this query by saying: "As many of you as have been baptised into Christ have put on Christ." This is remarkably explicit. Then he says in another place, "Ye are circumcised by the circumcision of Christ, having been buried with him (suntaphentes auto) in baptism" (Col. 2:11-12; Gal. 3:27). 

But how can baptism circumcise a man, or how can immersion sprinkle him? It cannot. If a man believe not the things of the covenant and the name of Jesus, it can do nothing for him. Immersion is just the act by which a believer of the gospel of the kingdom gets at that which can do everything for him. He believes unto righteousness, confesses unto salvation, and is baptised into the name, that in that name, he may obtain righteousness or justification; and salvation, or remission of sins and eternal life. 

To be "baptised for remission of sins" is for a true believer (not any man who may present himself under excitement, but), for an intelligent believer in the covenant, to be immersed into the name of Jesus for the remission of sins through that name - not through the act, but through the name. Now to put on the name, and to be in it, are the same as to put on Christ, and to be in Him. When a believer presents himself for baptism into the name, he has done all that is required of him, or that he can do in the matter of circumcision and sprinkling. 

The people under Moses did not sprinkle themselves. It was Moses who sprinkled them. It is so also with the believer. He cannot sprinkle himself, neither can the administrator of the ordinance. It is the function of the High Priest within the veil, that is, of Christ, to report him to the Father, that he may sprinkle the heart of the new member of his Son's house hold. How does he do this? On the same principle that he justified his friend Abraham. Abraham believed God, and therefore it was counted to him for righteousness; so, in the act of putting on the name of Jesus does Yahweh count to the believer his faith in the covenant and in the blood of sprinkling for the remission of all past sins. Thus "in the obedience of the truth," is the believer sprinkled with the blood of the covenant, and circumcised with the circumcision of Christ. 

Thus, as circumcision of the flesh was the token of the covenant till it was made of force by the death of its representative testator; so, from and after that event the putting on of Christ, and consequent putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, is the token of the covenant in the hearts of all its children. The children of the covenant have the witness in themselves, God also bearing witness with them. They have peace of mind, ηο a false peace, but a peace that the world can neither give nor take away, founded upon intelligence, faith and obedience. 

Yahweh's representative has said believe the gospel and be baptized; they have believed, and have been baptized; and, therefore, having faith in God, their confidence is that through faith and patience they will inherit the promises. They have not put off their flesh, but they have put off the body of its sins, which before God is to them the token. He, however, who has with the heart believed unto righteousness, but has not obeyed, attains not to that righteousness for which he has believed; for the sprinkling of the heart unto purification is "in the obedience of the truth." 

Human wisdom, or foolishness rather, denies this. It maintains that heart sprinkling is coetaneous with the truth heartily believed, not with the truth "obeyed from the heart." Were the Israelites sprinkled in believing in the book and the altar which had been sprinkled, or after they confessed? Were they sprinkled in promising to do and be obedient? No. The covenant was first delivered; the altar was then built; next the sacrifices were slain, and the book and alter sprinkled; afterwards the covenant was read to the people; they believed; confessed willingness to do and be obedient; and were then sprinkled by Moses, the representative of God. 

After the same order is the antitype. The New Covenant was first delivered; Jesus our altar manifested; he was then slain; in being sprinkled with his own blood, the New Covenant was also sprinkled or dedicated; it was afterwards spoken to the people; they believed; then confessed; and lastly put on the blood-sprinkled name, through which, as with scarlet wool and hyssop, God justified them from all things from which they could not be justified by the law of Moses. This is God's way of righteousness, from which he never departs since the resurrection of His Son. 

The type and antitype are as correspondent as the nature of things would admit; and the true believer who submits to the process is "purged with hyssop, and made clean; washed, and made whiter than snow" (Ps. 51:7). Here then, we suppose, stands before us a man, be he Jew or be he Gentile matters not: he is a man who has been sprinkled by the everliving testator with the blood of his covenant or will; and by this, constituted one of his heirs or legatees. Now, concerning such a man we ask, What is the legacy to him bequeathed? This question will admit of but one answer, and that is, The things promised in that covenant and its testimonies to Abraham and his seed, which is Christ. But then, it may be enquired, How can a thousand other people be entitled to a legacy willed to these two? The explanation of that difficulty is that the covenant testimonies expound the word Seed, as expressive of one person indeed, but of that one also in a federative sense, just as if 144,000 individuals were regarded as one person, and he were called Christ; thus it is written, "If ye be Christ's (that is by having put him on), then are ye the Seed of Abraham, and heirs according to the promise" (Gal. 3:29), or covenant. This is styled being "one in Christ Jesus." But this "One" is not restricted to a few thousands; it comprehends the whole Twelve Tribes, who are termed "the children of the covenant" (Acts 3:25), or its Seed. But it might be objected that the Twelve Tribes are not Christ's, having never put him on; and therefore they cannot on this showing be Abraham's seed in the covenant sense. True, they are not Christs yet; but when the testimonies we have produced are fulfilled, and the New Covenant is made with the House of Israel and the House of Judah, they will be both Ammi and Ruhamah; "for I will have mercy on them, and they shall be called the sons of the living God." Will they not be Christ's then? Clearly so. 

To Abraham and the Christ were the promises made, says the apostle. To Abraham, as the federal father, and to Christ, his son, as the federal elder brother of the great family, or nation was the inheritance bequeathed. The will, however, was not to come into full force until "the dispensation of the fulness of the times appointed," which dispensation, or economy, will be introduced when "the times of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled." 

When this administration exists as an accomplished fact, the united Jewish nation will be existent in the covenant land, solely constituted of the sons of Abraham and brethren of Christ by nature and by faith. But the nation inherits only by faith, and not by virtue of the Mosaic law, or its natural descent. If by law and by nature, then all the generations of the nation's dead would rise, and possess the land under Christ; but the inheritance being by faith, they only will possess it of the dead and the living, who. believe the things of the covenant and are sprinkled by its blood. 

Abraham, Christ, and the Twelve Tribes in the fulness-of-times dispensation, are the legatees under the will, which bequeaths to them the holy land for an everlasting possession. It says to Abraham and to Christ, Ye shall possess the land for ever. This was equivalent to saying, Ye shall live for ever; for without immortality they could not possess the land for ever. Hence this promise of the land is the promise of eternal life; so that if any Jew or Gentile attain to immortality, it will be as a legatee of this will, and of this only. Now, the testimonies of the covenant show us that men become Christ's in two senses,- in a special, and in a general sense. Individuals, whether Jews or Gentiles, become Christ's in a special sense in believing the gospel of the covenant and being baptized before "the door is shut" (Matt. 25:10): the twelve tribes become his in a general or national sense when they are grafted into their own olive after the shutting of the door. 

When the door shuts it closes against all, Both Jews and Gentiles, who would inherit the land for ever in a personal sense; that is, as deathless occupants of the land. While the Jewish nation in Abraham and in Christ is immortal, the generations of the nation, though of patriarchal life, are subject unto death until "the end" (1 Cor. 15:24) come. The eternal life, then, of the covenant is first personal, then national; and when the thousand years' dispensation is superseded by a still more perfect economy, it will be both personal and national to every dweller upon the earth. 

But in all this, it may be objected, perhaps, "the Israelites are everything, and the Gentiles nothing." Well, this is somewhat mortifying to Gentiles, who have been accustomed to think everything of themselves, and contemptuously of the Jews. But remember what the Scripture saith to Gentiles, "Be not wise in your own conceit." God thinks more of the despised sons of Abraham than of all the world besides; for "they are beloved for the fathers' sakes," and His own Son was born a Jew. But His love to Israel, "whom he hath created for himself," flows from His love to that world which will inhabit the earth for an eternity, which begins when the thousand years of the covenant dispensation shall have passed away; a world, redeemed from Adam's race, in which all present distinctions, civil, ecclesiastical, and social, will be merged into the "all things new." 

"Salvation," recollect, "is of the Jews;" therefore it is through them that God will save the nations from all the evils that afflict them. Hence it is written: "Rejoice, Ο ye nations, with his people." And again, "God be merciful unto us (Israelites) and bless us, and cause his face to shine upon us" -for what reason? "That his way may be known upon earth, his saving health among all nations. Ο let the nations be glad and sing for joy; for thou, Ο god, shalt judge the people righteously, and govern the nations upon earth" (Psa. 67). 

But the blessings of the covenant are by no means confined to Israel; for the gospel of the covenant reads, "In thee, Abraham, and in thy seed, shall all the nations of the earth be blessed" (Gen. 12:3), and again, "A father, Ο Abraham, of many nations have I constituted thee. (Gen. 17:5). This shows that the nations as well as Israel will be sons of Abraham, and consequently brethren of Christ their King; for even he is descended from a Gentile, that is, from Abram. 

From the promises is revealed the purpose of God, which is this, that from the beginning, He has determined at a certain period of the world's history to organise a confraternity of nations, of which Israel's should be the first-born, which, of course, would make the father of the Jewish nation the father of all the rest, and the King of Israel and his nobles, the king and princes of the earth. It is to the time when this great work shall have been accomplished, that all those glowing predictions of the prophets concerning human affairs are to be referred; while all the evil denounced happens to the nations in the time antecedent to the era of blessedness, The nations will be Christ's when they are brought into federal relationship to Abraham, after his resurrection from the dead. 

Gentile settlers may then inherit the land with the Jews, as it is written: "Ye shall divide the land by lot for an inheritance unto you, and to the strangers that sojourn among you, who shall beget children among you: and they shall be unto you as born in the country among the children of Israel; they shall have inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel. And it shall be, that in what tribe the stranger (or Gentile) sojourneth, there shall ye give him his inheritance, saith the Lord God" (Ezek. 47:22-23). 

How different this is to the settlement of the land under Joshua. Then the Gentile was to be exterminated from the country (Exod. 23:33), but under Christ, they will be entitled to all the rights and privileges of native-born citizens. This comes from their becoming sons of the covenant after the door is shut. This is something for the "pious" (if they escape the judgments coming upon the nations) who are so pure hearted, and so full of love to God and man, that they cannot believe it possible that there can exist any necessity for them to believe anything more than that "The eternal sonship," and "triune deity," and "infinite satisfaction" of Jesus, whom they regard as especially theirs from all eternity! 

It is perfectly absurd to suppose that such pious souls as they need baptism in the name of the Lord Jesus that they may be sprinkled with the blood of the covenant! ! Very well, it remains with you to do as you please just now; but enter in at the door you cannot. You may cry "Lord, Lord, open to us!" but it will avail you nothing. If you would attain to the honour and glory of the kingdom, you must not only be pious, but faithful and obedient; if, on the contrary, you are content to "take your chance," and if living at the time, to become an emigrant to Palestine and sojourn there, the new law will sanction the movement; but your eternal life, if you ever attain to it, is deferred for a thousand years. It was in accordance with this element of the covenant that its gospel was preached to the Gentiles. 

If the covenant had related only to Israel, Abraham would not have been constituted a father of nations; and the gospel would have been announced only to the Jews. But, one may say, "If the Israelites be the sole legatees of the will, why preach the gospel to them at all? Because, as legatees of the new covenant, they inherit on condition of not continuing in unbelief; and besides, as a kingdom is the subject of the will, the question naturally arose, Who of Israel shall be the associates of the Christ in the government and eternal glory thereof? To determine this, the gospel was preached to them in the name of Jesus. 

This was the reason for preaching the gospel to the legatees. Then comes another question: Seeing that the nations are eligible to the blessings of the covenant in national association with Israel are the nobles and governors of the Abrahamic World to be of the Jewish nation only? or will Gentiles be admitted to equality and fraternity with them as the immortal associates of the king? This was a mystery which for several years after the day of Pentecost no man, no, not even the apostles, could solve. The prophets plainly teach Jewish and Gentile national confraternity in the Age to Come; but the fellowship of believing men from all nations with believing Israelites in an everlasting possession of the power, glory, and honour of the kingdom to be set up on the covenant-land through faith in it and the name of its King "was not made known unto the sons of men, as it was revealed to the holy apostles and prophets by the spirit" in the days of Paul (Eph. 3:5). 

The gospel of the kingdom, which for the first few years was preached only to the Jew, was announced to the nations by Peter at Cornelius* house, and thenceforth to the present time, and hereafter until the door is shut at the appearing of Christ for the purpose of taking out from among them a people for the Lord's name (Acts 15:14), who shall become Jews by adoption, that they might inherit Yahweh's Israelitish Kingdom, and be associated with the"King of the Jews" in everlasting dominion over the dwellers upon earth. 

"The flesh profiteth nothing" in the kingdom of God. Although a Jewish kingdom, no man can inherit the things belonging to it, such a glory, honour, eternal life, might, majesty, power, dominion, etc., because he is born a Jew and circumcised in the flesh. Even a Jew must become a son of Abraham by faith, and his circumcision be of the heart, before he can inherit the kingdom; how much more necessary in the case of Gentiles, seeing they have no hereditary claim on Abraham at all. These things being so, it is not difficult to define the position of Israel and the nations at the present time. Israel is in the LoAmmi and Lo-Ruhamah relation to God - they are not His people, nor have they yet obtained mercy. They believe that Moses, in whom they trust, is dead; hence they are dead likewise. His law is to them a dead letter, and without spirit, for they neither understand it, nor keep it, nor can they if they would. And for this reason, because they "continue not in all things written in the book of the law to do them," they are "cursed" of Moses; and have therefore not even a righteousness according to the law. They seek another Christ than Jesus, therefore, at present he does nothing for them; as it is written, "Their sorrows shall be multiplied that hasten after another: their drink offerings of blood will I not offer, nor take up their names into my lips" (Ps. 16:4). 

Concerning Israel then, until they are grafted into their own olive, there is but one scriptural conclusion, and that is that they are "dead in trespasses and in sins." And what can we say of all other nations? "Jews and Gentiles are all under sin," says the apostle; "and all the world guilty before God" (Rom. iii. 9, 19). The nations at present, without a single exception, all belong to Satan, whose high priests are the chiefs of their hierarchies for the time being. "The power and glory of them belong to me," says he, "and to whomsoever I will I give it. If thou, therefore, wilt fall down before me, all shall be thine." 

The condition was an easy one to perform, and the offer quite liberal - Satanically so. But Jesus refused to accept them of him upon any terms; so the power and the glory of the nations belong to Satan unto this day, to keep them until a stronger than he appears to wrest them from his grasp. Aggregately they constitute Satan's kingdom, lying under sin, and awaiting unconsciously the punishment that is due. Until the vengeance falls upon them, and the judgment written is executed, they have no interest in Christ. 

The Pope, and the Commander of the Mohammedan faithful, and the Grand Llama, and the Brother of the Sun and Moon, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, et id genus omne, are their mediators with heaven; but who, like themselves, are without credit, reputation, or influence there. Not a single non-Jewish nation was ever constituted a holy nation, and peculiar people to God. 

The unsprinkled "pious" among them (unsprinkled by the blood of the covenant, I mean) are useful in antagonizing vice and tyranny by their benevolent schemes. For this the faithful may commend them, and be grateful to them too; for the Bible, though not understood by them, has been made a humanizing and civilizing agent in their hands; for without the Bible, earth would have been an orthodox hell, in which the children of the covenant, if permitted to live, would have lived only to endure the malice and tortures of the foe. 

All Gentile institutions, then, religious and political, are from beneath, and consequently "earthly, sensual and devilish." They serve for that sort of "order" which is the admiration of the governments and their peoples. A son of the covenant can have no sympathy with it, though he submits to it for the Lord's sake, so far as is compatible with his allegiance to the truth; being consoled with the assurance that the time is at hand when it will be overthrown, and the Kingdom of God set up instead thereof to the joy of Israel and the world.  

Herald of the Kingdom and Age to come 1851 p122

LAZARUS AND THE RICH MAN - by Brother Thomas.

This is part of a discourse, contained in the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters of Luke, delivered by Jesus in the presence of "the publicans and sinners," "the Pharisees and Scribes," and his disciples. It contains the parables of the lost sheep, of the piece of silver, of the prodigal son, of the unjust steward, and of "a certain rich man," and "a certain beggar named Lazarus." These are parables illustrative of the things of the kingdom in relation to the joy there will be among the angels when they shall see repentant publicans, sinners, and prodigals in the kingdom; of the condemned state of the covetous pharisees; and of the "weeping and gnashing of teeth," or "torment," that awaits them when they shall see Abraham and the prophets in God's kingdom and themselves excluded. These were the matters of stirring interest propounded by the Lord Jesus to his contemporaries of the House of Judah in the course of his "preaching and showing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God" in all the towns and villages of Israel.

The letter before us directs our attention particularly to the case of the rich man and the beggar; we shall therefore give it all the consideration it deserves. It is a parable; consequently not a true history of two men, but a comparison or similitude illustrative of the truth. That it is a parable is unquestionable. It was addressed to the covetous pharisees who disregarded the Law and the Prophets, and in speaking to them and their disciples we are informed, that "without a parable Jesus spake not unto them." That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, "I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world."
The parables of Jesus were illustrations of the things of the kingdom of God spiritually discernible. Even the unsophisticated and simple-minded apostles were under the necessity of soliciting an explanation of them in private. Without this assistance they found it impossible to understand his doctrine; for before he had called them to be his apostles their minds had been darkened like the rest by the leaven of the scribes and pharisees. The interpretations of the Lord Jesus were the explanations of the Spirit through him. By the light of these spiritual interpretations they were able to discern, or understand, the meaning of the parables. If the parables were mere narratives of facts, their meaning would have been obvious to the popular mind; but seeing that they represented something different from the signification of the words and phrases spoken-that they had a hidden meaning-an interpretation of these dark sayings became absolutely necessary to the comprehension of them.

The apostles were greatly astonished at the Lord Jesus that he did not speak plainly to the people, and without enigma. "Why," said they, "speakest thou to them in parables?" As if they had said, "If thou desirest that they should understand, and be converted, and receive forgiveness of sins in recognizing thee as the king of Israel, why dost thou not teach them so as that a child might understand thy speech?" such a result as this, however, he was desirous to avoid. The generation of Judah and Benjamin, the forty-second generation from Abraham, was then in its youth. It was like the generations that had preceded it, both crooked and perverse; and as the narratives of the evangelists and apostles, and the history of Josephus, prove, more obdurately wicked than all that had gone before. It was determined therefore to judge the nation by the calamities to be visited upon the generation contemporary with Jesus and his apostles. Yahweh consequently did not purpose to give them light enough to lead them to a repentance by which his indignation and wrath against the guilty nation might be turned aside. The leaders of the people had caused them to err. They had made the word of God of none effect by their tradition. They had taken away "the key of knowledge," and had substituted the mythology of the Greeks, which had made the people's heart gross, their ears dull, and their eyes blind. The people were blind, and their leaders were blind, nevertheless they said "We see;" therefore their sin remained.

This was the moral condition of the nation in the days of Jesus. The minority acknowledged his claims to the throne of David, and recognized in him the Son and prophet of Yahweh; but the nation, the great and overwhelming majority of the nation, rejected him, and constituted itself the fit and proper instrument blindly to carry into effect the predetermination of God concerning his son. In answer therefore to the inquiry, "Why speakest to them in parables?" the Lord Jesus replied, "Because it is given unto you to understand the mysteries (secrets) of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given. For whosoever hath to him shall be given, and he shall have greater abundance; but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath. Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing (saying they see) see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive: for this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them. But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear. For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see what ye see, and have not seen; and to hear what ye hear, and have not heard."

The parables then were illustrative of "the secrets of the kingdom of heaven," which the multitude could not understand, because the key of knowledge was lost. They had "the knowledge," for it was in "the Law and the Prophets;" but neither the learned nor the unlearned could interpret it aright. Thus were fulfilled the words of Isaiah, "they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink. For the Lord hath poured out upon them the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed their eyes: the prophets, and their rulers, the seers hath he covered. And the vision of all hath become to them as the words of a book that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I cannot; for it is sealed: and the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned."-Isaiah 29: 9-12. "The Key" to the understanding of the knowledge of this book they had lost. They had lost sight of the true doctrine of the Kingdom; and had embraced the vain philosophy of their Greek and Roman masters, which taught immediate reward and punishment in Elysium and Tartarus at the instant of death. They expected Elijah to come and restore all things, and the kingdom to be re-established with observation, when the Messiah should appear and sit upon the throne of his father David; but they understood not that "he must first suffer many things and be rejected of their generation;" and by a resurrection from the dead be raised up to sit upon David's throne. -Acts 2: 30. Neither did they understand that they who were to possess the kingdom with him must first be righteous men, and then immortal by a resurrection from among the dead. They supposed when Messias came he would promote them to the honor and glory of his kingdom, little dreaming that "the first shall be last" then; and that certain poor peasants of Galilee, and dogs of Gentiles from afar, should be first in the kingdom and empire of Shiloh.

The kingdom of God rightly understood is "the key" to the parables, and indeed, not to the parables only, but to the whole Bible; for the Bible is in truth the Book of the Kingdom of God. It is nonsense for men to talk of understanding the Bible if they do not understand the true doctrine of the kingdom. As well might one say that he understood Turner's Elements of Chemistry though entirely ignorant of chemical science, or acquainted only with Alchemy. The leaders and people of Israel were mere alchemists in theology; they sought after the stone of Greek philosophy, and stumbled at the princely stone, and bruised themselves to death.

It is not to be wondered at that the moderns should find the interpretation of the parables beyond their skill. They are alchemists like their prototypes of the forty-second generation of Israel. The exposition of the parables relating to the kingdom is as impossible to them as the analysis of the alkalis and of water were to the alchemists of the age of Paracelsus. The fact is that the moderns generally understand less of the kingdom of God than the ancient scribes, pharisees, and lawyers. They have resolved it into a kingdom of grace and a kingdom of glory, with an intermediate state, or not, according to their taste. They tell us not to pray "Thy kingdom come," because it is already come. It came, they say, on the Day of Pentecost! It is the kingdom of grace, or the church; the very reign of favor itself! Where is the throne? In reply, they point to the throne of the invisible majesty, somewhere in the milky way, which they call the throne of David, and tell us that there is the Lord Jesus reigning over the House of Jacob forever! They teach also the Greek philosophy, or mythology rather, concerning souls. At the instant of death they translate them to heaven or hell-a theory by which the real kingdom of God is entirely superseded. Pledged to this leaven they can see nothing in the Bible pertaining to the future free from the fermentation of immortal-soulism, and its consequences, an intermediate state with its separate localities for the souls, or disembodied ghosts, of the righteous and wicked dead. As if conscious of the weakness of their theories, they seize with avidity upon every text (and they are but few) not to prove what they affirm, but out of which they think they can create difficulties for those who repudiate their dogmas. Among these texts are the two presented to us by our correspondent in Newark. The opposition there, as here, can explain nothing. They can only twist ropes of sand, and on the ghosts of seven pillars erect castles in the air. We repeat it, that these aerial-castle builders being ignorant of the real kingdom of God, and consequently of the gospel of the kingdom, cannot interpret the parables, much less able are they to interpret the rich man and the beggar, the most difficult of all. They have first adopted their theory on the plea of reconciling, or rather of harmonizing Christ and Plato, that the doctrine of Jesus might be less objectionable to "philosophy;" and have then put the scripture to the torture to compel it to speak according to their wishes. This is just the reverse of what they ought to have done. They should have put their philosophy on the scripture rack, and if it would not confess according to what is written, have condemned it to an auto da fe, because of its cancerous and destructive heresy. Having omitted to do this, they have committed an egregious blunder; and imposed the burden upon us of supplying their deficiency.

The rich man and Lazarus is a parable illustrating a mystery of the kingdom of God. Now the question is, what is that mystery, or hidden thing, which it illustrates? Our answer is, that it illustrates the saying contained in the thirteenth of Luke and thirtieth verse, and in the nineteenth of Matthew and thirtieth verse, also the twentieth chapter and sixteenth verse, namely, "Behold there are last which shall be first, and there are first which shall be last." If it be enquired when and where? We reply, when the "first which shall be last" "shall see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and they themselves thrust out." If it be asked, what is meant by being "tormented in this flame?" We answer, to be the subject of "weeping and gnashing of teeth," because of being thrust out of the kingdom: the thrusting out being two-fold; first, by the Roman power when the Mosaic constitution of Israel's commonwealth was subverted; and second, by their exclusion from the kingdom subsequently to their resurrection to judgement. In short, what is testified in Luke 13: 24-30, without a figure, is parabolically represented in Luke 16: 19-31.

The rich man and the beggar in the similitude represent two classes of Israelites. The former represents the "workers of iniquity" whom Jesus was addressing; and who at that time were "first," being the rulers and leaders of the people, and wore purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day. These were they who sought to enter into the kingdom, but should not be able. They would then, when the door was shut, cry Lord, Lord, open to us! We have eaten and drank in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets! But all this will avail them nothing. It was their malice that brought them to his presence; and their fears of the people that permitted him for a time to go at large in their streets. "Depart from me, I know not whence ye are, ye workers of iniquity"-"Depart from me, I say, ye cursed into the enduring fire prepared for the devil and his emissaries"-this is all the response the "upper ten thousand" of the nation will be able to elicit from the King when he promotes "the blessed of the Father to the possession of the kingdom prepared for them from the foundation of the world."It is not to be wondered at that the moderns should find the interpretation of the parables beyond their skill. They are alchemists like their prototypes of the forty-second generation of Israel. The exposition of the parables relating to the kingdom is as impossible to them as the analysis of the alkalis and of water were to the alchemists of the age of Paracelsus. The fact is that the moderns generally understand less of the kingdom of God than the ancient scribes, pharisees, and lawyers. They have resolved it into a kingdom of grace and a kingdom of glory, with an intermediate state, or not, according to their taste. They tell us not to pray "Thy kingdom come," because it is already come. It came, they say, on the Day of Pentecost! It is the kingdom of grace, or the church; the very reign of favor itself! Where is the throne? In reply, they point to the throne of the invisible majesty, somewhere in the milky way, which they call the throne of David, and tell us that there is the Lord Jesus reigning over the House of Jacob forever! They teach also the Greek philosophy, or mythology rather, concerning souls. At the instant of death they translate them to heaven or hell-a theory by which the real kingdom of God is entirely superseded. Pledged to this leaven they can see nothing in the Bible pertaining to the future free from the fermentation of immortal-soulism, and its consequences, an intermediate state with its separate localities for the souls, or disembodied ghosts, of the righteous and wicked dead. As if conscious of the weakness of their theories, they seize with avidity upon every text (and they are but few) not to prove what they affirm, but out of which they think they can create difficulties for those who repudiate their dogmas. Among these texts are the two presented to us by our correspondent in Newark. The opposition there, as here, can explain nothing. They can only twist ropes of sand, and on the ghosts of seven pillars erect castles in the air. We repeat it, that these aerial-castle builders being ignorant of the real kingdom of God, and consequently of the gospel of the kingdom, cannot interpret the parables, much less able are they to interpret the rich man and the beggar, the most difficult of all. They have first adopted their theory on the plea of reconciling, or rather of harmonizing Christ and Plato, that the doctrine of Jesus might be less objectionable to "philosophy;" and have then put the scripture to the torture to compel it to speak according to their wishes. This is just the reverse of what they ought to have done. They should have put their philosophy on the scripture rack, and if it would not confess according to what is written, have condemned it to an auto da fe, because of its cancerous and destructive heresy. Having omitted to do this, they have committed an egregious blunder; and imposed the burden upon us of supplying their deficiency.

The rich man and Lazarus is a parable illustrating a mystery of the kingdom of God. Now the question is, what is that mystery, or hidden thing, which it illustrates? Our answer is, that it illustrates the saying contained in the thirteenth of Luke and thirtieth verse, and in the nineteenth of Matthew and thirtieth verse, also the twentieth chapter and sixteenth verse, namely, "Behold there are last which shall be first, and there are first which shall be last." If it be enquired when and where? We reply, when the "first which shall be last" "shall see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and they themselves thrust out." If it be asked, what is meant by being "tormented in this flame?" We answer, to be the subject of "weeping and gnashing of teeth," because of being thrust out of the kingdom: the thrusting out being two-fold; first, by the Roman power when the Mosaic constitution of Israel's commonwealth was subverted; and second, by their exclusion from the kingdom subsequently to their resurrection to judgement. In short, what is testified in Luke 13: 24-30, without a figure, is parabolically represented in Luke 16: 19-31.

The rich man and the beggar in the similitude represent two classes of Israelites. The former represents the "workers of iniquity" whom Jesus was addressing; and who at that time were "first," being the rulers and leaders of the people, and wore purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day. These were they who sought to enter into the kingdom, but should not be able. They would then, when the door was shut, cry Lord, Lord, open to us! We have eaten and drank in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets! But all this will avail them nothing. It was their malice that brought them to his presence; and their fears of the people that permitted him for a time to go at large in their streets. "Depart from me, I know not whence ye are, ye workers of iniquity"-"Depart from me, I say, ye cursed into the enduring fire prepared for the devil and his emissaries"-this is all the response the "upper ten thousand" of the nation will be able to elicit from the King when he promotes "the blessed of the Father to the possession of the kingdom prepared for them from the foundation of the world.

The beggar in the parable represents "the blessed of the Father," who in the forty-second generation were "the last," the helpless among the people-the poor of the flock-and therefore "named Lazarus," or God's help, for he alone is their helper, pulling down the mighty from their thrones, and exalting them of low degree; filling the hungry with good things, while the rich he sends empty away.-Luke 1: 52. of this class were the least of the King's brethren. They were full of sores and desiring to be fed from the leavings of the rich and ruling class of the nation. They were hungry, but their princely superiors gave them no meat; they were thirsty, but gave them no drink; strangers at their gates, but they took them not in; naked, but they clothed them not; sick in prison but they visited them not. These were their sores which experienced no relief at the hands of the purple-clad and luxurious livers of their age.

Now the parable represents a perfect and entire change of fortune with respect to those two classes; for Abraham is represented as saying to the rich Israelite, "Son, remember that thou in thy life time receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented." Here it will be perceived that the classes change situations-the hungry are filled with good things, that is, "are comforted;" while the rich are sent empty away, that is, "are tormented" even worse than the poor whom in their previous lifetime they had despised. When, however, the poor brethren in Christ are comforted, the mean-spirited rich, their former oppressors, are represented as piteously supplicating the favour; but no mercy will be shown them; for "he shall have judgment without mercy that hath showed no mercy;" and "with what measure ye mete it shall be measured to you again."

The parable then brings to view two states-a present, or lifetime-state; and a future, or state of comfort or torment, as the class may be. The "now," when the righteous shall be comforted, appears to be when the two classes, contemporary with the days of his flesh, shall both stand in his presence, when He as King, attended by all his holy angels, shall sit on the throne of his glory.-Matthew 25: 31; 2 Thessalonians 1: 7-8. This has not come to pass yet. There must therefore be a resurrection of these two classes of Israelites, according to the words of the prophet. -Daniel 12: 1-2. When this happens, the rich will see the poor in Abraham's bosom, and themselves, like Cain, driven out of the country where the kingdom will then be "into a place of torment," in the parable termed "this place of torment." But where will this be? "Far off" from where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets then are. Far off as to distance; and as the kingdom is to be established in the land of Israel, it will be far off in relation to that country; from which, having risen from the dead, they are expelled from the presence of the Lord. But this country of their exile is a place where an unquenchable, or an enduring, fire is prepared for the devil and his emissaries: "for, behold the Lord will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire. For by fire and by his sword will the Lord plead with all flesh, and the slain of the Lord shall be many."-Isaiah 66: 15-16.

The Devil and his emissaries are thus alluded to in the Apocalypse. "The great Dragon was cast out (of the heaven, chapter 12: 8,) that old Serpent, surnamed the Devil and Satan, who misleads the whole empire: he was cast out into the earth and his emissaries were cast out with him." This is a symbolic representation of what came to pass in that great revolution when the face of the Roman world was changed by Constantine. The Devil and his emissaries here represent "the Accusers of the brethren," or party hostile to the kingdom of God and the power of his Christ. This party reappears in the fourteenth of Revelation, and is referred to in these words, "If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation: and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: and the smoke of their torment ascendeth unto ages of ages," (eis aionas aionon.) This tormenting in the presence of the holy angels and the Lamb, is the war waged between them and the Beast and the kings of the earth and their armies, or "the goats." The result of the war is thus expressed, "And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet, &c. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. And the remnant were slain with the sword, &c"-Revelation 19: 19-20. That is, the territory on which the dominions exist, symbolized by the Beast and the False Prophet, shall become a lake of fire burning with the flame of artillery in war.

This territory is Germany, or "the land of Magogue," Italy, France, Belgium, Spain, Hungary, and Greece. "I will send," says God, "a fire upon Magogue, and among them that dwell carelessly in the isles."-Ezekiel 39: 6. So that the lightnings of heaven will be added to the flames of war. This contest with the nations results in the prostration of all the thrones, or kingdoms of the world, and their transfer to Jesus and the Saints. This overthrow is described as the laying hold on the Dragon, that old Serpent, which is the Devil and Satan, and the binding him for a thousand years. -Revelation 20: 2. But at the end of this period of peace and blessedness, the Devil, or sin-power, reappears on the arena. He invades the Land of Israel with his hosts, but is driven back, or cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, the territory where the Beast and False Prophet met their fate a thousand years before, and there he is tormented as they were day and night unto the ages of the ages-eis tous aionas ton aionon. During this war death and the grave, that is, the unrighteous dead surrendered by the grave, are thrust out and exiled to the seat of the war, and thus cast into the Lake of fire to encounter death by fire and sword. Their fall is to them their Second Death; "for whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire," which is the Second Death.

This territorial lake of fire is "the place of torment" "far off" from the territory of the kingdom, where Abraham and the Lazzaroni "are comforted." The premillennial and postmillennial judgments upon the nations are consummated in this place; and while these judgments are in progress, the unrighteous who have died under Times of Knowledge, having been raised from among the dead, are driven like Cain from the presence of the Lord to partake in the torment with which the nations are being judged. In the exegesis of the parable we confine ourselves to the rich and beggar classes of Israel; because it is concerning them alone that the Lord is speaking. The judgment of Gentiles must be considered under a different aspect. The unrighteous in Israel of the forty-second generation (for we are considering this more particularly) will be raised to enduring shame and contempt; will weep and gnash their teeth at the cruel destiny they have brought upon themselves by their own madness and folly; and will be "thrust out" of the Land of Promise, and exiled to the papal countries as the place of their enduring punishment; where they will be subject to all the evils of the premillennial wrath and fury of their offended and insulted King, for whose death they clamoured when Pilate would have let him go. Then they were zealous for the favor of Caesar; with Caesar then they will perish, when "God shall rain upon the wicked snares, fire and brimstone, and a horrible tempest: for this is the portion of their cup."-Psalm 11: 6; Isaiah 30: 30, 33; Ezekiel 38: 22.

In the parable the postmillennial judgment of dead men is not brought into view. We shall therefore merely remark here in passing, that "the rest of the dead" not raised to everlasting or enduring shame and contempt at the premillennial coming of the Lord; and the unrighteous dead, who, having died under the millennial reign, are raised at the end thereof, -these, we say, will meet their doom in common with the rebel nations, "Gog and Magog," which will be exterminated at the end of the thousand years. If the reader study the twenty-fifth of Matthew, he will perceive a commingling of individual convicts with the nations of the left, styled the goats. Combined personal and national judgment at the premillennial and postmillennial epochs is the order of things in relation to wicked men and wicked nations whose iniquity is full. The wickedness of the goat-nations will be extreme and malignant, when this new element of hatred against God and his King is introduced among them by the resurrection and exile of the old enemies of the Lord. Serpents, and a generation of vipers were they in their former life-time; death and resurrection will not have changed them. When they awake from the dust they will be serpents still; and willing instruments of all evil they may be permitted to do. They must arise to judgment; for the earth's surface is at once the arena of the reward of the righteous, the punishment of sin, and the destruction of the devil and his works.

Having illustrated the principle of the first being last, and the last first by the changed condition of the rich man and the beggar, Jesus proceeds to extract a moral precept from the premises for the benefit of those rich men who had not then as yet become tenants of the tomb. Abraham was requested by the sufferer to send the beggar to his father's house to testify to his five brethren, lest they should be thrust out and exiled to the country of his wretched existence. Now this is the precept put into the mouth of Abraham, to which also we would do well to take heed, "They have Moses and the prophets: let them hear them." But knowing how little regard they had for Moses and the prophets, he concluded that if this was all the testimony to be granted them, their case was hopeless. Therefore he added, "Nay father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent." But Abraham is made to say, "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead." This saying was verified in the fact, that though Jesus rose from the dead, and they were notified of its reality by the state-guard, and by the apostles, yet they were not, and would not be persuaded to acknowledge him, and accept repentance and life through his name.

The parable represents by anticipation the relations of things between the "first" and the "last" which will actually obtain when the kingdom is established in the Land of Israel. The things set forth are beyond the resurrection, not before it. At the time of the supposed conversation the parable represents the parties as dead. It is a fictitious conversation between suppositious dead men concerning what is in relation to the then living; and what will be hereafter in regard to themselves then dead. We have an example in Isaiah of the dead holding discourse in the parable against the king of Babylon. The dead kings of the nations are there made to address him in these words-"Art thou also become weak as we? Art thou become like unto us? Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations. For thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the Mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High. Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the manthat made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms! That made the world as a wilderness, that destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?" Here the dead kings are made to rejoice over their fallen adversary by anticipation; for at the time Isaiah penned this parable the kings were not even born, and Belshazzar had not fallen from the political heaven. It was written in the reign of Ahaz or Hezekiah, about 130 years before Nebuchadnezzar, "the destroyer of the Gentiles," began his conquests, and about 200 before Belshazzar was slain in the midst of his revels. The parable was therefore prophetic of what should be when the time of the fall of the Chaldean dynasty should arrive; and so also the parable of the rich man and the beggar is prophetic, not historical; but an anticipative fictitious narrative, prophetic of what shall obtain when the kingdom of God is established in the land.

In regard to certain expressions in this parable, we may remark that two things are affirmed of the beggar-"he died;" and "was carried." Query, was he carried into Abraham's bosom by the angels as soon as he died, or when? If as soon as he died, then he was laid in the cave of Machpelah; for there the dust once called Abraham was deposited. This, however, is not testified, therefore we cannot confirm it. To a man instructed in the kingdom there is but one other alternative, namely, Abraham is supposed to have been raised, and the beggar also, and the two brought together by the angels: but they were both really dead, an idea that is kept up in the conversation. The rich man also died, and was buried. He had a pompous funeral, which the beggar had not. Lazarus is not even said to have been put under ground, unless we take the words "was carried" to signify his being placed there. The rich man was buried "in hell," that is "in the unseen"-en to hado-in the grave or tomb. Before falling into dust, he is supposed to have a vision of the future. He lifts up his eyes, and sees. He exists bodily as it were. He suffers physically, for his tongue is hot, and being in flame he is scorched. Lazarus is also corporeal, and not a shade; for he has a finger. This the sufferer perceives, and desires that the tip of it may be moistened with water, and applied to his tongue. These incidents are enough to prove that the scene has nothing to do with "disembodied spirits," for all parties here are corporeal, and proximate to water in abundance.


"And in their days, even of those kings, the God of heaven shall set up A KINGDOM which shall never perish, and A DOMINION that shall not be left to another people. It shall grind to powder and bring to an end all these kingdoms, and itself shall stand for ever."-DANIEL.

JOHN THOMAS, Editor. NEW YORK, March, 1854-

Volume 4-No. 3


Brother Thomas.

In the thirty-eighth chapter of Ezekiel is the celebrated prophecy of the Invisible One against the Great Power of the Latter Days, styled Gog, eretz ham-Mahgog, nesi Rosh Meshech, we-Thuvahl; that is, Gog of the land of the Magog, Prince of Russia, Muscovy and Siberia. Having designated the Power by this title, repeating it-Ezekiel 38: 3-with the omission of eretz ham-Mahgog to show that Gog is not the name of the land of the Magogians, or European Scythians, but indicative of the Agag * who shall be the Prince of all the Russias, particularised in the title contemporary with "the latter days"-the Spirit goes on to advertise the reader of the several races or peoples that shall compose his army and fight against Israel under his ensigns. They are ranged under certain principals, as "Persia, Khush, and Phut; Gomer and all his hosts; the House of Togarmah, parts of the north, and all his hosts." Persia, Khush, and Phut, belong to the gold and silver parts of Nebuchadnezzar's image; Gomer and his hosts to the iron and brass; and Magog, Rosh, Meshech, Thubal and Togarmah to the clay, and destined ere long to be commingled with Gomer and his hosts by a brittle union, soon to be preternaturally dissolved, after the illustration of iron not being permanently miscible with miry clay.

* AGAG I suspect is the ancient form of Gog, a word of the same class as Pharaoh, Shah, Czar, Emperor, Sultan, Autocrat, Khan, etc.; not the family name of a man, but the national title of him who is for the time being the enthroned chief of the state. Agag was the greatest of the powers of the time of Israel's exode from Egypt, and their most inveterate enemy. He was related to them much as Gog will be at the crisis of their future exodus from the "Spiritual Egypt," and their fate will be the same-utter obliteration from under heaven. Balaam's prediction will then be fulfilled, saying of Israel, "His king shall be higher than Agag, and his kingdom shall be exalted."-Numbers 24: 7.

Togarmah was son of Gomer, grandson of Japheth, and great grandson of Noah. There is but little said in the Scriptures about him or his descendants. The prophecy which was written in Babylon says, that his "house" occupies "parts of the north." In a northerly direction, then, from the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates, we must look for the territory occupied by Togarmah's house. This bearing points us to all that country lying between the Caspian, Persia, Afghanistan, and the Chinese Empire, with Russian Siberia on the north, as the dwelling-place of Togarmah's hosts. This region is called Tartaria, or Independent Tartary; a human hive, from which have issued immense swarms of cavalry in ages past, that have swept over Asia to the gates of Constantinople and Vienna, like tornadoes from the east. Togarmah's country has always been celebrated for its numerous herds of horses and for its horsemen. In the days of Tyre's commercial prosperity, they of the house of Togarmah traded in its fairs with horses, and horsemen, and mules. Bochara, Khiva, Samarcand, etc., are principal cities of this Mongolian and Kirgesian region, or "Scythia within the Imaus," as the ancients used to style it. These are the tribes of the buckler, of the shield, of the bow, of the arrow, of the javelin, of the spear, the horse and the sword, so that these Tartar auxiliaries, added to the forces of the west, would constitute an army such as that described by Ezekiel, being "equipped with all sorts of armour," whose overthrow on the mountains of Israel would leave the land strewed with "the shields and the bucklers, the bows and the arrows, and the javelins and the spears"-Ezekiel 38: 4; 39: 9.

Having enumerated the races that are to be confederated under Gog as the clay-element of the Latter-day Image dominion, Adoni Jehovah addresses the Prince of all the Scythians, saying: "Be thou prepared, and prepare for thyself, thou and all thy multitude assembled unto thee, and be thou to them for a mishmahr, or guardian." It is evident from this, that before the invasion of the land of Israel by this power, the Dynastic Chief will pursue such a policy as will, in its full manifestation, bring these races to submit to him as their shepherd or sovereign director. The period during which he is working out this policy is the period of preparation indicated in the prophecy-a period thus foretold by the prophet Joel, saying,"Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up: beat your ploughshares into swords and your scythes into spears; let the weak say, I am strong. Assemble yourselves and come, all ye nations, and gather yourselves together round about." This is the war preparation preceding the actual invasion of Palestine and final investment of Jerusalem by the confederated hosts of the Autocrat, who is the waker-up of the nations to the war of the great day of God the Almighty.

The nations of the prophetic earth have evidently entered this period of preparation. As I have shown many years ago from the prophets, so it has come to pass, namely, that in the latter-day gathering of the hosts of the nations for their last struggle preceding the advent of Christ, Persia would side with Russia, British counsels losing all their influence there. Now, behold the verification of the interpretation, ye that say prophecy cannot be understood till after it be fulfilled. The news by the "Baltic," which sailed from England December 29, 1853, states that "accounts had been received from Vienna, that the Persians and Russians had opened a direct communication, and that the Russian General Yermiloff is to command the Persian forces. The overland Indian mail brings confirmation that the Shah of Persia had left Teheran with an army numbering 30,000 horsemen, with 1000 pieces of cannon, and 3000 camel-loads of ammunition, to cooperate with Russia. At latest accounts the army had passed Tabreez. The Shah had also sent an envoy to Dost Mahommed to point out the advantages of his siding with Persia and the Russians."

In relation to the tribes of Togarmah's house as confederates of the Czar, the same steamer brings the following information, which may be accepted as a sign of the times: "According to the Kolnische Zeitung, curious developments are coming to light which indicate that Russia has long been preparing for the present crisis. A large expedition has been secretly organising under pretence of a campaign against the Khan of Khiva. For fifteen years past, Russian agents have been busied in organising the Mongolian and Kirghesian hordes, supplying them with money and arms, and teaching them to act in concert. From this source it is asserted that Russia may obtain the aid of 200,000 irregulars, mostly horsemen, so that if war does break out in earnest between Russia and the Western Powers, the war will rage along the entire line of Europe and Asia."

The plot evidently thickens. The Autocrat is very successfully fulfilling his mission, and will ere long falsify all the vaticinations of that particular school of political prophets of which the London Peace Society and the Stock Exchange Moneycrats of all nations are the most far-seeing, "wise and prudent" examples! The Autocrat must fulfil the destiny marked out for him; and where he would seem unequal to an emergency, the blundering diplomacy of those who would keep him in check will be sure to help him. He is Gulliver in Lilliput, a perfect whale among the minnows. Habakkuk's description of him is to the life. "He is a proud man," says the prophet, "keeping not at home, who enlargeth his soul as the grave and as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all the nations, and heapeth unto him all the peoples: shall not all these take up a parable against him, and a taunting proverb against him, and say, 'Ho to him that increaseth that which is not his! How long? to him that ladeth himself with thick clay!'" The "nations" and "peoples" are the "thick clay" with which he loads himself; and now is the time that this proud Lucifer has left his own home, or proper dominion, to begin the work of "the End" in loading himself with the guardianship of many Asiatic and European races. He has left his own home, and broken into the Sultan's, like a robber. But this is only the beginning of his depredations; and the prophet says, "He cannot be satisfied." The powers that be have therefore fearful times before them. A gigantic burglar has appeared among them, who is taking measures to break into their houses, and to spoil them of the populations by the sweat of whose faces they have their wealth. As a whirlwind from the north, he is preparing to sweep over many countries of the Gomerian race, and to overthrow them. In these conquests he will mix up the iron and the clay, and mould them into the Feet and Toes of the Image-dominion of the Latter-days. The Assyrian Colossus being complete, and being within forty years of the terminus of its existence, which terminus will be the end of the seven times, or 2520 years, destined to pass over the Assyrian Tree, it will march its forces into "the Glorious Land," and plant its royal encampment between the seas before the holy mountain of glory. Behold it there, like Rabshakeh defying Israel at the wall of the Holy City, whose confidence will then be in the power possessed of Egypt, that is, the British. They may take up a parable and a taunting proverb against him, saying "How long?" etc.; but Anglo-Egypt cannot save them, for "the land of Egypt shall not escape" him. The Holy City with its shrines, which now stir up the fanaticism and covetousness of the Czar, will fall into his hands, and the vengeance of his fury will scatter death and violence in the land and city. Will not Israel then cry to heaven, saying, "How long, Lord? Wilt thou hide thyself for ever? Shall thy wrath burn like fire?" But Israel knoweth not the voices of their own prophets. They know not the oracle of the Lord addressed to their Assyrian spoiler of the latter days, indicating from whence his destruction and their deliverance shall proceed. Our "bones are dried and our hope is lost," say they, "and we are cut off from our parts"-Ezekiel 37: 11. But help comes to them from "the right hand of power," and from the dust of earth; for, says the prophet, addressing the Power laden with thick clay, or in other words, the thickly-laden clay power, "Shall they not rise up suddenly that shall bite thee, and awake that shall vex thee, and thou shalt be for booties unto them? Because thou hast spoiled many nations, all the remnant of the people shall spoil thee; because of men's blood, and the violence of the Land, of the City and of all that dwell therein." Christ from heaven and the resurrected saints shall be their deliverers.


From Herald of the Kingdom and Age to Come 1851

Brother Thomas


"Woe to the world because of delusions (skandala;) for there is a necessity that delusions come: but woe to that man through whom the delusion cometh. Wherefore if thy hand, or thy foot ensnare thee cut them off and cast them from thee; it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands and two feet to be cast into the enduring fire (eis to pur to aionion)." In the next verse the place of the fire is mentioned in these words, "into the Gehenna of the fire (eis teen geenan tou puros." The parallel text in Mark 9: 42-49, is expressed somewhat differently. In two verses it reads "enter into life," and in a third "enter into the kingdom of God," expressions which are explanatory one of the other: for no man can enter into life eternal unless he enter the kingdom of God. Mark's phraseology concerning the fire also varies from Matthew's. He calls the Gehenna of enduring fire, an inextinguishable fire. His words are, "It is better to enter into (eiselthein) the life maimed than having two hands to go away into (apellt ein eis) the Gehenna, into the fire inextinguishable-eis teen Geenan, eis to pur to asbeston." In the common version asbeston is rendered "never to be quenched." This, however, is not correct. Asbeston is a neuter adjective and simply expresses a quality, not the time of the fire's continuance. It was a judicial fire Jesus was speaking of, and of that fiery judgment he affirmed that it was inextinguishable, that is, by any other power than God's. Mark also adds that the judgment occurs in Gehenna "where their worm does not end, and the fire is not put out." This our Lord repeated thrice to give it emphasis.

Luke in recording the same incident says nothing about Gehenna, worm, and fire; but stops short in his report at the end of Mark 9: 42, saying that it is better for the deceiver "that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea."

The Gehenna of the fire is styled by Jesus in Matthew 23: 33, the Judgment of the Gehenna-krisis tees geennees-tendered in the English version "the damnation of hell." The Gehenna-judgment of fire was denounced upon the "serpents and generation of vipers" in Israel. Malachi predicted it; John and Jesus proclaimed its approach; the apostles preached the "judgment to come," and some of them witnessed it in the dissolution of the order of things constituted by the Mosaic code. The judgment of Gehenna was the day of the Lord upon the forty-second generation of Abraham's descendants. "His furnace was in Jerusalem," and when it came the day burned as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that did wickedly, were stubble; and they were burned up, so that the day left them neither root nor branch. For that generation filled up the measure of their fathers; so that upon them came the national punishment due for all the righteous blood that had been shed upon the land from Abel to Zachariah son of Barachias whom they slew during the siege of their city by the Romans. -Malachi 4: 1; Matthew 23: 34-39.

The Judgment of Gehenna was the Baptism of Fire with which John the Baptist said the Messiah would overwhelm the Pharisees and Sadducees, and their factions in the state. "O generation of vipers," said he to them, "who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Think not to say within yourselves, 'We have Abraham to our father.' The axe is now laid to the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. There standeth one among you, whom ye know not, he shall baptise you with fire: whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat in his garner; but he will burn up the chaff with fire inextinguishable." The enemies of the Lord Jesus in Israel were the stubble, the trees bearing bad fruit, and the chaff of his land or floor. He came to bring fire, and division, and a sword upon the land that every offender might be eradicated from his kingdom's territory. "His fire was in Zion and his furnace in Jerusalem"-Isaiah 31: 9; Matthew 13: 34-39; and into this burning oven he cast the trees of unrighteousness by the Romans as his messengers of destruction, where their worm or anguish ceased not, and the fire of his indignation was unquenched.

Gehenna is the Hebrew name for a valley outside the wall of Jerusalem on the south-east. It is compounded of two words pronounced ge Hinnom, the valley of Hinnom, and is first mentioned in the scriptures in Joshua 15: 8. It should never be rendered by the word "hell," especially in the sectarian sense of the word. Dr. George Campbell says "that Gehenna is employed in the New Testament to denote the place of future punishment prepared for the devil and his angels, is indisputable. In the Old, however, we do not find this place in the same manner mentioned." But the Doctor did not understand the prophets; therefore his judgment cannot be received as "indisputable" in the case. The devil and his angels are no where said to be cast into Gehenna: but into an enduring fire far off from the land of Israel.

In the nineteenth chapter Jeremiah is commanded by the Lord to go forth into Gai-ben-Hinnom, the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the east gate, and prophecy there against the kings of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem. He charges them with having burned incense in it to other gods; with having filled it with the blood of innocents; and with having burned their sons with fire as offerings unto Baal there. Because of these horrible crimes he tells them that the place should no more be called Tophet, nor Gehenna, but the Valley of Slaughter. And they shall bury them in Tophet till there be no place to bury. This was the judgment of Gehenna executed upon Jerusalem by the Chaldeans, and nearly 700 years afterwards by the Romans.

With the popular notions about the kingdom of God it is not possible to interpret the passages before us in Matthew and Mark. How can a man enter eternal life in a kingdom beyond the skies one-eyed, or maimed, as the result of losing an eye or a hand; does the loss of a member of the body extend to what is called "the immortal soul?" This question is unanswerable. The texts cannot be explained on any other grounds than of the doctrine we teach; but upon this all difficulty disappears. Thus, when Jesus spoke the words it was expected that the kingdom was about to be set up by the God of heaven in the land of Israel immediately. Had this been the case it would have been contemporary with the forty-second generation to which the words were addressed. Now if the eye, hand, or foot, or any thing equally dear, belonging to one or more of that generation, had caused them to offend, and they had acted literally upon that advice, they would have been halt, maimed, or one-eyed, contemporarily with two events-first, with the judgment of Gehenna, which was to precede the setting up of the kingdom; and secondly, with the establishment of the kingdom itself. Had they preferred to retain the cause of offence, they would have been cast whole into the Zion-fire, and Jerusalem-furnace by the Roman power; but casting it from them, and taking heed to the signs of the coming of the Son of Man, they would have escaped the descending wrath of heaven, and have been prepared for entrance into the kingdom, maimed or halt, should it have been set up in their life-time. Had this been the case, the maimed, the halt, and the one-eyed would have been operated upon by the Spirit of God, which would have changed them in the twinkling of an eye into whole, incorruptible, and angelic men. Their eyes, hands, and feet would have been restored to them, by the same power that will restore the mouldering dust of former beings to its rightful possessors. Thus they would have entered maimed into the life of the kingdom, but would not have continued so, being made whole by the Spirit of God.

Gehenna and Tophet have reference to the same valley. Hinnom's Valley was called Tophet from the beating of the Toph, or drum, to drown the cries of the burning infants by its noise. Gehenna occurs twelve times in the New Testament. In two of these the use of it is figurative but singularly expressive. The proselytes of the Pharisees to their traditions are said to be twofold more sons of Gehenna than themselves. The Pharisees were heirs of the judgment in Gehenna; any proselyte of their's would therefore be heir of it too as their disciple, and also by his own practice. The leaven of the heirs of the Gehenna-judgment set on fire the unruly tongues of those who set up for teachers in the Jewish congregations. They taught the concision of the believing Pharisees who sought to blend the gospel and the law that the offence of the cross might cease. Now these were some of the men through whom scandals came, and upon whom Jesus pronounced the woe of Gehenna-fire. Their doctrine was a deadly poison, a wisdom that was earthly, sensual, and devilish, producing envying and strife, confusion and every evil work. So that the tongue that worked out such results was said to be "set on fire of Gehenna."-James 3: 6. "Where their worm dieth not." This is affirmed in scripture of carcasses as the reader may see by turning to Isaiah 66: 24. The undying existence of the worm is bounded by the duration of the body. Antiochus, king of Syria, was eaten of worms while alive. His worm did not die. If it had, he might have recovered his health; but it died not, therefore he died a miserable death.

It is true that the Gentiles are not threatened with the fire of Gehenna in the Testaments, Old and New. The armies of the nations, however, are threatened with destruction in the Valley of Jehoshaphat which is continuous with the Valley of Gehenna; and the nations themselves with hailstones, fire and brimstone, and a burning tempest. As to the dead, those who are raised partake in the same torment in the regions whither they are commanded to "depart." In this way "the wicked will be turned into Sheol"-Psalm 9: 17, but not into Gehenna; sheol being the word used in that place, as well as in the other texts referred to by "E. D."

There has been a great deal of controversy aforetime about this word sheol; some contending that it means simply a grave, or sepulchre, in particular; others the grave in general; and others again "the place of departed spirits," and exactly rendered into Greek by hades. "Taken by itself," says Dr. George Campbell, "we have no word in our language that answers to sheol;" yet he says, "I freely acknowledge that by translating sheol the grave, the purport of the sentence is often expressed with sufficient clearness." It can, however, only be fully rendered by the sentiment. The Doctor adduces the text in Genesis as an evidence that grave will answer in many places; as, "Ye will bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to the grave." Here, he says, "it undoubtedly gives the meaning of the sentence in the original, notwithstanding that the English word grave does not give the meaning of the Hebrew word sheol." He argues that sheol means more than grave from the saying of God by Moses, "A fire is kindled in mine anger which shall burn to the lowest hell," or sheol. He admits, however, that it is here used hyperbolically; but contends that the hyperbole is based upon something deeper, more profound, or ample than the word grave implies.

The doctor is unquestionably right in saying that sheol means more than grave, but he is wrong in maintaining that it signifies the place of the living ghosts of dead men both good and bad. He admits that tsalmoth, shadow of death, rendered hades by the Seventy, is ordinarily synonymous with sheol, and is sometimes used metaphorically for a very dark place, or a state of great ignorance. This is true, and indicates the condition of the dead, both good and bad, in sheol and hades; and is in strict accordance with Solomon's doctrine, who was second only in wisdom and knowledge to the Lord Jesus. He says, "there is no knowledge nor wisdom in sheol," and that the dead there "know not any thing." It is testimony, and not speculation-the declaration of Holy Writ, and not rhetorical, philological, and mythological disquisitions, by which such words in scripture must be defined. The revelation itself shows, that sheol is the death-state subsequently to the corruption of the body in the grave. If it be asked, "how came the word sheol to be applied to this dissolved state of the body?" We answer because the body is then in question, and the noun sheol is derived from the verb shaal to ask, or to make inquisition. Thus, the body, or a dead man, in sheol, may be said to be in two states-first, entire and undecomposed; and secondly, resolved into dust. In the former he is simply in keber, the grave or sepulchre, and in bor the pit; but in the latter, his keber is barkthai bor in the sides of the pit; and they who deposited him in the keber or sepulchre, looking in some time afterwards and not seeing him,ask the question "Where is he?" The not seeing him is expressed by hades, which signifies his invisibility; and the inquisition after him, by sheol which imports that he was sought, or asked for, because of his disappearance. Abraham is not only in keber, but in sheol, in tzalmoth, and in barkthai bor. If a person were told he was in the cave of Machpelah, and were to look in to see, he would say "where is he, I see him not?" Because Abraham is thus in question he is said to be in sheol.

Our old English word Hell is a derivative from the Saxon hillan or helan to hide, or from holl a cavern, and anciently denoted the concealed or unseen place of the dead in general. Hell has lost its original meaning, and comes now to represent a place of torment such as is found only in the mythologies of Greece and Rome. The arena of punishment is above, and not underground, among the living, and not the dead. When the wicked are turned into sheol, they will be sought for, and found no more; for, having then gone down to "the sides of the pit," they will be but dust and ashes under the soles of the living's feet, even as Adam was before the Lord formed him from the ground.

To "go down quick into hell," sheol chayim, is to be seized with sudden and violent death. Judas, who is one of the persons referred to in the text, went into sheol living. Koran, Dathan, and Abiram, also "went down quick into the pit," chayim sheol, living into death. Thus "they died not the common death of all men, nor were they visited after the visitation of all men;" this uncommon death is the scriptural idea of going down "quick into hell."-Numbers 16: 29-33.

"The sorrows of hell." The cheblai maveth and the cheblai sheol are interpreted by the facts recorded of Jesus. When he was suspended on the cross, and surrounded by the multitudes, he was compassed by the cheblai maveth, or "sorrows of death;" but when he was laid in the keber of Joseph of Arimathea, he was compassed about by the cheblai sheol, or "sorrows of hell," and prevented by the mokshai maveth, or "snares of death," which held him as in a trap. Cheblai are pains in general; also bonds.

The strength of Universalism and of sectarian theology in general, not excluding Campbellism, is the ignorance of the people in regard to the things noted in the scriptures of the prophets. The New Testament doctrine of rewards and punishments is nothing more than an allusive reproduction of the Old Testament teaching on the subject. Being ignorant of the kingdom, they are of necessity in the dark concerning every thing else. They know nothing as they ought to know it. Before their sayings can be treated with any more respect than the sayings of children, they must go back to the a, b, c, and make themselves acquainted with the first principles and elements of things. The Universalist pleases those who hire him. This is his business, as it is the business of all other rival teachers. They are all Babel builders alike, hindering and interrupting one another in their work. Their tower will never become the Holy City. Universalists become Campbellites and Campbellites, Universalists, like Dr. Gatchel. It matters not. We are surprised at nothing. Men ignorant of the prophets are liable to turn anything that may suit the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life. It would no ways astonish us if Master Aleck himself were to make a somerset in that direction, if such a change were found to be expedient!

There are not only Hebrew terms and expressions, but English ones also, in the Old Testament, indicating retribution in the world beyond death. Here is one place in Daniel 12: 1-2. Speaking of the time when the Little Horn of the Goat "shall come to his end, and none shall help him," that is, when the Stone strikes the Image, the Spirit says that Daniel's people, the Jews, shall be delivered; and that "many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt"-lacharaphoth lediron olam-to reproach and contempt unlimited, but not endless, save in the memory of the righteous, who will always hold the remembrance of them in abhorrence. Here is retribution beyond the first death to which certain attain by resurrection from among the dead in sheol. It will not do for Universalists to apply this text to the destruction of Jerusalem; for the Jews were not then "delivered," but destroyed; when the awakening in Daniel occurs, their enemies will be destroyed, and they delivered. All of which is respectfully submitted to his readers by their friend the-EDITOR

"In argument with "the common people," how do we substantiate the views we present on the great leading truths? Assuredly not by philological niceties, nor by laying the stress on mere words that look to teach a certain doctrine, but by masses of arguments from scripture that demonstrate the indispensableness of just such or such a view."-Dobney.